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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Material Sciences and Nanotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Antonella Piozzi

Department of Chemistry, Sapienza, University of Rome, Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: antimicrobial polymers; polyurethanes; drug delivery systems; functionalization of polymers; microbial biofilms; nanocomposites
Co-Guest Editor
Dr. Iolanda Francolini

Department of Chemistry, University “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: antimicrobial polymers; polyurethanes; drug delivery systems; functionalization of polymers; microbial biofilms; nanocomposites

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Research concerning the development of antimicrobial polymers represents a great challenge for both the academic world and industry since microbial contamination is a serious issue that involves many areas such as the health and biomedical field, water purification systems, food packaging and storage. Microbial adhesion to surfaces results in the formation of a tick microbial biofilm, difficulty eradicable, in which microbes are protected from the action of common antimicrobial agents.
Antimicrobial polymers can help to prevent biofilm development and solve the problems associated with the use of conventional antimicrobial agents such as residual toxicity, short term antimicrobial activity and development of resistant microorganisms.
The microbial adhesion is a problem particularly felt in the field of medical devices since it can lead to serious infections and device failure.
Different types of polymer systems have been designed to prevent microbial adhesion among which the most investigated are: a) antifouling polymers; b) amphiphilic polymers mimicking antibacterial peptides occurring in nature; c) functionalized polymers able to load and release bioactive molecules such as antibiotics, heavy metals  and other antiseptic agents.
We particularly take an interest in manuscript that report relevance of antimicrobial polymers in the design and fabrication of medical devices, packaging materials and water purification systems.
Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Antimicrobial polymers for medical devices
  • Antimicrobial polymers for food packaging
  • Polymers made antimicrobial by silver loading
  • Release of antimicrobial agents from polymers
  • Biomimetic polymers
  • Antifouling polymers

Dr. Antonella Piozzi
Dr. Iolanda Francolini
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF.

Keywords

  • antimicrobial polymers
  • drug delivery systems
  • silver
  • microbial biofilms
  • medical devices
  • antimicrobial packaging
  • water purification systems

Published Papers (27 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Editorial of the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(9), 18002-18008; doi:10.3390/ijms140918002
Received: 1 August 2013 / Revised: 27 August 2013 / Accepted: 28 August 2013 / Published: 3 September 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (156 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The special issue “Antimicrobial Polymers” includes research and review papers concerning the recent advances on preparation of antimicrobial polymers and their relevance to industrial settings and biomedical field. Antimicrobial polymers have recently emerged as promising candidates to fight microbial contamination onto surfaces thanks
[...] Read more.
The special issue “Antimicrobial Polymers” includes research and review papers concerning the recent advances on preparation of antimicrobial polymers and their relevance to industrial settings and biomedical field. Antimicrobial polymers have recently emerged as promising candidates to fight microbial contamination onto surfaces thanks to their interesting properties. In this special issue, the main strategies pursued for developing antimicrobial polymers, including polymer impregnation with antimicrobial agents or synthesis of polymers bearing antimicrobial moieties, were discussed. The future application of these polymers either in industrial or healthcare settings could result in an extremely positive impact not only at the economic level but also for the improvement of quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Assessing the Antimicrobial Activity of Polyisoprene Based Surfaces
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 4392-4415; doi:10.3390/ijms16034392
Received: 12 December 2014 / Revised: 14 January 2015 / Accepted: 9 February 2015 / Published: 19 February 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
There has been an intense research effort in the last decades in the field of biofouling prevention as it concerns many aspects of everyday life and causes problems to devices, the environment, and human health. Many different antifouling and antimicrobial materials have been
[...] Read more.
There has been an intense research effort in the last decades in the field of biofouling prevention as it concerns many aspects of everyday life and causes problems to devices, the environment, and human health. Many different antifouling and antimicrobial materials have been developed to struggle against bacteria and other micro- and macro-organism attachment to different surfaces. However the “miracle solution” has still to be found. The research presented here concerns the synthesis of bio-based polymeric materials and the biological tests that showed their antifouling and, at the same time, antibacterial activity. The raw material used for the coating synthesis was natural rubber. The polyisoprene chains were fragmented to obtain oligomers, which had reactive chemical groups at their chain ends, therefore they could be modified to insert polymerizable and biocidal groups. Films were obtained by radical photopolymerization of the natural rubber derived oligomers and their structure was altered, in order to understand the mechanism of attachment inhibition and to increase the efficiency of the anti-biofouling action. The adhesion of three species of pathogenic bacteria and six strains of marine bacteria was studied. The coatings were able to inhibit bacterial attachment by contact, as it was verified that no detectable leaching of toxic molecules occurred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Introducing a Semi-Coated Model to Investigate Antibacterial Effects of Biocompatible Polymers on Titanium Surfaces
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 4327-4342; doi:10.3390/ijms16024327
Received: 18 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2015 / Published: 17 February 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (4735 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Peri-implant infections from bacterial biofilms on artificial surfaces are a common threat to all medical implants. They are a handicap for the patient and can lead to implant failure or even life-threatening complications. New implant surfaces have to be developed to reduce biofilm
[...] Read more.
