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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 14, Issue 5 (May 2013), Pages 8684-10682

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Open AccessReview New Advances in Urea Transporter UT-A1 Membrane Trafficking
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10674-10682; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140510674
Received: 22 April 2013 / Revised: 9 May 2013 / Accepted: 9 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The vasopressin-regulated urea transporter UT-A1, expressed in kidney inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) epithelial cells, plays a critical role in the urinary concentrating mechanisms. As a membrane protein, the function of UT-A1 transport activity relies on its presence in the plasma membrane. Therefore,
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The vasopressin-regulated urea transporter UT-A1, expressed in kidney inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) epithelial cells, plays a critical role in the urinary concentrating mechanisms. As a membrane protein, the function of UT-A1 transport activity relies on its presence in the plasma membrane. Therefore, UT-A1 successfully trafficking to the apical membrane of the polarized epithelial cells is crucial for the regulation of urea transport. This review summarizes the research progress of UT-A1 regulation over the past few years, specifically on the regulation of UT-A1 membrane trafficking by lipid rafts, N-linked glycosylation and a group of accessory proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Membrane Trafficking and Its Potential Implications)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Effect of Different Doses of Low Energy Shock Wave Therapy on the Erectile Function of Streptozotocin (STZ)-Induced Diabetic Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10661-10673; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140510661
Received: 14 February 2013 / Revised: 4 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (1994 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To investigate the therapeutic effect of different doses of low energy shock wave therapy (LESWT) on the erectile dysfunction (ED) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. SD rats (n = 75) were randomly divided into 5 groups (normal control, diabetic control, 3
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To investigate the therapeutic effect of different doses of low energy shock wave therapy (LESWT) on the erectile dysfunction (ED) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. SD rats (n = 75) were randomly divided into 5 groups (normal control, diabetic control, 3 different dose LESWT treated diabetic groups). Diabetic rats were induced by intra-peritoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) and rats with fasting blood glucose ≥ 300 mg/dL were selected as diabetic models. Twelve weeks later, different doses of LESWT (100, 200 and 300 shocks each time) treatment on penises were used to treat ED (7.33 MPa, 2 shocks/s) three times a week for two weeks. The erectile function was evaluated by intracavernous pressure (ICP) after 1 week washout period. Then the penises were harvested for histological study. The results showed LESWT could significantly improve the erectile function of diabetic rats, increase smooth muscle and endothelial contents, up-regulate the expression of α-SMA, vWF, nNOS and VEGF, and down- regulate the expression of RAGE in corpus cavernosum. The therapeutic effect might relate to treatment dose positively, and the maximal therapeutic effect was noted in the LESWT300 group. Consequently, 300 shocks each time might be the ideal LESWT dose for diabetic ED treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Transcriptional Profiling of Swine Lung Tissue after Experimental Infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10626-10660; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140510626
Received: 1 April 2013 / Revised: 9 May 2013 / Accepted: 10 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Porcine pleuropneumonia is a highly contagious respiratory disease that causes great economic losses worldwide. In this study, we aimed to explore the underlying relationship between infection and injury by investigation of the whole porcine genome expression profiles of swine lung tissues post-inoculated with
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Porcine pleuropneumonia is a highly contagious respiratory disease that causes great economic losses worldwide. In this study, we aimed to explore the underlying relationship between infection and injury by investigation of the whole porcine genome expression profiles of swine lung tissues post-inoculated with experimentally Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Expression profiling experiments of the control group and the treatment group were conducted using a commercially available Agilent Porcine Genechip including 43,603 probe sets. Microarray analysis was conducted on profiles of lung from challenged versus non-challenged swine. We found 11,929 transcripts, identified as differentially expressed at the p ≤0.01 level. There were 1188 genes annotated as swine genes in the GenBank Data Base. GO term analysis identified a total of 89 biological process categories, 82 cellular components and 182 molecular functions that were significantly affected, and at least 27 biological process categories that were related to the host immune