Topic Editors

1. Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden
2. Department of Biosciences, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
3. Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala, Sweden
Dr. Fred Unger
International Livestock Research Institute, Room 301-302, B1 Building, Van Phuc Diplomatic Compound, 298 Kim Ma Street, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
Dr. Jiaxin Ling
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala, Sweden

Zoonoses in Tropical Countries

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 September 2021)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (28 February 2022)
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Topic Information

Dear colleagues,

Zoonotic diseases are causing a high burden on human as well as animal health, and also affect animal welfare and production negatively. Additional impacts may arise from trade restrictions. Zoonotic diseases are more likely to be emerging, which is evident by past and present pandemics. In addition to the high-profile emerging diseases, neglected zoonotic diseases are silently causing a toll on the human and animal population, particularly in tropical low and middle-income countries. Foodborne diseases have gained increasing attention as it is evident that the burden is much higher than previously believed, and animal-source foods are an important contributor to spread of zoonotic foodborne pathogens. In addition, antibiotic resistant bacteria can be spread from animals to humans, directly or via food or environment, and could contribute to the high, and increasing, burden of disease caused by antimicrobial resistant bacteria.

In this Special Issue, we welcome submissions on different aspects of zoonotic diseases, with particular focus on the epidemiology in low and middle-income countries, where the burden is the highest. We also welcome submissions focusing on interventions or biosecurity measures that can reduce spread and emergence of zoonotic diseases.

Dr. Johanna Lindahl
Dr. Fred Unger
Dr. Jiaxin Ling
Topic Editors

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
tropicalmed
2.9 4.1 2016 19.4 Days CHF 2700
Microorganisms
microorganisms
4.5 6.4 2013 15.1 Days CHF 2700
Pathogens
pathogens
3.7 5.1 2012 16.4 Days CHF 2700

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Published Papers (21 papers)

