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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10343-10354; doi:10.3390/ijms140510343
Article

Ischemic Preconditioning Protects against Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rabbits by Attenuating Blood Spinal Cord Barrier Disruption

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Received: 25 February 2013; in revised form: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 2 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2014)
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Abstract: Ischemic preconditioning has been reported to protect against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To investigate this, Japanese white rabbits underwent I-R (30 min aortic occlusion followed by reperfusion), ischemic preconditioning (three cycles of 5 min aortic occlusion plus 5 min reperfusion) followed by I-R, or sham surgery. At 4 and 24 h following reperfusion, neurological function was assessed using Tarlov scores, blood spinal cord barrier permeability was measured by Evan’s Blue extravasation, spinal cord edema was evaluated using the wet-dry method, and spinal cord expression of zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured by Western blot and a real-time polymerase chain reaction. ZO-1 was also assessed using immunofluorescence. Spinal cord I-R injury reduced neurologic scores, and ischemic preconditioning treatment ameliorated this effect. Ischemic preconditioning inhibited I-R-induced increases in blood spinal cord barrier permeability and water content, increased ZO-1 mRNA and protein expression, and reduced MMP-9 and TNF-α mRNA and protein expression. These findings suggest that ischemic preconditioning attenuates the increase in blood spinal cord barrier permeability due to spinal cord I-R injury by preservation of tight junction protein ZO-1 and reducing MMP-9 and TNF-α expression.
Keywords: ischemic preconditioning; ischemia-reperfusion injury; spinal cord; blood spinal cord barrier ischemic preconditioning; ischemia-reperfusion injury; spinal cord; blood spinal cord barrier
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fang, B.; Li, X.-M.; Sun, X.-J.; Bao, N.-R.; Ren, X.-Y.; Lv, H.-W.; Ma, H. Ischemic Preconditioning Protects against Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rabbits by Attenuating Blood Spinal Cord Barrier Disruption. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 10343-10354.

AMA Style

Fang B, Li X-M, Sun X-J, Bao N-R, Ren X-Y, Lv H-W, Ma H. Ischemic Preconditioning Protects against Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rabbits by Attenuating Blood Spinal Cord Barrier Disruption. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(5):10343-10354.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fang, Bo; Li, Xiao-Man; Sun, Xi-Jia; Bao, Na-Ren; Ren, Xiao-Yan; Lv, Huang-Wei; Ma, Hong. 2013. "Ischemic Preconditioning Protects against Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rabbits by Attenuating Blood Spinal Cord Barrier Disruption." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 5: 10343-10354.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert