Topic Editors

Department of Pharmacy-Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, I-70125 Bari, Italy
Dr. Ilaria Arduino
Department of Pharmacy—Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, I-70125 Bari, Italy

Microfluidics Applied in Nanomedicine and Pharmaceutics

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 September 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2022)
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19170

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is a great pleasure to announce the opening of a Topic dedicated to Microfluidics Applied in Nanomedicine and Pharmaceutics, which aims to consider current technological implementations of the microfluidic approach in nanomedicine and pharmaceutics. There are several fields of application for this technique, but special attention in recent years has been focused on the biomedical field. Drug delivery systems have great potential for improving the treatment of several diseases, but their formulation procedures remain challenging, especially at the nanoscale. Microfluidic technologies have emerged as an alternative to the conventional bench methods to address these issues, providing precise control over the fluid flows and rapid mixing. This Topic aims to highlight advances in microfluidics for drug delivery applications from different perspectives, covering device fabrication, fluid dynamics, state-of-the-art microfluidic technology in the global drug delivery industry, nano/micro lab-on-chip fabrication and drug encapsulation, cell encapsulation and delivery, and cell–drug interaction screening. Original research papers and review articles are welcomed. We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Nunzio Denora
Dr. Ilaria Arduino
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • nanoparticles
  • microfluidics
  • controlled drug delivery
  • nanomedicine
  • chip manufacturing
  • therapeutic biomicrofluidics
  • microparticles
  • organ-on-chips
  • drug delivery system
  • pharmaceutical applications
  • formulation

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Biomedicines
biomedicines
4.7 3.7 2013 15.4 Days CHF 2600
Micromachines
micromachines
3.4 4.7 2010 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Pharmaceutics
pharmaceutics
5.4 6.9 2009 14.2 Days CHF 2900
Nanomaterials
nanomaterials
5.3 7.4 2010 13.6 Days CHF 2900
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
ijms
5.6 7.8 2000 16.3 Days CHF 2900

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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15 pages, 3671 KiB  
Article
A pH-Responsive Asymmetric Microfluidic/Chitosan Device for Drug Release in Infective Bone Defect Treatment
by Hongyu Chen, Wei Tan, Tianyi Tong, Xin Shi, Shiqing Ma and Guorui Zhu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4616; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054616 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
Bacterial infection is currently considered to be one of the major reasons that leads to the failure of guided bone regeneration (GBR) therapy. Under the normal condition, the pH is neutral, while the microenvironment will become acid at the sites of infection. Here, [...] Read more.
Bacterial infection is currently considered to be one of the major reasons that leads to the failure of guided bone regeneration (GBR) therapy. Under the normal condition, the pH is neutral, while the microenvironment will become acid at the sites of infection. Here, we present an asymmetric microfluidic/chitosan device that can achieve pH-responsive drug release to treat bacterial infection and promote osteoblast proliferation at the same time. On-demand release of minocycline relies on a pH-sensitive hydrogel actuator, which swells significantly when exposed to the acid pH of an infected region. The PDMAEMA hydrogel had pronounced pH-sensitive properties, and a large volume transition occurred at pH 5 and 6. Over 12 h, the device enabled minocycline solution flowrates of 0.51–1.63 µg/h and 0.44–1.13 µg/h at pH 5 and 6, respectively. The asymmetric microfluidic/chitosan device exhibited excellent capabilities for inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans growth within 24 h. It had no negative effect on proliferation and morphology of L929 fibroblasts and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, which indicates good cytocompatibility. Therefore, such a pH-responsive drug release asymmetric microfluidic/chitosan device could be a promising therapeutic approach in the treatment of infective bone defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Microfluidics Applied in Nanomedicine and Pharmaceutics)
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14 pages, 2434 KiB  
Article
Bioengineered Ciprofloxacin-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Bovine Mastitis
by Preeti Yadav, Awadh Bihari Yadav, Preksha Gaur, Vartika Mishra, Zul-I Huma, Neelesh Sharma and Young-Ok Son
Biomedicines 2022, 10(12), 3282; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10123282 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1829
Abstract
Mastitis is the most devastating economic disease in dairy cattle. Mastitis in dairy cattle frequently occurs during the dry period or during early lactation. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)are the main causative agents of mastitis [...] Read more.