Peri-implant infections from bacterial biofilms on artificial surfaces are a common threat to all medical implants. They are a handicap for the patient and can lead to implant failure or even life-threatening complications. New implant surfaces have to be developed to reduce biofilm formation and to improve the long-term prognosis of medical implants. The aim of this study was (1) to develop a new method to test the antibacterial efficacy of implant surfaces by direct surface contact and (2) to elucidate whether an innovative antimicrobial copolymer coating of 4-vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium bromide and dimethyl(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) phosphonate (VP:DMMEP 30:70) on titanium is able to reduce the attachment of bacteria prevalent in peri-implant infections. With a new in vitro model with semi-coated titanium discs, we were able to show a dramatic reduction in the adhesion of various pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus sanguinis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis), completely independently of effects caused by soluble materials. In contrast, soft tissue cells (human gingival or dermis fibroblasts) were less affected by the same coating, despite a moderate reduction in initial adhesion of gingival fibroblasts. These data confirm the hypothesis that VP:DMMEP 30:70 is a promising antibacterial copolymer that may be of use in several clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
Open AccessCommunication Influence of Unmodified and β-Glycerophosphate Cross-Linked Chitosan on Anti-Candida Activity of Clotrimazole in Semi-Solid Delivery Systems
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 17765-17777; doi:10.3390/ijms151017765
Received: 1 August 2014 / Revised: 1 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 September 2014 / Published: 30 September 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The combination of an antifungal agent and drug carrier with adjunctive antimicrobial properties represents novel strategy of complex therapy in pharmaceutical technology. The goal of this study was to investigate the unmodified and ion cross-linked chitosan’s influence on anti-Candida activity of clotrimazole
[...] Read more.
The combination of an antifungal agent and drug carrier with adjunctive antimicrobial properties represents novel strategy of complex therapy in pharmaceutical technology. The goal of this study was to investigate the unmodified and ion cross-linked chitosan’s influence on anti-Candida activity of clotrimazole used as a model drug in hydrogels. It was particularly crucial to explore whether the chitosans’ structure modification by β-glycerophosphate altered its antifungal properties. Antifungal studies (performed by plate diffusion method according to CLSI reference protocol) revealed that hydrogels obtained with chitosan/β-glycerophosphate displayed lower anti-Candida effect, probably as a result of weakened polycationic properties of chitosan in the presence of ion cross-linker. Designed chitosan hydrogels with clotrimazole were found to be more efficient against tested Candida strains and showed more favorable drug release profile compared to commercially available product. These observations indicate that novel chitosan formulations may be considered as promising semi-solid delivery system of clotrimazole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Properties of Tough and Strong Electrospun PMMA/PEO Fiber Mats Filled with Lanasol—A Naturally Occurring Brominated Substance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(9), 15912-15923; doi:10.3390/ijms150915912
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 27 August 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 9 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (6502 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new type of antimicrobial, biocompatible and toughness enhanced ultra-thin fiber mats for biomedical applications is presented. The tough and porous fiber mats were obtained by electrospinning solution-blended poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO), filled with up to 25 wt %
[...] Read more.
A new type of antimicrobial, biocompatible and toughness enhanced ultra-thin fiber mats for biomedical applications is presented. The tough and porous fiber mats were obtained by electrospinning solution-blended poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO), filled with up to 25 wt % of Lanasol—a naturally occurring brominated cyclic compound that can be extracted from red sea algae. Antibacterial effectiveness was tested following the industrial Standard JIS L 1902 and under agitated medium (ASTM E2149). Even at the lowest concentrations of Lanasol, 4 wt %, a significant bactericidal effect was seen with a 4-log (99.99%) reduction in bacterial viability against S. aureus, which is one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections in the world. The mechanical fiber toughness was insignificantly altered up to the maximum Lanasol concentration tested, and was for all fiber mats orders of magnitudes higher than electrospun fibers based on solely PMMA. This antimicrobial fiber system, relying on a dissolved antimicrobial agent (demonstrated by X-ray diffraction and Infrared (IR)-spectroscopy) rather than a dispersed and “mixed-in” solid antibacterial particle phase, presents a new concept which opens the door to tougher, stronger and more ductile antimicrobial fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Polymer-Immobilized Photosensitizers for Continuous Eradication of Bacteria
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(9), 14984-14996; doi:10.3390/ijms150914984
Received: 30 July 2014 / Revised: 14 August 2014 / Accepted: 19 August 2014 / Published: 25 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (884 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The photosensitizers Rose Bengal (RB) and methylene blue (MB), when immobilized in polystyrene, were found to exhibit high antibacterial activity in a continuous regime. The photosensitizers were immobilized by dissolution in chloroform, together with polystyrene, with further evaporation of the solvent, yielding thin
[...] Read more.
The photosensitizers Rose Bengal (RB) and methylene blue (MB), when immobilized in polystyrene, were found to exhibit high antibacterial activity in a continuous regime. The photosensitizers were immobilized by dissolution in chloroform, together with polystyrene, with further evaporation of the solvent, yielding thin polymeric films. Shallow reservoirs, bottom-covered with these films, were used for constructing continuous-flow photoreactors for the eradication of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative Escherichia coli and wastewater bacteria under illumination with visible white light using a luminescent lamp at a 1.8 mW·cm−2 fluence rate. The bacterial concentration decreased by two to five orders of magnitude in separate reactors with either immobilized RB or MB, as well as in three reactors connected in series, which contained one of the photosensitizers. Bacterial eradication reached more than five orders of magnitude in two reactors connected in series, where the first reactor contained immobilized RB and the second contained immobilized MB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Performance of Alginic Acid Coating on Polyethylene Film
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(8), 14684-14696; doi:10.3390/ijms150814684
Received: 9 June 2014 / Revised: 11 July 2014 / Accepted: 29 July 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1416 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alginic acid coated polyethylene films were examined in terms of surface properties and bacteriostatic performance against two most representative bacterial strains, that is, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Microwave plasma treatment followed by brush formation in vapor state from three distinguished precursors
[...] Read more.
Alginic acid coated polyethylene films were examined in terms of surface properties and bacteriostatic performance against two most representative bacterial strains, that is, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Microwave plasma treatment followed by brush formation in vapor state from three distinguished precursors (allylalcohol, allylamine, hydroxyethyl methacrylate) was carried out to deposit alginic acid on the substrate. Surface analyses via various techniques established that alginic acid was immobilized onto the surface where grafting (brush) chemistry influenced the amount of alginic acid coated. Moreover, alginic acid was found to be capable of bacterial growth inhibition which itself was significantly affected by the brush type. The polyanionic character of alginic acid as a carbohydrate polymer was assumed to play the pivotal role in antibacterial activity. The cell wall composition of two bacterial strains along with the substrates physicochemical properties accounted for different levels of bacteriostatic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Silver Nanoparticles/Ibuprofen-Loaded Poly(l-lactide) Fibrous Membrane: Anti-Infection and Anti-Adhesion Effects
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(8), 14014-14025; doi:10.3390/ijms150814014
Received: 10 June 2014 / Revised: 14 July 2014 / Accepted: 24 July 2014 / Published: 12 August 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3606 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infection caused by bacteria is one of the crucial risk factors for tendon adhesion formation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP)-loaded physical barriers were reported to be effective in anti-infection and anti-adhesion. However, high silver load may lead to kidney and liver damages. This study was
[...] Read more.
Infection caused by bacteria is one of the crucial risk factors for tendon adhesion formation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP)-loaded physical barriers were reported to be effective in anti-infection and anti-adhesion. However, high silver load may lead to kidney and liver damages. This study was designed for Ibuprofen (IBU)-loaded poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) electrospun fibrous membranes containing a low dosage of Ag to evaluate its potential in maintaining suitable anti-infection and good anti-adhesion effects. The in vitro drug release study showed a sustained release of Ag ions and IBU from the membrane. Inferior adherence and proliferation of fibroblasts were found on the Ag4%–IBU4%-loaded PLLA electrospun fibrous membranes in comparison with pure PLLA and 4% Ag-loaded PLLA membranes. In the antibacterial test, all Ag-loaded PLLA electrospun fibrous membranes prevented the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Ibuprofen is effective in enhancing the anti-adhesion and anti-proliferation effects of 4% Ag-loaded PLLA fibrous membrane. The medical potential of infection reduction and adhesion prevention of Ag4%–IBU4%-loaded PLLA electrospun fibrous membrane deserves to be further studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(7), 12791-12806; doi:10.3390/ijms150712791
Received: 9 June 2014 / Revised: 27 June 2014 / Accepted: 2 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1084 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm at different
[...] Read more.
Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05). In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Effect of a Novel Quaternary Ammonium Methacrylate Polymer (QAMP) on Adhesion and Antibacterial Properties of Dental Adhesives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 8998-9015; doi:10.3390/ijms15058998
Received: 3 March 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 16 April 2014 / Published: 20 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (988 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the resin–dentin bond strength (μTBS), degree of conversion (DC), and antibacterial potential of an innovative adhesive system containing a quaternary ammonium methacrylate polymer (QAMP) using in situ and in vitro assays. Forty-two human third molars were flattened until the dentin
[...] Read more.
This study investigated the resin–dentin bond strength (μTBS), degree of conversion (DC), and antibacterial potential of an innovative adhesive system containing a quaternary ammonium methacrylate polymer (QAMP) using in situ and in vitro assays. Forty-two human third molars were flattened until the dentin was exposed and were randomly distributed into three groups of self-etching adhesive systems: Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP (experimental group), Clearfil™ Protect Bond (positive control) and Clearfil™ SE Bond (negative control). After light curing, three 1 mm-increments of composite resin were bonded to each dentin surface. A total of thirty of these bonded teeth (10 teeth per group) was sectioned to obtain stick-shaped specimens and tested under tensile stress immediately, and after 6 and 12 months of storage in distilled water. Twelve bonded teeth (4 teeth per group) were longitudinally sectioned in a mesio-to-distal direction to obtain resin-bonded dentin slabs. In situ DC was evaluated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. In vitro DC of thin films of each adhesive system was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro susceptibility tests of these three adhesive systems were performed by the minimum inhibitory/minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) assays against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces naeslundii. No statistically significant difference in μTBS was observed between Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP and Clearfil™ SE Bond (p > 0.05) immediately, and after 6 and 12 months of water storage. However Clearfil™ Protect Bond showed a significant reduction of μTBS after 12 months of storage (p = 0.039). In addition, QAMP provided no significant change in DC after incorporating into Clearfil™ SE Bond (p > 0.05). Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP demonstrated MIC/MBC values similar to the positive control against L. casei and A. naeslundii and higher than the negative control for all evaluated bacterial strains. The use of QAMP in an adhesive system demonstrated effective bond strength, a suitable degree of conversion, and adequate antibacterial effects against oral bacteria, and may be useful as a new approach to provide long-lasting results for dental adhesives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of a Silver Nanoparticle Polysaccharide System on Streptococcal and Saliva-Derived Biofilms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 13615-13625; doi:10.3390/ijms140713615
Received: 11 April 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 6 June 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (666 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we studied the antimicrobial properties of a nanocomposite system based on a lactose-substituted chitosan and silver nanoparticles: Chitlac-nAg. Twofold serial dilutions of the colloidal Chitlac-nAg solution were both tested on Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus oralis planktonic
[...] Read more.
In this work, we studied the antimicrobial properties of a nanocomposite system based on a lactose-substituted chitosan and silver nanoparticles: Chitlac-nAg. Twofold serial dilutions of the colloidal Chitlac-nAg solution were both tested on Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus oralis planktonic phase and biofilm growth mode as well as on saliva samples. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of Chitlac-nAg were evaluated together with its effect on sessile cell viability, as well as both on biofilm formation and on preformed biofilm. In respect to the planktonic bacteria, Chitlac-nAg showed an inhibitory/bactericidal effect against all streptococcal strains at 0.1% (v/v), except for S. mitis ATCC 6249 that was inhibited at one step less. On preformed biofilm, Chitlac-nAg at a value of 0.2%, was able to inhibit the bacterial growth on the supernatant phase as well as on the mature biofilm. For S. mitis ATCC 6249, the biofilm inhibitory concentration of Chitlac-nAg was 0.1%. At sub-inhibitory concentrations, the Streptococcal strains adhesion capability on a polystyrene surface showed a general reduction following a concentration-dependent-way; a similar effect was obtained for the metabolic biofilm activity. From these results, Chitlac-nAg seems to be a promising antibacterial and antibiofilm agent able to hinder plaque formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization and Antimicrobial Property of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Nanogel Containing Silver Particle Prepared by Electron Beam
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(6), 11011-11023; doi:10.3390/ijms140611011
Received: 26 March 2013 / Revised: 30 April 2013 / Accepted: 2 May 2013 / Published: 24 May 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we developed a one step process to synthesize nanogel containing silver nanoparticles involving electron beam irradiation. Water-soluble silver nitrate powder is dissolved in the distilled water and then poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) and hexane are put into this silver nitrate solution.
[...] Read more.
In this study, we developed a one step process to synthesize nanogel containing silver nanoparticles involving electron beam irradiation. Water-soluble silver nitrate powder is dissolved in the distilled water and then poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) and hexane are put into this silver nitrate solution. These samples are irradiated by an electron beam to make the PAAc nanogels containing silver nanoparticles (Ag/PAAc nanogels). The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). In addition, the particle size and zeta-potential were confirmed by a particle size analyzer (PSA). The antibacterial properties of the nanogels were evaluated by paper diffusion test. The Ag/PAAc nanogels had an antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The nanogels also demonstrated a good healing effect against diabetic ulcer. The size of the Ag/PAAc nanogels decreased with increasing irradiation doses, and the absolute value of the zeta potential increased with increasing irradiation doses. Also, the Ag/PAAc nanogels exhibited good antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In in vivo wound healing, the Ag/PAAc nanogels have a good healing effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Bacterial Growth Kinetics under a Novel Flexible Methacrylate Dressing Serving as a Drug Delivery Vehicle for Antiseptics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10582-10590; doi:10.3390/ijms140510582
Received: 3 April 2013 / Revised: 26 April 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth
[...] Read more.
A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control), methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine), and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Molecular Interaction of a New Antibacterial Polymer with a Supported Lipid Bilayer Measured by an in situ Label-Free Optical Technique
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 9722-9736; doi:10.3390/ijms14059722
Received: 19 March 2013 / Revised: 21 April 2013 / Accepted: 2 May 2013 / Published: 6 May 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1051 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The interaction of the antibacterial polymer–branched poly(ethylene imine) substituted with quaternary ammonium groups, PEO and alkyl chains, PEI25QI5J5A815–with a solid supported lipid bilayer was investigated using surface sensitive optical waveguide spectroscopy. The analysis of the
[...] Read more.
The interaction of the antibacterial polymer–branched poly(ethylene imine) substituted with quaternary ammonium groups, PEO and alkyl chains, PEI25QI5J5A815–with a solid supported lipid bilayer was investigated using surface sensitive optical waveguide spectroscopy. The analysis of the optogeometrical parameters was extended developing a new composite layer model in which the structural and optical anisotropy of the molecular layers was taken into consideration. Following in situ the change of optical birefringence we were able to determine the composition of the lipid/polymer surface layer as well as the displacement of lipid bilayer by the antibacterial polymer without using additional labeling. Comparative assessment of the data of layer thickness and optical anisotropy helps to reveal the molecular mechanism of antibacterial effect of the polymer investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Biodegradable Polycaprolactone-Titania Nanocomposites: Preparation, Characterization and Antimicrobial Properties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 9249-9266; doi:10.3390/ijms14059249
Received: 27 March 2013 / Revised: 11 April 2013 / Accepted: 16 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanocomposites obtained from the incorporation of synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles (≈10 nm average primary particle size) in different amounts, ranging from 0.5 to 5 wt.%, into a biodegradable polycaprolactone matrix are achieved via a straightforward and commercial melting processing. The resulting nanocomposites have
[...] Read more.
Nanocomposites obtained from the incorporation of synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles (≈10 nm average primary particle size) in different amounts, ranging from 0.5 to 5 wt.%, into a biodegradable polycaprolactone matrix are achieved via a straightforward and commercial melting processing. The resulting nanocomposites have been structurally and thermally characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wide/small angle X-ray diffraction (WAXS/SAXS, respectively) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). TEM evaluation provides evidence of an excellent nanometric dispersion of the oxide component in the polymeric matrix, with aggregates having an average size well below 100 nm. Presence of these TiO2 nanoparticles induces a nucleant effect during polymer crystallization. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of nanocomposites has been tested using both UV and visible light against Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. The bactericidal behavior has been explained through the analysis of the material optical properties, with a key role played by the creation of new electronic states within the polymer-based nanocomposites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
Open AccessArticle The Use of Chitosan to Enhance Photodynamic Inactivation against Candida albicans and Its Drug-Resistant Clinical Isolates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 7445-7456; doi:10.3390/ijms14047445
Received: 27 February 2013 / Revised: 22 March 2013 / Accepted: 27 March 2013 / Published: 3 April 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (770 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Drug-resistant Candida infection is a major health concern among immunocompromised patients. Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (PDI) was introduced as an alternative treatment for local infections. Although Candida (C.) has demonstrated susceptibility to PDI, high doses of photosensitizer (PS) and light energy are
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Drug-resistant Candida infection is a major health concern among immunocompromised patients. Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (PDI) was introduced as an alternative treatment for local infections. Although Candida (C.) has demonstrated susceptibility to PDI, high doses of photosensitizer (PS) and light energy are required, which may be harmful to eukaryotic human cells. This study explores the capacity of chitosan, a polycationic biopolymer, to increase the efficacy of PDI against C. albicans, as well as fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates in planktonic or biofilm states. Chitosan was shown to effectively augment the effect of PDI mediated by toluidine blue O (TBO) against C. albicans that were incubated with chitosan for 30 min following PDI. Chitosan at concentrations as low as 0.25% eradicated C. albicans; however, without PDI treatment, chitosan alone did not demonstrate significant antimicrobial activity within the 30 min of incubation. These results suggest that chitosan only augmented the fungicidal effect after the cells had been damaged by PDI. Increasing the dosage of chitosan or prolonging the incubation time allowed a reduction in the PDI condition required to completely eradicate C. albicans. These results clearly indicate that combining chitosan with PDI is a promising antimicrobial approach to treat infectious diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Water Soluble Usnic Acid-Polyacrylamide Complexes with Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 7356-7369; doi:10.3390/ijms14047356