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16 pages, 692 KiB  
Article
Zoonotic Flavivirus Exposure in Peri-Urban and Suburban Pig-Keeping in Hanoi, Vietnam, and the Knowledge and Preventive Practices of Pig Farmers
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(5), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7050079 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs), including those caused by flaviviruses, remain human health problems for developing and urbanizing economies. This cross-sectional study examined risks of flavivirus exposure through a survey regarding knowledge and practices of pig farmers, and serological analysis of pigs in peri-urban and [...] Read more.
Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs), including those caused by flaviviruses, remain human health problems for developing and urbanizing economies. This cross-sectional study examined risks of flavivirus exposure through a survey regarding knowledge and practices of pig farmers, and serological analysis of pigs in peri-urban and suburban Hanoi city. A total of 636 pig sera from 179 pig farms in 4 districts, namely, Chuong My, Dan Phuong, Ha Dong, and Bac Tu Liem, were analyzed by a competitive ELISA designed for flavivirus antibody detection. The results indicated a low level of awareness about MBDs among pig farmers, and a high seroprevalence in pigs at 88.5% (95%CI = 85.8–90.9%). Moreover, common practices of pig owners to prevent mosquitoes at home and farm did not show a significant reduction in flavivirus exposure in pigs. At animal level, significant associations between seropositive pigs and the farms with more than 60 pigs, and the district location were found. Farm-level multivariable analysis did not identify significant risk factors for flavivirus exposure. The study suggests that improving awareness of pig owners about MBDs in Hanoi city may be warranted to reduce the risk for MBD flavivirus infections in both humans and pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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13 pages, 909 KiB  
Article
Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Trichinellosis and T. Solium Cysticercosis in Indigenous Pigs in Hoa Binh Province, Vietnam
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7040057 - 07 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3068
Abstract
Trichinellosis and cysticercosis remain challenges to human health and animal productivity worldwide, especially in developing countries. While information on the occurrence of both diseases is infrequent, they are endemic in parts of Vietnam and mainly related to indigenous pigs kept by ethnic minorities. [...] Read more.
Trichinellosis and cysticercosis remain challenges to human health and animal productivity worldwide, especially in developing countries. While information on the occurrence of both diseases is infrequent, they are endemic in parts of Vietnam and mainly related to indigenous pigs kept by ethnic minorities. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of both diseases in indigenous pigs and explore the perception and awareness of both human and pig trichinellosis and cysticercosis of pig farmers. A total of 352 pig sera samples from 131 holdings were collected and analyzed using ELISA antibody tests in six communes in the Da Bac districts of Hoa Binh province, Vietnam. A survey was conducted with representatives from these households to understand the knowledge and perspective on food-borne parasitic diseases. Overall, the seroprevalence of trichinellosis and T. solium cysticercosis was 13.6% (95% CI 10.2–17.7) and 1.7% (95% CI 0.6–3.7), respectively. The seroprevalence of trichinellosis was significantly higher in female and older pigs. Risk perception and knowledge of interviewed people on both human and pig trichinellosis and cysticercosis of pig farmers was poor. Risky practices, including free roaming of pigs and eating undercooked or fermented pork, were observed. Educational and awareness campaigns aligned with further research on feasible practice changes are critical to addressing these issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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14 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
Knowledge, Attitudes, Risk Perception, Preparedness and Vaccine Intent of Health Care Providers towards the Nipah Virus in South India
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7040056 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2597
Abstract
Nipah virus (NiV) disease (NVD) remains a re-emerging public health threat in India. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and risk perception of NVD and future vaccine intent among a convenience sample of health care providers (HCP). The primary outcome measures were the knowledge, [...] Read more.
Nipah virus (NiV) disease (NVD) remains a re-emerging public health threat in India. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and risk perception of NVD and future vaccine intent among a convenience sample of health care providers (HCP). The primary outcome measures were the knowledge, attitudes, and risk perception scores. Of 261 participants surveyed, 203 (77.8%) had heard of NiV and associated symptoms. The majority (248, 95%) identified the fruit bat as a primary NiV reservoir and 205 (79.8%) were aware of human-to-human transmission via droplets. Only 101 (38.7%) participants were aware that drinking date palm sap is a risk factor for transmission. Most HCP either agreed (117 (44.8%)) or strongly agreed (131 (50.2%)) that NiV is a serious illness. Less than half (121 (46.4%)) were aware of any institutional protocol for NiV; 235 (90.7%) of HCP stated that they need more information about prevention and treatment options. Knowledge scores were significantly higher among physicians compared to nurses whereas nurses and academic providers were more likely to have higher attitudes scores. A majority of respondents (20,779.9%) were willing to be vaccinated and willing to recommend the NiV vaccine to their patients (21,682.8%). Future strategies include education of HCP to bridge the knowledge gaps and enhance preparedness through disease-specific training for NiV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
8 pages, 928 KiB  
Article
Paramyxovirus Diversity within One Population of Miniopterus fuliginosus Bats in Sri Lanka
