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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Claire Hellio

President of ESMB; Head of a bioprospection corefacility (Biodimar) at the University of Brest; Course leader for a master in Biotechnology at the University of Brest, Brest, France
E-Mail
Fax: +44 239 284 2070
Interests: new non-toxic antifouling solutions; new biocides; marine natural products; ethnobotany; marine biochemistry

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication Potential of Nitrogen Gas (N2) Flushing to Extend the Shelf Life of Cold Stored Pasteurised Milk
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(3), 5668-5685; doi:10.3390/ijms14035668
Received: 9 October 2012 / Revised: 31 January 2013 / Accepted: 4 March 2013 / Published: 11 March 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For different reasons, the amount of food loss for developing and developed countries is approximately equivalent. Altogether, these losses represent approximately 1/3 of the global food production. Significant amounts of pasteurised milk are lost due to bad smell and unpleasant taste. Currently, even
[...] Read more.
For different reasons, the amount of food loss for developing and developed countries is approximately equivalent. Altogether, these losses represent approximately 1/3 of the global food production. Significant amounts of pasteurised milk are lost due to bad smell and unpleasant taste. Currently, even under the best cold chain conditions, psychrotolerant spore-forming bacteria, some of which also harbour virulent factors, limit the shelf life of pasteurised milk. N2 gas-based flushing has recently been of interest for improving the quality of raw milk. Here, we evaluated the possibility of addressing bacterial growth in pasteurised milk during cold storage at 6 °C and 8 °C. Clearly, the treatments hindered bacterial growth, in a laboratory setting, when N2-treated milk were compared to the corresponding controls, which suggests that N2-flushing treatment constitutes a promising option to extend the shelf life of pasteurised milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biocides)
Open AccessArticle Coumarins from the Herb Cnidium monnieri and Chemically Modified Derivatives as Antifoulants against Balanus albicostatus and Bugula neritina Larvae
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 1197-1206; doi:10.3390/ijms14011197
Received: 11 October 2012 / Revised: 24 November 2012 / Accepted: 11 December 2012 / Published: 9 January 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the search for new environmental friendly antifouling (AF) agents, four coumarins were isolated from the herbal plant Cnidium monnieri, known as osthole (1), imperatorin (2), isopimpinellin (3) and auraptenol (4). Furthermore, five coumarin
[...] Read more.
In the search for new environmental friendly antifouling (AF) agents, four coumarins were isolated from the herbal plant Cnidium monnieri, known as osthole (1), imperatorin (2), isopimpinellin (3) and auraptenol (4). Furthermore, five coumarin derivatives, namely 8-epoxypentylcoumarin (5), meranzin hydrate (6), 2'-deoxymetranzin hydrate (7), 8-methylbutenalcoumarin (8), and micromarin-F (9) were synthesized from osthole. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 7 showed high inhibitory activities against larval settlement of Balanus albicostatus with EC50 values of 4.64, 3.39, 3.38, 4.67 μg mL−1. Compound 8 could significantly inhibit larval settlement of Bugula neritina with an EC50 value of 3.87 μg mL−1. The impact of functional groups on anti-larval settlement activities suggested that the groups on C-5' and C-2'/C-3' of isoamylene chian could affect the AF activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biocides)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Long-Term Storage on the Physiochemical and Bactericidal Properties of Electrochemically Activated Solutions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 457-469; doi:10.3390/ijms14010457
Received: 6 October 2012 / Revised: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 24 December 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrochemically activated solutions (ECAS) are generated by electrolysis of NaCl solutions, and demonstrate broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and high environmental compatibility. The biocidal efficacy of ECAS at the point of production is widely reported in the literature, as are its credentials as a
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Electrochemically activated solutions (ECAS) are generated by electrolysis of NaCl solutions, and demonstrate broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and high environmental compatibility. The biocidal efficacy of ECAS at the point of production is widely reported in the literature, as are its credentials as a “green biocide.” Acidic ECAS are considered most effective as biocides at the point of production and ill suited for extended storage. Acidic ECAS samples were stored at 4 °C and 20 °C in glass and polystyrene containers for 398 days, and tested for free chlorine, pH, ORP and bactericidal activity throughout. ORP and free chlorine (mg/L) in stored ECAS declined over time, declining at the fastest rate when stored at 20 °C in polystyrene and at the slowest rate when stored at 4 °C in glass. Bactericidal efficacy was also affected by storage and ECAS failed to produce a 5 log10 reduction on five occasions when stored at 20 °C. pH remained stable throughout the storage period. This study represents the longest storage evaluation of the physiochemical parameters and bactericidal efficacy of acidic ECAS within the published literature and reveals that acidic ECAS retain useful bactericidal activity for in excess of 12 months, widening potential applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biocides)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Purification and Properties of an Insecticidal Metalloprotease Produced by Photorhabdus luminescens Strain 0805-P5G, the Entomopathogenic Nematode Symbiont
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 308-321; doi:10.3390/ijms14010308
Received: 29 October 2012 / Revised: 3 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 December 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (675 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A total of 13 Photorhabdus luminescens strains were screened for proteolytic activity. The P. luminescens strain 0805-P5G had the highest activity on both skim milk and gelatin plates. The protease was purified to electrophoretical homogeneity by using a two-step column chromatographic procedure. It
[...] Read more.
