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Influence of Growth Conditions on Magnetite Nanoparticles Electro-Crystallized in the Presence of Organic Molecules
Physics Department, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz 61357-43337, Iran
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2013; in revised form: 4 May 2013 / Accepted: 9 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Abstract: Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by electrocrystallization in the presence of thiourea or sodium butanoate as an organic stabilizer. The synthesis was performed in a thermostatic electrochemical cell containing two iron electrodes with an aqueous solution of sodium sulfate as electrolyte. The effects of organic concentration, applied potential and growth temperature on particle size, morphology, structure and magnetic properties were investigated. The magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, magnetometry and Mössbauer spectrometry. When the synthesis is performed in the presence of sodium butanoate at 60 °C, a paramagnetic ferric salt is obtained as a second phase; it is possible to avoid formation of this phase, increase the specific magnetization and improve the structure of the oxide particles by tuning the growth conditions. Room-temperature magnetization values range from 45 to 90 Am2kg−1, depending on the particle size, type of surfactant and synthesis conditions. Mössbauer spectra, which were recorded at 290 K for all the samples, are typical of nonstoichiometric Fe3−δO4, with a small excess of Fe3+, 0.05 ≤ δ ≤ 0.15.
Keywords: magnetite nanoparticles; thiourea; sodium butanoate; electro-crystallization; magnetization; magnetite stoichiometry
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MDPI and ACS Style
Mosivand, S.; Monzon, L.M.A.; Kazeminezhad, I.; Coey, J.M.D. Influence of Growth Conditions on Magnetite Nanoparticles Electro-Crystallized in the Presence of Organic Molecules. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 10383-10396.
Mosivand S, Monzon LMA, Kazeminezhad I, Coey JMD. Influence of Growth Conditions on Magnetite Nanoparticles Electro-Crystallized in the Presence of Organic Molecules. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(5):10383-10396.
Mosivand, Saba; Monzon, Lorena M.A.; Kazeminezhad, Iraj; Coey, J. M.D. 2013. "Influence of Growth Conditions on Magnetite Nanoparticles Electro-Crystallized in the Presence of Organic Molecules." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 5: 10383-10396.