Mastitis is the most devastating economic disease in dairy cattle. Mastitis in dairy cattle frequently occurs during the dry period or during early lactation. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)are the main causative agents of mastitis in India. S. aureus can form microabscesses in the udder and develop a subclinical form of mastitis. This bacterial property hinders an effective cure during the lactation period. Antimicrobials used for treatments have a short half-life at the site of action because of frequent milking; thereforethey are unable to maintain the desired drug concentration for effective clearance of bacteria. We demonstrated the potential of ciprofloxacin-encapsulated nanocarriersthat can improve the availability of drugs and provide an effective means for mastitis treatment. These drug-loaded nanoparticles show low toxicity and slow clearance from the site of action. Antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of E. coli and S. aureus showed that the zone of inhibition depended on the dose (0.5 mg to 2 mg/mL nanoparticle solution from 11.6 to 14.5 mm and 15 to 18 mm). These nanoparticles showed good antimicrobial activity in broth culture and agar diffusion assay against bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Microfluidics Applied in Nanomedicine and Pharmaceutics)
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22 pages, 7141 KiB  
Article
The Preparation of Gen-NH2-MCM-41@SA Nanoparticles and Their Anti-Rotavirus Effects
by Lijun Song, Jiabo Chen, Yuxuan Feng, Yujing Zhou, Feng Li, Guiqin Dai, Yue Yuan, Haosen Yi, Yupei Qian, Siyan Yang, Yang Chen and Wenchang Zhao
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(7), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14071337 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
Genistein (Gen), a kind of natural isoflavone drug monomer with poor water solubility and low oral absorption, was incorporated into oral nanoparticles with a new mesoporous carrier material, NH2-MCM-41, which was synthesized by copolycondensation. When the ratio of Gen to NH [...] Read more.
Genistein (Gen), a kind of natural isoflavone drug monomer with poor water solubility and low oral absorption, was incorporated into oral nanoparticles with a new mesoporous carrier material, NH2-MCM-41, which was synthesized by copolycondensation. When the ratio of Gen to NH2-MCM-41 was 1:0.5, the maximum adsorption capacity of Gen was 13.15%, the maximum drug loading was 12.65%, and the particle size of the whole core–shell structure was in the range of 370 nm–390 nm. The particles were characterized by a Malvern particle size scanning machine, XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption. Finally, Gen-NH2-MCM-41 was encapsulated by sodium alginate (SA), and the chimerism of this material, denoted as GEN-NH2-MCM-41@SA, was investigated. In vitro release experiments showed that, after 5 h in artificial colon fluid (pH = 8.0), the cumulative release reached 99.56%. In addition, its anti-rotavirus (RV) effect showed that the maximum inhibition rate was 62.24% at a concentration of 30 μM in RV-infected Caco-2 cells, and it significantly reduced the diarrhea rate and diarrhea index in an RV-infected-neonatal mice model at a dose of 0.3 mg/g, which was better than the results of Gen. Ultimately, Gen-NH2-MCM-41@SA was successfully prepared, which solves the problems of low solubility and poor absorption and provides an experimental basis for the application of Gen in the clinical treatment of RV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Microfluidics Applied in Nanomedicine and Pharmaceutics)
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11 pages, 2040 KiB  
Article
Naringenin Ultrafine Powder Was Prepared by a New Anti-Solvent Recrystallization Method
by Xiaonan Zhang, Yan Huang, Yufei Shi, Mengyu Chen, Lubin Zhang, Yimin An and Zhiwei Liu
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(12), 2108; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12122108 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1538
Abstract
Raw naringenin directly isolated from plants is significantly limited by its poor dissolution rate and low bioavailability for clinical and in vivo studies. This study reported a method for the preparation of naringenin ultrafine powder (NUP) using a novel anti-solvent recrystallization process; preliminary [...] Read more.