Pathogens 2022, 11(4), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11040434 - 02 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1853
Abstract
Bats are known as typical reservoirs for a number of viruses, including viruses of the family Paramyxoviridae. Representatives of the subfamily Orthoparamyxovirinae are distributed worldwide and can cause mild to fatal diseases when infecting humans. The research on Paramyxoviruses (PMVs) from different bat [...] Read more.
Bats are known as typical reservoirs for a number of viruses, including viruses of the family Paramyxoviridae. Representatives of the subfamily Orthoparamyxovirinae are distributed worldwide and can cause mild to fatal diseases when infecting humans. The research on Paramyxoviruses (PMVs) from different bat hosts all over the world aims to understand the diversity, evolution and distribution of these viruses and to assess their zoonotic potential. A high number of yet unclassified PMVs from bats are recorded. In our study, we investigated bat species from the families Rhinolophidae, Hipposiderae, Pteropodidae and Miniopteridae that are roosting sympatrically in the Wavul Galge cave (Koslanda, Sri Lanka). The sampling at three time points (March and July 2018; January 2019) and screening for PMVs with a generic PCR show the presence of different novel PMVs in 10 urine samples collected from Miniopterus fuliginosus. Sequence analysis revealed a high similarity of the novel strains among each other and to other unclassified PMVs collected from Miniopterus bats. In this study, we present the first detection of PMVs in Sri Lanka and the presence of PMVs in the bat species M. fuliginosus for the first time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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12 pages, 3828 KiB  
Article
Toxoplasma gondii Infection Is Associated with Low Birth Weight: Findings from an Observational Study among Rural Bangladeshi Women
Pathogens 2022, 11(3), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11030336 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2043
Abstract
Gestational Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection may cause substantial adverse effects on developing fetuses, newborns and also mothers. This study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii among rural Bangladeshi pregnant women and determine the risk of a low birth [...] Read more.
Gestational Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection may cause substantial adverse effects on developing fetuses, newborns and also mothers. This study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii among rural Bangladeshi pregnant women and determine the risk of a low birth weight (LBW). We followed a longitudinal design where 208 pregnant women were followed until the birth of their infants. Levels of IgG and IgM of T. gondii were assessed using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted associations and multiple regression analysis was performed to understand the confounding and modifying effects of the variables. Thirty-nine (19%) children were born with LBW, among whom 15 (39%) mothers were positive for T. gondii IgG during pregnancy. After adjusting for several confounders and modifiers, pregnant women with T. gondii IgG or IgM seropositivity were significantly associated with LBW of infants (aRR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.17–3.42). The strength of this association increased after adjusting for maternal education (aRR: 4.88, 95% CI: 1.74–13.69). The final model had an AROC of 0.84 with a sensitivity of 36% and specificity of 97%. Although causality is yet to be established, the study observed an association between T. gondii infection during pregnancy among rural Bangladeshi women and LBW of newborns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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17 pages, 4661 KiB  
Article
Kinetics of Placental Infection by Different Smooth Brucella Strains in Mice
Pathogens 2022, 11(3), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11030279 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1824
Abstract
Abortion and reproductive failures induced by Brucella are the main symptoms of animal brucellosis. Laboratory animal models are essential tools of research to study the Brucella pathogenesis before experimentation in natural hosts. To extend the existing knowledge, we studied B. melitensis 16M (virulent) [...] Read more.
Abortion and reproductive failures induced by Brucella are the main symptoms of animal brucellosis. Laboratory animal models are essential tools of research to study the Brucella pathogenesis before experimentation in natural hosts. To extend the existing knowledge, we studied B. melitensis 16M (virulent) and Rev1 (attenuated) as well as B. suis bv2 infections in pregnant mice. Here, we report new information about kinetics of infection (in spleens, blood, placentas, vaginal shedding, and foetuses), serum cytokine profiles, and histopathological features in placentas and the litter throughout mice pregnancy. Both B. melitensis strains showed a marked placental tropism and reduced viability of pups (mainly in 16M infections), which was preceded by an intense Th1-immune response during placental development. In contrast, B. suis bv2 displayed lower placental tropism, mild proinflammatory immune response, and scarce bacterial transmission to the litter, thus allowing foetal viability. Overall, our studies revealed three different smooth Brucella patterns of placental and foetal pathogenesis in mice, providing a useful animal model for experimental brucellosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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9 pages, 659 KiB  
Article
Molecular Survey and Identification of Campylobacter spp. in Layer Farms in Central Ethiopia
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7020031 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2333
Abstract
Few data are available on Campylobacter spp. presence in chickens in Ethiopia. Due to its importance for both the poultry sector and public health, a sampling activity was planned to evaluate Campylobacter spp. presence in layer farms in Bishoftu and Mojo, Central Ethiopia. [...] Read more.