response. Gene set enrichment analysis identified 13 pathways that were significantly associated with host response. Many proinflammatory-inflammatory cytokines were activated and involved in the regulation of the host defense response at the site of inflammation; while the cytokines involved in regulation of the host immune response were suppressed. All changes of genes and pathways of induced or repressed expression not only led to a decrease in antigenic peptides presented to T lymphocytes by APCs via the MHC and alleviated immune response injury induced by infection, but also stimulated stem cells to produce granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and monocyte, and promote neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose bacterial and foreign antigen at the site of inflammation. The defense function of swine infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was improved, while its immune function was decreased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Plant Derived Antimicrobials on Salmonella Enteritidis Adhesion to and Invasion of Primary Chicken Oviduct Epithelial Cells in vitro and Virulence Gene Expression
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10608-10625; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140510608
Received: 18 February 2013 / Revised: 23 April 2013 / Accepted: 1 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (299 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a major foodborne pathogen in the United States and one of the most frequently reported Salmonella serotypes globally. Eggs are the most common food product associated with SE infections in humans. The pathogen colonizes the intestinal tract in layers,
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Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a major foodborne pathogen in the United States and one of the most frequently reported Salmonella serotypes globally. Eggs are the most common food product associated with SE infections in humans. The pathogen colonizes the intestinal tract in layers, and migrates to reproductive organs systemically. Since adhesion to and invasion of chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC) is critical for SE colonization in reproductive tract, reducing these virulence factors could potentially decrease egg yolk contamination. This study investigated the efficacy of sub-inhibitory concentrations of three plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs), namely carvacrol, thymol and eugenol in reducing SE adhesion to and invasion of COEC, and survival in chicken macrophages. In addition, the effect of PDAs on SE genes critical for oviduct colonization and macrophage survival was determined using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). All PDAs significantly reduced SE adhesion to and invasion of COEC (p < 0.001). The PDAs, except thymol consistently decreased SE survival in macrophages (p < 0.001). RT-qPCR results revealed down-regulation in the expression of genes involved in SE colonization and macrophage survival (p < 0.001). The results indicate that PDAs could potentially be used to control SE colonization in chicken reproductive tract; however, in vivo studies validating these results are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessReview Nanoparticle-Based Systems for T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10591-10607; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140510591
Received: 18 March 2013 / Revised: 9 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (1565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Because magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents play a vital role in diagnosing diseases, demand for new MRI contrast agents, with an enhanced sensitivity and advanced functionalities, is very high. During the past decade, various inorganic nanoparticles have been used as MRI contrast
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Because magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents play a vital role in diagnosing diseases, demand for new MRI contrast agents, with an enhanced sensitivity and advanced functionalities, is very high. During the past decade, various inorganic nanoparticles have been used as MRI contrast agents due to their unique properties, such as large surface area, easy surface functionalization, excellent contrasting effect, and other size-dependent properties. This review provides an overview of recent progress in the development of nanoparticle-based T1-weighted MRI contrast agents. The chemical synthesis of the nanoparticle-based contrast agents and their potential applications were discussed and summarized. In addition, the recent development in nanoparticle-based multimodal contrast agents including T1-weighted MRI/computed X-ray tomography (CT) and T1-weighted MRI/optical were also described, since nanoparticles may curtail the shortcomings of single mode contrast agents in diagnostic and clinical settings by synergistically incorporating functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2013)
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Open AccessArticle Bacterial Growth Kinetics under a Novel Flexible Methacrylate Dressing Serving as a Drug Delivery Vehicle for Antiseptics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10582-10590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140510582
Received: 3 April 2013 / Revised: 26 April 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth
[...] Read more.
