Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10608-10625; doi:10.3390/ijms140510608
Article

Effect of Plant Derived Antimicrobials on Salmonella Enteritidis Adhesion to and Invasion of Primary Chicken Oviduct Epithelial Cells in vitro and Virulence Gene Expression

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Received: 18 February 2013; in revised form: 23 April 2013 / Accepted: 1 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a major foodborne pathogen in the United States and one of the most frequently reported Salmonella serotypes globally. Eggs are the most common food product associated with SE infections in humans. The pathogen colonizes the intestinal tract in layers, and migrates to reproductive organs systemically. Since adhesion to and invasion of chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC) is critical for SE colonization in reproductive tract, reducing these virulence factors could potentially decrease egg yolk contamination. This study investigated the efficacy of sub-inhibitory concentrations of three plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs), namely carvacrol, thymol and eugenol in reducing SE adhesion to and invasion of COEC, and survival in chicken macrophages. In addition, the effect of PDAs on SE genes critical for oviduct colonization and macrophage survival was determined using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). All PDAs significantly reduced SE adhesion to and invasion of COEC (p < 0.001). The PDAs, except thymol consistently decreased SE survival in macrophages (p < 0.001). RT-qPCR results revealed down-regulation in the expression of genes involved in SE colonization and macrophage survival (p < 0.001). The results indicate that PDAs could potentially be used to control SE colonization in chicken reproductive tract; however, in vivo studies validating these results are warranted.
Keywords: Salmonella; plant-derived antimicrobials; oviduct; macrophages; gene expression
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MDPI and ACS Style

Upadhyaya, I.; Upadhyay, A.; Kollanoor-Johny, A.; Darre, M.J.; Venkitanarayanan, K. Effect of Plant Derived Antimicrobials on Salmonella Enteritidis Adhesion to and Invasion of Primary Chicken Oviduct Epithelial Cells in vitro and Virulence Gene Expression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 10608-10625.

AMA Style

Upadhyaya I, Upadhyay A, Kollanoor-Johny A, Darre MJ, Venkitanarayanan K. Effect of Plant Derived Antimicrobials on Salmonella Enteritidis Adhesion to and Invasion of Primary Chicken Oviduct Epithelial Cells in vitro and Virulence Gene Expression. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(5):10608-10625.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Upadhyaya, Indu; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Darre, Michael J.; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar. 2013. "Effect of Plant Derived Antimicrobials on Salmonella Enteritidis Adhesion to and Invasion of Primary Chicken Oviduct Epithelial Cells in vitro and Virulence Gene Expression." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 5: 10608-10625.

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