A total of 13 Photorhabdus luminescens strains were screened for proteolytic activity. The P. luminescens strain 0805-P5G had the highest activity on both skim milk and gelatin plates. The protease was purified to electrophoretical homogeneity by using a two-step column chromatographic procedure. It had a molecular weight of 51.8 kDa, as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The optimum pH, temperature, as well as pH and thermal stabilities were 8, 60 °C, 5–10, and 14–60 °C, respectively. It was completely inhibited by EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline. Bioassay of the purified protease against Galleria mellonella by injection showed high insecticidal activity. The protease also showed high oral toxicity to the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) of a Taiwan field-collected strain, but low toxicity to an American strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that the purified protease of P. luminescens has direct toxicity to P. xylostella and biopesticide potentiality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biocides)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola against Some Phytopathogenic Fungi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 16291-16302; doi:10.3390/ijms131216291
Received: 13 November 2012 / Revised: 27 November 2012 / Accepted: 29 November 2012 / Published: 3 December 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The trend to search novel microbial natural biocides has recently been increasing in order to avoid the environmental pollution from use of synthetic pesticides. Among these novel natural biocides are the bioactive secondary metabolites of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola (Bga). The
[...] Read more.
The trend to search novel microbial natural biocides has recently been increasing in order to avoid the environmental pollution from use of synthetic pesticides. Among these novel natural biocides are the bioactive secondary metabolites of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola (Bga). The aim of this study is to determine antifungal activity of Bga strains against some phytopathogenic fungi. The fungicidal tests were carried out using cultures and cell-free culture filtrates against Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium expansum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Phytophthora cactorum. Results demonstrated that all tested strains exert antifungal activity against all studied fungi by producing diffusible metabolites which are correlated with their ability to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. All strains significantly reduced the growth of studied fungi and the bacterial cells were more bioactive than bacterial filtrates. All tested Bulkholderia strains produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which inhibited the fungal growth and reduced the growth rate of Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. GC/MS analysis of VOCs emitted by strain Bga 11096 indicated the presence of a compound that was identified as 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohexene, a liquid hydrocarbon classified as cyclic terpene. This compound could be responsible for the antifungal activity, which is also in agreement with the work of other authors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biocides)
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Open AccessArticle Antifungal Activity of (KW)n or (RW)n Peptide against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(11), 15042-15053; doi:10.3390/ijms131115042
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 14 August 2012 / Accepted: 17 October 2012 / Published: 15 November 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2758 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The presence of lysine (Lys) or arginine (Arg) and tryptophan (Trp) are important for the antimicrobial effects of cationic peptides. Therefore, we designed and synthesized a series of antimicrobial peptides with various numbers of Lys (or Arg) and Trp repeats [(KW and RW)
[...] Read more.