A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control), methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine), and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Intra-Species Bacterial Quorum Sensing Studied at Single Cell Level in a Double Droplet Trapping System
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10570-10581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140510570
Received: 19 April 2013 / Revised: 9 May 2013 / Accepted: 10 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1464 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we investigated the intra-species bacterial quorum sensing at the single cell level using a double droplet trapping system. Escherichia coli transformed to express the quorum sensing receptor protein, LasR, were encapsulated in microdroplets that were positioned adjacent to microdroplets containing
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In this paper, we investigated the intra-species bacterial quorum sensing at the single cell level using a double droplet trapping system. Escherichia coli transformed to express the quorum sensing receptor protein, LasR, were encapsulated in microdroplets that were positioned adjacent to microdroplets containing the autoinducer, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OdDHL). Functional activation of the LasR protein by diffusion of the OdDHL across the droplet interface was measured by monitoring the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) from a LasR-dependent promoter. A threshold concentration of OdDHL was found to induce production of quorum-sensing associated GFP by E. coli. Additionally, we demonstrated that LasR-dependent activation of GFP expression was also initiated when the adjacent droplets contained single E. coli transformed with the OdDHL synthase gene, LasI, representing a simple quorum sensing circuit between two droplets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quorum Sensing Research in Microbial Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Conformational Motions and Residue Fluctuations for Escherichia coli Ribose-Binding Protein Revealed with Elastic Network Models
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10552-10569; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140510552
Received: 18 March 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 25 April 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ribose-binding protein (RBP) is a sugar-binding bacterial periplasmic protein whose function is associated with a large allosteric conformational change from an open to a closed conformation upon binding to ribose. The open (ligand-free) and closed (ligand-bound) forms of RBP have been found.
[...] Read more.
The ribose-binding protein (RBP) is a sugar-binding bacterial periplasmic protein whose function is associated with a large allosteric conformational change from an open to a closed conformation upon binding to ribose. The open (ligand-free) and closed (ligand-bound) forms of RBP have been found. Here we investigate the conformational motions and residue fluctuations of the RBP by analyzing the modes of motion with two coarse-grained elastic network models, the Gaussian Network Model (GNM) and Anisotropic Network Model (ANM). The calculated B-factors in both the calculated models are in good agreement with the experimentally determined B-factors in X-ray crystal structures. The slowest mode analysis by GNM shows that both forms have the same motion hinge axes around residues Ser103, Gln235, Asp264 and the two domains of both structures have similar fluctuation range. The superposition of the first three dominant modes of ANM, consisting of the rotating, bending and twisting motions of the two forms, accounts for large rearrangement of domains from the ligand-free (open) to ligand-bound (closed) conformation and thus constitutes a critical component of the RBP’s functions. By analyzing cross-correlations between residue fluctuation and the difference-distance plot, it is revealed that the conformational change can be described as a rigid rotation of the two domains with respect to each other, whereas the internal structure of the two domains remains largely intact. The results directly indicate that the dominant dynamic characteristics of protein structures can be captured from their static native state using coarse-grained models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle NS5ATP9 Contributes to Inhibition of Cell Proliferation by Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Nonstructural Protein 5A (NS5A) via MEK/Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK) Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10539-10551; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140510539
Received: 20 February 2013 / Revised: 10 April 2013 / Accepted: 15 April 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) is a remarkable protein as it clearly plays multiple roles in mediating viral replication, host-cell interactions and viral pathogenesis. However, on the impact of cell growth, there have been different study results. NS5ATP9, also known
[...] Read more.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) is a remarkable protein as it clearly plays multiple roles in mediating viral replication, host-cell interactions and viral pathogenesis. However, on the impact of cell growth, there have been different study results. NS5ATP9, also known as KIAA0101, p15PAF, L5, and OEACT-1, was first identified as a proliferating cell nuclear antigen-binding protein. Earlier studies have shown that NS5ATP9 might play an important role in HCV infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the function of NS5ATP9 on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines proliferation under HCV NS5A expression. The results showed that overexpression of NS5ATP9 inhibited the proliferation of Bel7402 cells, whereas knockdown of NS5ATP9 by interfering RNA promoted the growth of HepG2 cells. Under HCV NS5A expression, RNA interference (RNAi) targeting of NS5ATP9 could reverse the inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation, suggesting that NS5ATP9 might be an anti-proliferation gene that plays an important role in the suppression of cell growth mediated by HCV NS5A via MEK/ERK signaling pathway. These findings might provide new insights into HCV NS5A and NS5ATP9. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signalling Molecules and Signal Transduction in Cells)
Open AccessReview Obesity-Associated Oxidative Stress: Strategies Finalized to Improve Redox State
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10497-10538; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140510497
Received: 16 February 2013 / Revised: 18 April 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 127 | PDF Full-text (631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity represents a major risk factor for a plethora of severe diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cancer. It is often accompanied by an increased risk of mortality and, in the case of non-fatal health problems, the quality of
[...] Read more.
