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Application of Ultrasound in a Closed System: Optimum Condition for Antioxidants Extraction of Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) Residues
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Effect of Thermoultrasound on the Antioxidant Compounds and Fatty Acid Profile of Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp.) Juice

Centro de Investigación Interdisciplinario. Área Académica de Nutrición, Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Circuito Actopan-Tilcuautla s/n. Ex hacienda La Concepción. San Agustín Tlaxiaca, Hidalgo 42160, Mexico
Área Académica de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Km 4.5 Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo, Mineral de la Reforma, Hidalgo 42184, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gregory Chatel
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1624;
Received: 7 October 2016 / Revised: 19 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications)
Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp.) fruit has high antioxidant activity due to its significant content of anthocyanins and antioxidant compounds. Among emerging technologies for food preservation, thermoultrasound is a technique that reduces microbial loads and releases compounds with antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant content and fatty acid profile of blackberry juice subjected to thermoultrasound treatment in comparison to pasteurized juice. Blackberry juice and n-hexane extracts from a control (untreated juice), pasteurized, and thermoultrasonicated samples were evaluated for antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile, and antioxidant content. The juice treated with thermoultrasound exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of total phenols (1011 mg GAE/L), anthocyanins (118 mg Cy-3-GlE/L); antioxidant activity by ABTS (44 mg VCEAC/L) and DPPH (2665 µmol TE/L) in comparison to the control and pasteurized samples. Oil extract from thermoultrasound juice also had the highest antioxidant activity (177.5 mg VCEAC/L and 1802.6 µmol TE/L). The fatty acid profile of the n-hexane extracts showed the presence of myristic, linolenic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids and was not affected by the treatments except for stearic acid, whose amount was particularly higher in the control. Our results demonstrated that thermoultrasound can be an alternative technology to pasteurization that maintains and releases antioxidant compounds and preserves the fatty acids of fruit juice. View Full-Text
Keywords: blackberry juice; thermoultrasound; antioxidant compounds; fatty acids blackberry juice; thermoultrasound; antioxidant compounds; fatty acids
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Manríquez-Torres, J.D.J.; Sánchez-Franco, J.A.; Ramírez-Moreno, E.; Cruz-Cansino, N.D.S.; Ariza-Ortega, J.A.; Torres-Valencia, J.M. Effect of Thermoultrasound on the Antioxidant Compounds and Fatty Acid Profile of Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp.) Juice. Molecules 2016, 21, 1624.

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