The presence of lysine (Lys) or arginine (Arg) and tryptophan (Trp) are important for the antimicrobial effects of cationic peptides. Therefore, we designed and synthesized a series of antimicrobial peptides with various numbers of Lys (or Arg) and Trp repeats [(KW and RW)n-NH2, where n equals 2, 3, 4, or 5]. Antifungal activities of these peptides increased with chain length. Light microscopy demonstrated that longer peptides (n = 4, 5) strongly inhibited in vitro growth of Fusarium solani, and Fusarium oxysporum, at 4–32 μM. Furthermore, longer peptides displayed potent fungicidal activities against a variety of agronomical important filamentous fungi, including F. solani and F. oxysporum, at their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). However, RW series peptides showed slightly higher fungicidal activities than KW peptides against the two strains. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that these short peptides would be good candidates for use as synthetic or transgenic antifungal agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biocides)
Open AccessArticle Digluconate and Isopropyl Alcohol Biocide Formulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(11), 14016-14025; doi:10.3390/ijms131114016
Received: 18 September 2012 / Revised: 16 October 2012 / Accepted: 26 October 2012 / Published: 30 October 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Effective surface disinfection is a fundamental infection control strategy within healthcare. This study assessed the antimicrobial efficacy of novel biocide formulations comprising 5% and 2% eucalyptus oil (EO) combined with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) and 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) contained within a wipe.
[...] Read more.
Effective surface disinfection is a fundamental infection control strategy within healthcare. This study assessed the antimicrobial efficacy of novel biocide formulations comprising 5% and 2% eucalyptus oil (EO) combined with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) and 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) contained within a wipe. The efficacy of this novel antimicrobial formulation to remove and eliminate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli and Candida albicans from steel surfaces was investigated. Adpression studies of pre-contaminated wipes were also utilised to assess their potential to induce cross-contamination between hard surfaces. Furthermore, the bactericidal nature of the EO-formulation was established in addition to time-kill. The EO-containing formulations demonstrated bactericidal antimicrobial efficacy against all microorganisms and did not induce surface cross-contamination. There was no significant difference (p < 0.05) between the 5% and 2% EO formulations in their ability to remove microorganisms from steel surfaces, however both significantly (p < 0.05) removed more than the control formulations. Microbial biofilms were eliminated within 10 min (p < 0.05) when exposed to the EO formulations. Our novel EO-formulation demonstrated rapid antimicrobial efficacy for potential disinfection and elimination of microbial biofilms from hard surfaces and may therefore be a useful adjunct to current infection control strategies currently employed within healthcare facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biocides)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Soil: Impact on Microbial Biodegradation of Organic Compounds and Possible Improvement Strategies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10197-10228; doi:10.3390/ijms140510197
Received: 8 October 2012 / Revised: 10 April 2013 / Accepted: 24 April 2013 / Published: 15 May 2013
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Co-contamination of the environment with toxic chlorinated organic and heavy metal pollutants is one of the major problems facing industrialized nations today. Heavy metals may inhibit biodegradation of chlorinated organics by interacting with enzymes directly involved in biodegradation or those involved in general
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Co-contamination of the environment with toxic chlorinated organic and heavy metal pollutants is one of the major problems facing industrialized nations today. Heavy metals may inhibit biodegradation of chlorinated organics by interacting with enzymes directly involved in biodegradation or those involved in general metabolism. Predictions of metal toxicity effects on organic pollutant biodegradation in co-contaminated soil and water environments is difficult since heavy metals may be present in a variety of chemical and physical forms. Recent advances in bioremediation of co-contaminated environments have focussed on the use of metal-resistant bacteria (cell and gene bioaugmentation), treatment amendments, clay minerals and chelating agents to reduce bioavailable heavy metal concentrations. Phytoremediation has also shown promise as an emerging alternative clean-up technology for co-contaminated environments. However, despite various investigations, in both aerobic and anaerobic systems, demonstrating that metal toxicity hampers the biodegradation of the organic component, a paucity of information exists in this area of research. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the problems associated with the degradation of chlorinated organics in co-contaminated environments, owing to metal toxicity and shed light on possible improvement strategies for effective bioremediation of sites co-contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds and heavy metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biocides)
Open AccessReview Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17077-17103; doi:10.3390/ijms131217077
Received: 6 November 2012 / Revised: 28 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (1172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products
[...] Read more.
Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry, although many of these substances have evolved to provide the plant with protection against herbivores and pathogens. The storage compartment of glandular trichomes usually is located on the tip of the hair and is part of the glandular cell, or cells, which are metabolically active. Trichomes and their exudates can be harvested relatively easily, and this has permitted a detailed study of their metabolites, as well as the genes and proteins responsible for them. This knowledge now assists classical breeding programs, as well as targeted genetic engineering, aimed to optimize trichome density and physiology to facilitate customization of essential oil production or to tune biocide activity to enhance crop protection. We will provide an overview of the metabolic diversity found within plant glandular trichomes, with the emphasis on those of the Solanaceae, and of the tools available to manipulate their activities for enhancing the plant’s resistance to pests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biocides)
Open AccessReview The Phorbol Ester Fraction from Jatropha curcas Seed Oil: Potential and Limits for Crop Protection against Insect Pests
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 16157-16171; doi:10.3390/ijms131216157
Received: 24 September 2012 / Revised: 23 November 2012 / Accepted: 27 November 2012 / Published: 30 November 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The physic nut shrub, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), has been considered as a “miracle tree”, particularly as a source of alternate fuel. Various extracts of the plant have been reported to have insecticidal/acaricidal or molluscicidal/anthelminthic activities on vectors of medical or veterinary interest or
[...] Read more.
The physic nut shrub, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), has been considered as a “miracle tree”, particularly as a source of alternate fuel. Various extracts of the plant have been reported to have insecticidal/acaricidal or molluscicidal/anthelminthic activities on vectors of medical or veterinary interest or on agricultural or non-agricultural pests. Among those extracts, the phorbol ester fraction from seed oil has been reported as a promising candidate for use as a plant-derived protectant of a variety of crops, from a range of pre-harvest and post-harvest insect pests. However, such extracts have not been widely used, despite the “boom” in the development of the crop in the tropics during recent years, and societal concerns about overuse of systemic chemical pesticides. There are many potential explanations to such a lack of use of Jatropha insecticidal extracts. On the one hand, the application of extracts potentially harmful to human health on stored food grain, might not be relevant. The problem of decomposition of phorbol esters and other compounds toxic to crop pests in the field needing further evaluation before such extracts can be widely used, may also be a partial explanation. High variability of phorbol ester content and hence of insecticidal activity among physic nut cultivars/ecotypes may be another. Phytotoxicity to crops may be further limitation. Apparent obstacles to a wider application of such extracts are the costs and problems involved with registration and legal approval. On the other hand, more studies should be conducted on molluscicidal activity on slugs and land snails which are major pests of crops, particularly in conservation agriculture systems. Further evaluation of toxicity to natural enemies of insect pests and studies on other beneficial insects such as pollinators are also needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biocides)
Open AccessReview Bacterial Bio-Resources for Remediation of Hexachlorocyclohexane
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(11), 15086-15106; doi:10.3390/ijms131115086
Received: 6 September 2012 / Revised: 29 September 2012 / Accepted: 17 October 2012 / Published: 15 November 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last few decades, highly toxic organic compounds like the organochlorine pesticide (OP) hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) have been released into the environment. All HCH isomers are acutely toxic to mammals. Although nowadays its use is restricted or completely banned in most countries, it
[...] Read more.
In the last few decades, highly toxic organic compounds like the organochlorine pesticide (OP) hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) have been released into the environment. All HCH isomers are acutely toxic to mammals. Although nowadays its use is restricted or completely banned in most countries, it continues posing serious environmental and health concerns. Since HCH toxicity is well known, it is imperative to develop methods to remove it from the environment. Bioremediation technologies, which use microorganisms and/or plants to degrade toxic contaminants, have become the focus of interest. Microorganisms play a significant role in the transformation and degradation of xenobiotic compounds. Many Gram-negative bacteria have been reported to have metabolic abilities to attack HCH. For instance, several Sphingomonas strains have been reported to degrade the pesticide. On the other hand, among Gram-positive microorganisms, actinobacteria have a great potential for biodegradation of organic and inorganic toxic compounds. This review compiles and updates the information available on bacterial removal of HCH, particularly by Streptomyces strains, a prolific genus of actinobacteria. A brief account on the persistence and deleterious effects of these pollutant chemical is also given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biocides)

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