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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10438-10464; doi:10.3390/ijms140510438
Review

Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase: Structure, Function and Regulation

1
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1
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2
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3
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1,4
 and
1,3,4,5,*
1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA 2 College of Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA 3 Department of Surgery/Urology, College of Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA 4 Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA 5 College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 April 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology)
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Abstract

Human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP) is a 100 kDa glycoprotein composed of two subunits. Recent advances demonstrate that cellular PAcP (cPAcP) functions as a protein tyrosine phosphatase by dephosphorylating ErbB-2/Neu/HER-2 at the phosphotyrosine residues in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, which results in reduced tumorigenicity. Further, the interaction of cPAcP and ErbB-2 regulates androgen sensitivity of PCa cells. Knockdown of cPAcP expression allows androgen-sensitive PCa cells to develop the castration-resistant phenotype, where cells proliferate under an androgen-reduced condition. Thus, cPAcP has a significant influence on PCa cell growth. Interestingly, promoter analysis suggests that PAcP expression can be regulated by NF-κB, via a novel binding sequence in an androgen-independent manner. Further understanding of PAcP function and regulation of expression will have a significant impact on understanding PCa progression and therapy.
Keywords: prostate cancer; prostatic acid phosphatase; protein tyrosine phosphatase; tumor suppressor; ErbB-2; epigenetic regulation; immunotherapy prostate cancer; prostatic acid phosphatase; protein tyrosine phosphatase; tumor suppressor; ErbB-2; epigenetic regulation; immunotherapy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Muniyan, S.; Chaturvedi, N.K.; Dwyer, J.G.; LaGrange, C.A.; Chaney, W.G.; Lin, M.-F. Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase: Structure, Function and Regulation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 10438-10464.

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