Raw naringenin directly isolated from plants is significantly limited by its poor dissolution rate and low bioavailability for clinical and in vivo studies. This study reported a method for the preparation of naringenin ultrafine powder (NUP) using a novel anti-solvent recrystallization process; preliminary experiments were conducted using six single-factor experiments. The response surface Box–Behnken (BBD) design was used to optimize the level of factors. The optimal preparation conditions of the DMP were obtained as follows: the feed rate was 40.82 mL/min, the solution concentration was 20.63 mg/mL, and the surfactant ratio was 0.62%. The minimum average particle size was 305.58 ± 0.37 nm in the derived optimum conditions. A scanning electron microscope was used to compare and analyze the appearance and morphology of the powder before and after preparation. The characterization results of FTIR, TG and XRD showed that no chemical change occurred in the powder before and after preparation. Through the simulated gastrointestinal juice digestion experiment, it was confirmed that the absorption rate of NUP was 2.96 times and 4.05 times higher than raw naringenin, respectively. Therefore, the results showed that the reduction in the particle size through the use of low-speed recrystallization could improve the absorption rate and provided a feasible approach for the further applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Microfluidics Applied in Nanomedicine and Pharmaceutics)
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28 pages, 60652 KiB  
Article
Intracellular Trafficking and Distribution of Cd and InP Quantum Dots in HeLa and ML-1 Thyroid Cancer Cells
by Min Zhang, Daniel S. Kim, Rishi Patel, Qihua Wu and Kyoungtae Kim
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(9), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12091517 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
The study of the interaction of engineered nanoparticles, including quantum dots (QDs), with cellular constituents and the kinetics of their localization and transport, has provided new insights into their biological consequences in cancers and for the development of effective cancer therapies. The present [...] Read more.
The study of the interaction of engineered nanoparticles, including quantum dots (QDs), with cellular constituents and the kinetics of their localization and transport, has provided new insights into their biological consequences in cancers and for the development of effective cancer therapies. The present study aims to elucidate the toxicity and intracellular transport kinetics of CdSe/ZnS and InP/ZnS QDs in late-stage ML-1 thyroid cancer using well-tested HeLa as a control. Our XTT (2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) viability assay (Cell Proliferation Kit II) showed that ML-1 cells and non-cancerous mouse fibroblast cells exhibit no viability defect in response to these QDs, whereas HeLa cell viability decreases. These results suggest that HeLa cells are more sensitive to the QDs compared to ML-1 cells. To test the possibility that transporting rates of QDs are different between HeLa and ML-1 cells, we performed a QD subcellular localization assay by determining Pearson’s Coefficient values and found that HeLa cells showed faster QDs transporting towards the lysosome. Consistently, the ICP-OES test showed the uptake of CdSe/ZnS QDs in HeLa cells was significantly higher than in ML-1 cells. Together, we conclude that high levels of toxicity in HeLa are positively correlated with the traffic rate of QDs in the treated cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Microfluidics Applied in Nanomedicine and Pharmaceutics)
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15 pages, 2643 KiB  
Article
Controllable Fabrication of Molecularly Imprinted Microspheres with Nanoporous and Multilayered Structure for Dialysate Regeneration
by Hongchi Wu, Shanguo Zhang, Lu Liu, Yukun Ren, Chun Xue, Wenlong Wu, Xiaoming Chen and Hongyuan Jiang
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030418 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2304
Abstract
Adsorption of urea from dialysate is essential for wearable artificial kidneys (WRK). Molecularly imprinted microspheres with nanoporous and multilayered structures are prepared based on liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS), which can selectively adsorb urea. In addition, we combine the microspheres with a designed polydimethylsiloxane [...] Read more.
Adsorption of urea from dialysate is essential for wearable artificial kidneys (WRK). Molecularly imprinted microspheres with nanoporous and multilayered structures are prepared based on liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS), which can selectively adsorb urea. In addition, we combine the microspheres with a designed polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip to propose an efficient urea adsorption platform. In this work, we propose a formulation of LLPS including Tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), ethanol, and acrylic acid (30% v/v), to prepare urea molecularly imprinted microspheres in a simple and highly controllable method. These microspheres have urea molecular imprinting sites on the surface and inside, allowing selective adsorption of urea and preservation of other essential constituents. Previous static studies on urea adsorption have not considered the combination between urea adsorbent and WRK. Therefore, we design the platform embedded with urea molecular imprinted microspheres, which can disturb the fluid motion and improve the efficiency of urea adsorption. These advantages enable the urea absorption platform to be highly promising for dialysate regeneration in WRK. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Microfluidics Applied in Nanomedicine and Pharmaceutics)
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18 pages, 7329 KiB  
Article
Design of H-Shape Chamber in Thermal Bubble Printer
by Xishun Peng, Anjiang Lu, Qiliang Sun, Naitao Xu, Yibo Xie, Jiawen Wu and Jin Cheng
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020194 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2162
Abstract
The utilization rate of ink liquid in the chamber is critical for the thermal bubble inkjet head. The difficult problem faced by the thermal bubble inkjet printing is how to maximize the use of ink in the chamber and increase the printing frequency. [...] Read more.
The utilization rate of ink liquid in the chamber is critical for the thermal bubble inkjet head. The difficult problem faced by the thermal bubble inkjet printing is how to maximize the use of ink in the chamber and increase the printing frequency. In this paper, by adding a flow restrictor and two narrow channels into the chamber, the H-shape flow-limiting structure is formed. At 1.8 μs, the speed of bubble expansion reaches the maximum, and after passing through the narrow channel, the maximum reverse flow rate of ink decreased by 25%. When the vapor bubble disappeared, the ink fills the nozzle slowly. At 20 μs, after passing through the narrow channel, the maximum flow rate of the ink increases by 39%. The inkjet printing frequency is 40 kHz, and the volume of the ink droplet is about 13.1 pL. The structure improves the frequency of thermal bubble inkjet printing and can maximize the use of liquid in the chamber, providing a reference for cell printing, 3D printing, bioprinting, and other fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Microfluidics Applied in Nanomedicine and Pharmaceutics)
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9 pages, 2878 KiB  
Article
Low Cost, Easily-Assembled Centrifugal Buoyancy-Based Emulsification and Digital PCR
by Wuping Zhou, Cong Liu, Tao Zhang, Keming Jiang, Haiwen Li, Zhiqiang Zhang and Yuguo Tang
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020171 - 24 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2899
Abstract
Microfluidic-based droplet generation approaches require the design of microfluidic chips and a precise lithography process, which require skilled technicians and a long manufacturing time. Here we developed a centrifugal buoyancy-based emulsification (CBbE) method for producing droplets with high efficiency and minimal fabrication time. [...] Read more.
Microfluidic-based droplet generation approaches require the design of microfluidic chips and a precise lithography process, which require skilled technicians and a long manufacturing time. Here we developed a centrifugal buoyancy-based emulsification (CBbE) method for producing droplets with high efficiency and minimal fabrication time. Our approach is to fabricate a droplet generation module that can be easily assembled using syringe needles and PCR tubes. With this module and a common centrifuge, high-throughput droplet generation with controllable droplet size could be realized in a few minutes. Experiments showed that the droplet diameter depended mainly on centrifugal speed, and droplets with controllable diameter from 206 to 158 μm could be generated under a centrifugal acceleration range from 14 to 171.9 g. Excellent droplet uniformity was achieved (CV < 3%) when centrifugal acceleration was greater than 108 g. We performed digital PCR tests through the CBbE approach and demonstrated that this cost-effective method not only eliminates the usage of complex microfluidic devices and control systems but also greatly suppresses the loss of materials and cross-contamination. CBbE-enabled droplet generation combines both easiness and robustness, and breaks the technical challenges by using conventional lab equipment and supplies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Microfluidics Applied in Nanomedicine and Pharmaceutics)
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17 pages, 3599 KiB  
Article
The Streaming Potential of Fluid through a Microchannel with Modulated Charged Surfaces
by Xinyue Bian, Fengqin Li and Yongjun Jian
Micromachines 2022, 13(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13010066 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1582
Abstract
In this paper, the effects of asymmetrically modulated charged surfaces on streaming potential, velocity field and flow rate are investigated under the axial pressure gradient and vertical magnetic field. In a parallel-plate microchannel, modulated charged potentials on the walls are depicted by the [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effects of asymmetrically modulated charged surfaces on streaming potential, velocity field and flow rate are investigated under the axial pressure gradient and vertical magnetic field. In a parallel-plate microchannel, modulated charged potentials on the walls are depicted by the cosine function. The flow of incompressible Newtonian fluid is two-dimensional due to the modulated charged surfaces. Considering the Debye–Hückel approximation, the Poisson–Boltzmann (PB) equation and the modified Navier-Stokes (N-S) equation are established. The analytical solutions of the potential and velocities (u and v) are obtained by means of the superposition principle and stream function. The unknown streaming potential is determined by the condition that the net ionic current is zero. Finally, the influences of pertinent dimensionless parameters (modulated potential parameters, Hartmann number and slip length) on the flow field, streaming potential, velocity field and flow rate are discussed graphically. During the flow process and under the impact of the charge-modulated potentials, the velocity profiles present an oscillating characteristic, and vortexes are generated. The results show that the charge-modulated potentials are beneficial for the enhancement of the streaming potential, velocity and flow rate, which also facilitate the mixing of fluids. Meanwhile, the flow rate can be controlled through the use of a low-amplitude magnetic field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Microfluidics Applied in Nanomedicine and Pharmaceutics)
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