Received: 18 February 2013 / Revised: 15 March 2013 / Accepted: 19 March 2013 / Published: 2 April 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (342 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Usnic acid, a potent antimicrobial and anticancer agent, poorly soluble in water, was complexed to novel antimicrobial polyacrylamides by establishment of strong acidic-base interactions. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis evidenced a molecular dispersion of the drug in the polymers and a complete drug/polymer miscibility
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Usnic acid, a potent antimicrobial and anticancer agent, poorly soluble in water, was complexed to novel antimicrobial polyacrylamides by establishment of strong acidic-base interactions. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis evidenced a molecular dispersion of the drug in the polymers and a complete drug/polymer miscibility for all the tested compositions. The polymer/drug complexes promptly dissolved in water and possessed a greater antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis than both the free drug and the polymer alone. The best results were obtained with the complex based on the lowest molecular weight polymer and containing a low drug content. Such a complex showed a larger inhibition zone of bacterial growth and a lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with respect to usnic acid alone. This improved killing effect is presumably due to the reduced size of the complexes that allows an efficient cellular uptake of the antimicrobial complexes. The killing effect extent seems to be not significantly dependent on usnic acid content in the samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Magnetic-Antimicrobial-Fluorescent Multifunctional Hybrid Microspheres and Their Properties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 7391-7404; doi:10.3390/ijms14047391
Received: 1 January 2013 / Revised: 26 February 2013 / Accepted: 7 March 2013 / Published: 2 April 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1040 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Novel magnetic-antimicrobial-fluorescent multifunctional hybrid microspheres with well-defined nanostructure were synthesized by the aid of a poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) template. The hybrid microspheres were fully characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and digital
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Novel magnetic-antimicrobial-fluorescent multifunctional hybrid microspheres with well-defined nanostructure were synthesized by the aid of a poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) template. The hybrid microspheres were fully characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and digital fluorescence microscope. The as-synthesized microspheres PGMA, amino-modified PGMA (NH2-PGMA) and magnetic PGMA (M-PGMA) have a spherical shape with a smooth surface and fine monodispersity. M-PGMA microspheres are super-paramagnetic, and their saturated magnetic field is 4.608 emu·g−1, which made M-PGMA efficiently separable from aqueous solution by an external magnetic field. After poly(haxemethylene guanidine hydrochloride) (PHGH) functionalization, the resultant microspheres exhibit excellent antibacterial performance against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The fluorescence feature originating from the quantum dot CdTe endowed the hybrid microspheres with biological functions, such as targeted localization and biological monitoring functions. Combination of magnetism, antibiosis and fluorescence into one single hybrid microsphere opens up the possibility of the extensive study of multifunctional materials and widens the potential applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Preparation and Evaluation of Dental Resin with Antibacterial and Radio-Opaque Functions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(3), 5445-5460; doi:10.3390/ijms14035445
Received: 10 January 2013 / Revised: 26 February 2013 / Accepted: 4 March 2013 / Published: 7 March 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to prepare antibacterial and radio-opaque dental resin, a methacrylate monomer named 2-Dimethyl-2-dodecyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodine (DDMAI) with both antibacterial and radio-opaque activities was added into a 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropyl)-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA)/methyl methacrylate (MMA) dental resin system. Degree of conversion (DC), flexural strength (FS) and modulus
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In order to prepare antibacterial and radio-opaque dental resin, a methacrylate monomer named 2-Dimethyl-2-dodecyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodine (DDMAI) with both antibacterial and radio-opaque activities was added into a 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropyl)-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA)/methyl methacrylate (MMA) dental resin system. Degree of conversion (DC), flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), water sorption (WS) and solubility (WSL), antibacterial activity, and radio-opacity (ROX) of the obtained dental resin system were investigated. Bis-GMA/MMA resin system without DDMAI was used as a control. The results showed that DDMAI could endow BIS-GMA/MMA resin system with good antibacterial (p < 0.05) and radio-opaque function without influencing the DC (p > 0.05). However, incorporating DDMAI into Bis-GMA/MMA resin could reduce mechanical properties (p < 0.05) and increase WS and WSL (p < 0.05), thus further work is needed in order to optimize the resin formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(2), 3050-3064; doi:10.3390/ijms14023050
Received: 18 January 2013 / Revised: 25 January 2013 / Accepted: 29 January 2013 / Published: 1 February 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biofilms cause extensive damage to industrial settings. Thus, it is important to improve the existing techniques and develop new strategies to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. In the present study, we have prepared nanoporous polymer films from a self-assembled 1,2-polybutadiene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b
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Biofilms cause extensive damage to industrial settings. Thus, it is important to improve the existing techniques and develop new strategies to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. In the present study, we have prepared nanoporous polymer films from a self-assembled 1,2-polybutadiene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS) block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment in short-term (3 h) and significantly reduce biofilm formation in long-term (1 week) by gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Tuning the thickness or surface morphology of the nanoporous polymer films allowed to extent the anti-biofilm capability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Quaternized Chitosan as an Antimicrobial Agent: Antimicrobial Activity, Mechanism of Action and Biomedical Applications in Orthopedics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 1854-1869; doi:10.3390/ijms14011854
Received: 3 December 2012 / Revised: 8 January 2013 / Accepted: 9 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
Cited by 55 | PDF Full-text (275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitosan (CS) is a linear polysaccharide with good biodegradability, biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity, which makes it potentially useful for biomedical applications, including an antimicrobial agent either alone or blended with other polymers. However, the poor solubility of CS in most solvents at neutral
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Chitosan (CS) is a linear polysaccharide with good biodegradability, biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity, which makes it potentially useful for biomedical applications, including an antimicrobial agent either alone or blended with other polymers. However, the poor solubility of CS in most solvents at neutral or high pH substantially limits its use. Quaternary ammonium CS, which was prepared by introducing a quaternary ammonium group on a dissociative hydroxyl group or amino group of the CS, exhibited improved water solubility and stronger antibacterial activity relative to CS over an entire range of pH values; thus, this quaternary modification increases the potential biomedical applications of CS in the field of anti-infection. This review discusses the current findings on the antimicrobial properties of quaternized CS synthesized using different methods and the mechanisms of its antimicrobial actions. The potential antimicrobial applications in the orthopedic field and perspectives regarding future studies in this field are also considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Sorption, Solubility, Bond Strength and Hardness of Denture Soft Lining Incorporated with Silver Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 563-574; doi:10.3390/ijms14010563
Received: 7 November 2012 / Revised: 12 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The colonization of denture soft lining material by oral fungi can result in infections and stomatitis of oral tissues. In this study, 0 ppm to 200 ppm of silver nanoparticles was incorporated as an antimicrobial agent into composites to reduce the microbial colonization
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The colonization of denture soft lining material by oral fungi can result in infections and stomatitis of oral tissues. In this study, 0 ppm to 200 ppm of silver nanoparticles was incorporated as an antimicrobial agent into composites to reduce the microbial colonization of lining materials. The effect of silver nanoparticle incorporation into a soft lining material on the sorption, solubility, hardness (on the Shore A scale) and tensile bond strength of the composites was investigated. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls post hoc tests or the chi-square Pearson test at the p < 0.05 level. An increase in the nanosilver concentration resulted in a decrease in hardness, an increase in sorption and solubility, a decrease in bond strength and a change in the failure type of the samples. The best combination of bond strength, sorption, solubility and hardness with antifungal efficacy was achieved for silver nanoparticle concentrations ranging from 20 ppm to 40 ppm. These composites did not show properties worse than those of the material without silver nanoparticles and exhibited enhanced in vitro antifungal efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)

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Open AccessReview Antimicrobial Polymeric Materials with Quaternary Ammonium and Phosphonium Salts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 3626-3655; doi:10.3390/ijms16023626
Received: 27 November 2014 / Accepted: 29 January 2015 / Published: 6 February 2015
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (1928 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polymeric materials containing quaternary ammonium and/or phosphonium salts have been extensively studied and applied to a variety of antimicrobial-relevant areas. With various architectures, polymeric quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts were prepared using different approaches, exhibiting different antimicrobial activities and potential applications. This review focuses on
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Polymeric materials containing quaternary ammonium and/or phosphonium salts have been extensively studied and applied to a variety of antimicrobial-relevant areas. With various architectures, polymeric quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts were prepared using different approaches, exhibiting different antimicrobial activities and potential applications. This review focuses on the state of the art of antimicrobial polymers with quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts. In particular, it discusses the structure and synthesis method, mechanisms of antimicrobial action, and the comparison of antimicrobial performance between these two kinds of polymers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
Open AccessReview Antimicrobial Polymers with Metal Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2099-2116; doi:10.3390/ijms16012099
Received: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 9 January 2015 / Published: 19 January 2015
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (1416 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metals, such as copper and silver, can be extremely toxic to bacteria at exceptionally low concentrations. Because of this biocidal activity, metals have been widely used as antimicrobial agents in a multitude of applications related with agriculture, healthcare, and the industry in general.
