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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Clove and Thyme Essential Oils on Candida Biofilm Formation and the Oil Distribution in Yeast Cells

1
Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Lodz University of Technology, Wólczańska Str. 171/173, 90-924 Łódź, Poland
2
Department of Algology and Mycology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Łódź, Banacha Str. 12/16, 90-237 Łódź, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesca Mancianti
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1954; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101954
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Essential Oils)
Candida biofilm structure is particularly difficult to eradicate, since biofilm is much more resistant to antifungal agents than planktonic cells. In this context, a more effective strategy seems to be the prevention of biofilm formation than its eradication. The aim of the study was to examine whether the process of initial colonization of materials (glass, polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene) by food-borne Candida sp. can be impeded by clove and thyme essential oils, used at their minimal inhibitory concentrations. In the presence of clove oil, 68.4–84.2% of the yeast tested showed a statistically significant reduction in biofilm formation, depending on the material. After treatment with thyme oil, statistically significant decrease in biofilm cell numbers was observed for 63.2–73.7% of yeasts. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed diverse compounds of clove and thyme oils that were disparately located in C. albicans cell, on a cell wall and a cell membrane, in cytoplasm, and in vacuoles, depicting the multidirectional action of essential oils. However, essential oils that were used in sub-inhibitory concentration were sequestrated in the yeast vacuoles, which indicate the activation of Candida defense mechanisms by cell detoxification. Clove and thyme essential oils due to their anti-biofilm activity can be efficiently used in the prevention of the tested abiotic surfaces colonization by Candida sp. View Full-Text
Keywords: food-borne Candida sp.; biofilm; essential oils; anticandidal activity; confocal laser scanning microscopy food-borne Candida sp.; biofilm; essential oils; anticandidal activity; confocal laser scanning microscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rajkowska, K.; Nowicka-Krawczyk, P.; Kunicka-Styczyńska, A. Effect of Clove and Thyme Essential Oils on Candida Biofilm Formation and the Oil Distribution in Yeast Cells. Molecules 2019, 24, 1954.

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