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Molecules 2016, 21(7), 950;

Application of Ultrasound in a Closed System: Optimum Condition for Antioxidants Extraction of Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) Residues

Instituto de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Av. Universidad Km 1, Rancho Universitario, Tulancingo de Bravo, Hidalgo 43600, Mexico
Centro de Investigación Interdisciplinario, Área Académica de Nutrición, Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Circuito Actopan-Tilcuautla s/n. Ex hacienda La Concepción, San Agustín Tlaxiaca, Hidalgo 42160, Mexico
Centro de Investigaciones Químicas, Instituto de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro Universitario, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km 4.5, Mineral de la Reforma, Hidalgo 42183, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gregory Chatel
Received: 2 June 2016 / Revised: 18 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications)
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Blackberry processing generates up to 20% of residues composed mainly of peel, seeds and pulp that are abundant in flavonoids. The objective of this study was to optimize the ultrasound conditions, in a closed system, for antioxidants extraction, using the response surface methodology. Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) residues were analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH. The selected independent variables were ultrasound amplitude (X1: 80%–90%) and extraction time (X2: 10–15 min), and results were compared with conventional extraction methods. The optimal conditions for antioxidants extraction were 91% amplitude for 15 min. The results for total phenolic content and anthocyanins and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH were of 1201.23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g dry weight basis (dw); 379.12 mg/100 g·dw; 6318.98 µmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g·dw and 9617.22 µmol TE/100 g·dw, respectively. Compared to solvent extraction methods (water and ethanol), ultrasound achieved higher extraction of all compounds except for anthocyanins. The results obtained demonstrated that ultrasound is an alternative to improve extraction yield of antioxidants from fruit residues such as blackberry. View Full-Text
Keywords: blackberry; residues; ultrasound; extraction; antioxidants blackberry; residues; ultrasound; extraction; antioxidants

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zafra-Rojas, Q.Y.; Cruz-Cansino, N.S.; Quintero-Lira, A.; Gómez-Aldapa, C.A.; Alanís-García, E.; Cervantes-Elizarrarás, A.; Güemes-Vera, N.; Ramírez-Moreno, E. Application of Ultrasound in a Closed System: Optimum Condition for Antioxidants Extraction of Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) Residues. Molecules 2016, 21, 950.

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