Obesity represents a major risk factor for a plethora of severe diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cancer. It is often accompanied by an increased risk of mortality and, in the case of non-fatal health problems, the quality of life is impaired because of associated conditions, including sleep apnea, respiratory problems, osteoarthritis, and infertility. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may be the mechanistic link between obesity and related complications. In obese patients, antioxidant defenses are lower than normal weight counterparts and their levels inversely correlate with central adiposity; obesity is also characterized by enhanced levels of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species. Inadequacy of antioxidant defenses probably relies on different factors: obese individuals may have a lower intake of antioxidant- and phytochemical-rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and legumes; otherwise, consumption of antioxidant nutrients is normal, but obese individuals may have an increased utilization of these molecules, likewise to that reported in diabetic patients and smokers. Also inadequate physical activity may account for a decreased antioxidant state. In this review, we describe current concepts in the meaning of obesity as a state of chronic oxidative stress and the potential interventions to improve redox balance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Signaling in Biology and Patho-Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Inhibition of CCL2 Signaling in Combination with Docetaxel Treatment Has Profound Inhibitory Effects on Prostate Cancer Growth in Bone
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10483-10496; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140510483
Received: 16 February 2013 / Revised: 14 March 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) stimulates migration, proliferation, and invasion of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, and its signaling also plays a role in the activation of osteoclasts. Therefore targeting CCL2 signaling in regulation of tumor progression in bone metastases is an area
[...] Read more.
The C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) stimulates migration, proliferation, and invasion of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, and its signaling also plays a role in the activation of osteoclasts. Therefore targeting CCL2 signaling in regulation of tumor progression in bone metastases is an area of intense research. The objective of our study was to investigate the efficacy of CCL2 blockade by neutralizing antibodies to inhibit the growth of PCa in bone. We used a preclinical model of cancer growth in the bone in which PCa C4-2B cells were injected directly into murine tibiae. Animals were treated for ten weeks with neutralizing anti-CCL2 antibodies, docetaxel, or a combination of both, and then followed an additional nine weeks. CCL2 blockade inhibited the growth of PCa in bone, with even more pronounced inhibition in combination with docetaxel. CCL2 blockade also resulted in increases in bone mineral density. Furthermore, our results showed that the tumor inhibition lasted even after discontinuation of the treatment. Our data provide compelling evidence that CCL2 blockade slows PCa growth in bone, both alone and in combination with docetaxel. These results support the continued investigations of CCL2 blockade as a treatment for advanced metastatic PCa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology)
Open AccessArticle The Role of Sulfur Dioxide in the Regulation of Mitochondrion-Related Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis in Rats with Isopropylarterenol-Induced Myocardial Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10465-10482; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140510465
Received: 5 March 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 9 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (1774 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The authors investigated the regulatory effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on myocardial injury induced by isopropylarterenol (ISO) hydrochloride and its mechanisms. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group, ISO group, ISO plus SO2 group, and SO2 only
[...] Read more.
The authors investigated the regulatory effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on myocardial injury induced by isopropylarterenol (ISO) hydrochloride and its mechanisms. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group, ISO group, ISO plus SO2 group, and SO2 only group. Cardiac function was measured and cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected. Bcl-2, bax and cytochrome c (cytc) expressions, and caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities in the left ventricular tissues were examined in the rats. The opening status of myocardial mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and membrane potential were analyzed. The results showed that ISO-treated rats developed heart dysfunction and cardiac injury. Furthermore, cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the left ventricular tissues was augmented, left ventricular tissue bcl-2 expression was down-regulated, bax expression was up-regulated, mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly reduced, MPTP opened, cytc release from mitochondrion into cytoplasm was significantly increased, and both caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities were increased. Administration of an SO2 donor, however, markedly improved heart function and relieved myocardial injury of the ISO-treated rats; it lessened cardiomyocyte apoptosis, up-regulated myocardial bcl-2, down-regulated bax expression, stimulated mitochondrial membrane potential, closed MPTP, and reduced cytc release as well as caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities in the left ventricular tissue. Hence, SO2 attenuated myocardial injury in association with the inhibition of apoptosis in myocardial tissues, and the bcl-2/cytc/caspase-9/caspase-3 pathway was possibly involved in this process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease)
Open AccessReview Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase: Structure, Function and Regulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10438-10464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140510438
Received: 15 April 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP) is a 100 kDa glycoprotein composed of two subunits. Recent advances demonstrate that cellular PAcP (cPAcP) functions as a protein tyrosine phosphatase by dephosphorylating ErbB-2/Neu/HER-2 at the phosphotyrosine residues in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, which results in reduced
[...] Read more.