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Metals, such as copper and silver, can be extremely toxic to bacteria at exceptionally low concentrations. Because of this biocidal activity, metals have been widely used as antimicrobial agents in a multitude of applications related with agriculture, healthcare, and the industry in general. Unlike other antimicrobial agents, metals are stable under conditions currently found in the industry allowing their use as additives. Today these metal based additives are found as: particles, ions absorbed/exchanged in different carriers, salts, hybrid structures, etc. One recent route to further extend the antimicrobial applications of these metals is by their incorporation as nanoparticles into polymer matrices. These polymer/metal nanocomposites can be prepared by several routes such as in situ synthesis of the nanoparticle within a hydrogel or direct addition of the metal nanofiller into a thermoplastic matrix. The objective of the present review is to show examples of polymer/metal composites designed to have antimicrobial activities, with a special focus on copper and silver metal nanoparticles and their mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
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Open AccessReview Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Derivatives Containing N-Quaternized Moieties in Its Backbone: A Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(11), 20800-20832; doi:10.3390/ijms151120800
Received: 16 September 2014 / Revised: 12 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (2572 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitosan, which is derived from a deacetylation reaction of chitin, has attractive antimicrobial activity. However, chitosan applications as a biocide are only effective in acidic medium due to its low solubility in neutral and basic conditions. Also, the positive charges carried by the
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Chitosan, which is derived from a deacetylation reaction of chitin, has attractive antimicrobial activity. However, chitosan applications as a biocide are only effective in acidic medium due to its low solubility in neutral and basic conditions. Also, the positive charges carried by the protonated amine groups of chitosan (in acidic conditions) that are the driving force for its solubilization are also associated with its antimicrobial activity. Therefore, chemical modifications of chitosan are required to enhance its solubility and broaden the spectrum of its applications, including as biocide. Quaternization on the nitrogen atom of chitosan is the most used route to render water-soluble chitosan-derivatives, especially at physiological pH conditions. Recent reports in the literature demonstrate that such chitosan-derivatives present excellent antimicrobial activity due to permanent positive charge on nitrogen atoms side-bonded to the polymer backbone. This review presents some relevant work regarding the use of quaternized chitosan-derivatives obtained by different synthetic paths in applications as antimicrobial agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
Open AccessReview Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 18040-18083; doi:10.3390/ijms151018040
Received: 29 July 2014 / Revised: 30 August 2014 / Accepted: 16 September 2014 / Published: 9 October 2014
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (4607 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications.
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Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
Open AccessReview Cationic Antimicrobial Polymers and Their Assemblies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 9906-9946; doi:10.3390/ijms14059906
Received: 28 February 2013 / Revised: 20 April 2013 / Accepted: 23 April 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 91 | PDF Full-text (938 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures
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Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures are quaternary ammonium groups, resulting in quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal activity. Besides, many of these polymeric structures also show low toxicity to human cells; a major requirement for biomedical applications. Determination of the specific elements in polymers, which affect their antimicrobial activity, has been previously difficult due to broad molecular weight distributions and random sequences characteristic of radical polymerization. With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing greater insight into their structure-antimicrobial activity relationship. On the other hand, antimicrobial polymers grafted or self-assembled to inert or non inert vehicles can yield hybrid antimicrobial nanostructures or films, which can act as antimicrobials by themselves or deliver bioactive molecules for a variety of applications, such as wound dressing, photodynamic antimicrobial therapy, food packing and preservation and antifouling applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)

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