Human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP) is a 100 kDa glycoprotein composed of two subunits. Recent advances demonstrate that cellular PAcP (cPAcP) functions as a protein tyrosine phosphatase by dephosphorylating ErbB-2/Neu/HER-2 at the phosphotyrosine residues in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, which results in reduced tumorigenicity. Further, the interaction of cPAcP and ErbB-2 regulates androgen sensitivity of PCa cells. Knockdown of cPAcP expression allows androgen-sensitive PCa cells to develop the castration-resistant phenotype, where cells proliferate under an androgen-reduced condition. Thus, cPAcP has a significant influence on PCa cell growth. Interestingly, promoter analysis suggests that PAcP expression can be regulated by NF-κB, via a novel binding sequence in an androgen-independent manner. Further understanding of PAcP function and regulation of expression will have a significant impact on understanding PCa progression and therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology)
Open AccessReview Claudins Overexpression in Ovarian Cancer: Potential Targets for Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin (CPE) Based Diagnosis and Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10412-10437; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140510412
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 26 April 2013 / Accepted: 27 April 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Claudins are a family of tight junction proteins regulating paracellular permeability and cell polarity with different patterns of expression in benign and malignant human tissues. There are approximately 27 members of the claudin family identified to date with varying cell and tissue-specific expression.
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Claudins are a family of tight junction proteins regulating paracellular permeability and cell polarity with different patterns of expression in benign and malignant human tissues. There are approximately 27 members of the claudin family identified to date with varying cell and tissue-specific expression. Claudins-3, -4 and -7 represent the most highly differentially expressed claudins in ovarian cancer. While their exact role in ovarian tumors is still being elucidated, these proteins are thought to be critical for ovarian cancer cell invasion/dissemination and resistance to chemotherapy. Claudin-3 and claudin-4 are the natural receptors for the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), a potent cytolytic toxin. These surface proteins may therefore represent attractive targets for the detection and treatment of chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer and other aggressive solid tumors overexpressing claudin-3 and -4 using CPE-based theranostic agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genes and Pathways in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Cancer)
Open AccessArticle An Ultrasensitive Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay for Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Serum Based on Antibody Labeled Fe3O4 Nanoparticles as Capture Probes and Graphene/CdTe Quantum Dot Bionanoconjugates as Signal Amplifiers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10397-10411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140510397
Received: 1 February 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The CdTe quantum dots (QDs), graphene nanocomposite (CdTe-G) and dextran–Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for developing an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay for Carcinoembryonic antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) in serums. Firstly, the capture probes (CA 19-9 Ab1/Fe3O4
[...] Read more.
The CdTe quantum dots (QDs), graphene nanocomposite (CdTe-G) and dextran–Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for developing an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay for Carcinoembryonic antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) in serums. Firstly, the capture probes (CA 19-9 Ab1/Fe3O4) for enriching CA 19-9 were synthesized by immobilizing the CA 19-9’s first antibody (CA 19-9 Ab1) on magnetic nanoparticles (dextran-Fe3O4). Secondly, the signal probes (CA 19-9 Ab2/CdTe-G), which can emit an ECL signal, were formed by attaching the secondary CA 19-9 antibody (CA 19-9 Ab2) to the surface of the CdTe-G. Thirdly, the above two probes were used for conjugating with a serial of CA 19-9 concentrations. Graphene can immobilize dozens of CdTe QDs on their surface, which can emit stronger ECL intensity than CdTe QDs. Based on the amplified signal, ultrasensitive antigen detection can be realized. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL signal depended linearly on the logarithm of CA 19-9 concentration from 0.005 to 100 pg/mL, and the detection limit was 0.002 pg/mL. Finally, five samples of human serum were tested, and the results were compared with a time-resolved fluorescence assay (TRFA). The novel immunoassay provides a stable, specific and highly sensitive immunoassay protocol for tumor marker detection at very low levels, which can be applied in early diagnosis of tumor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)
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