Few data are available on Campylobacter spp. presence in chickens in Ethiopia. Due to its importance for both the poultry sector and public health, a sampling activity was planned to evaluate Campylobacter spp. presence in layer farms in Bishoftu and Mojo, Central Ethiopia. Twenty cloacal pooled samples were collected and tested with molecular assays for detection and Sanger-sequenced for species identification. As a secondary aim, samples were also tested for Salmonella spp. by PCR, and all samples were negative. On the other hand, 70% of cloacal swab pools were positive for Campylobacter spp.: 71.4% of the positive samples belonged to C. jejuni species, 21.4% to C. avium and 7.1% to C. helveticus. Campylobacter spp. was identified in almost all farms regardless of farm and flock size, age and hybrid types of the birds and antimicrobial treatment. Campylobacter jejuni is a common finding in chickens, whereas species such as C. avium and C. helveticus were newly reported in Ethiopia, revealing a variability that needs to be monitored in light of the public health significance of this pathogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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12 pages, 1900 KiB  
Article
First Report of Anuran Trypanosoma DNA in Flat-Tailed House Geckos (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) Collected from Southern Thailand: No Evidence as a Reservoir for Human Trypanosomatids
Pathogens 2022, 11(2), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11020247 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2248
Abstract
Over the years, cases of autochthonous leishmaniasis have been dramatically increasing in Thailand. Recently, several publications have claimed certain species of the phlebotomine sand flies and biting midges potentially serve as natural vectors of Leishmania and Trypanosoma species in this country. However, more [...] Read more.
Over the years, cases of autochthonous leishmaniasis have been dramatically increasing in Thailand. Recently, several publications have claimed certain species of the phlebotomine sand flies and biting midges potentially serve as natural vectors of Leishmania and Trypanosoma species in this country. However, more information regarding the vector–parasite relationships, as well as their natural reservoirs in the country, still needs to be explored. Herein, we hypothesized that synanthropic reptiles in the leishmaniasis-affected area might be a natural reservoir for these parasites. In this present study, a total of nineteen flat-tailed house geckos were collected from the house of a leishmaniasis patient in Songkhla province, southern Thailand, and then dissected for their visceral organs for parasite detection. Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1)-specific amplifications were conducted to verify the presence of Trypanosoma and Leishmania parasites, respectively. Only Trypanosoma DNA was screened positive in eight gecko individuals by SSU rRNA-PCR in at least one visceral organ (4, 4, and 6 of the heart, liver, and spleen, respectively) and phylogenetically related to the anuran Trypanosoma spp. (An04/Frog1 clade) previously detected in three Asian sand fly species (Phlebotomus kazeruni, Sergentomyia indica, and Se. khawi). Hence, our data indicate the first detection of anuran Trypanosoma sp. in the flat-tailed house geckos from southern Thailand. Essentially, it can be inferred that there is no evidence for the flat-tailed house gecko (Hemidactylus platyurus) as a natural reservoir of human pathogenic trypanosomatids in the leishmaniasis-affected area of southern Thailand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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21 pages, 4504 KiB  
Systematic Review
Toxoplasma gondii Infections in Animals and Humans in Southern Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Pathogens 2022, 11(2), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11020183 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3395
Abstract
Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite with zoonotic importance worldwide especially in pregnant women and immunocompromised people. This study is set to review the literature on T. gondii infections in humans and animals in southern Africa. Methods: We extracted data regarding T. [...] Read more.
Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite with zoonotic importance worldwide especially in pregnant women and immunocompromised people. This study is set to review the literature on T. gondii infections in humans and animals in southern Africa. Methods: We extracted data regarding T. gondii infections from published articles from southern Africa from 1955 to 2020 from four databases, namely Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO Host, and Science Direct. Forty articles from eight southern African countries were found eligible for the study. Results: This review revealed a paucity of information on T. gondii infection in southern African countries, with an overall prevalence of 17% (95% CI: 7–29%). Domestic felids had a prevalence of 29% (95% CI: 7–54%), wild felids 79% (95% CI: 60–94), canids (domestic and wild) 69% (95% CI: 38–96%), cattle 20% (95% CI: 5–39%), pigs 13% (95% CI: 1–29%), small ruminants (goats and sheep) 11% (95% CI: 0–31%), chicken and birds 22% (95% CI: 0–84%), and humans 14% (95% CI: 5–25%). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) constituted the most frequently used diagnostic tests for T. gondii. Conclusions: We recommend more focused studies be conducted on the epidemiology of T. gondii in the environment, food animals and human population, most especially the at-risk populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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15 pages, 869 KiB  
Article
A Scoring Tool to Predict Pulmonary Complications in Severe Leptospirosis with Kidney Failure
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7010007 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2509
Abstract
Rapid identification of patients likely to develop pulmonary complications in severe leptospirosis is crucial to prompt aggressive management and improve survival. The following article is a cohort study of leptospirosis patients admitted at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute (NKTI). Logistic regression was [...] Read more.
Rapid identification of patients likely to develop pulmonary complications in severe leptospirosis is crucial to prompt aggressive management and improve survival. The following article is a cohort study of leptospirosis patients admitted at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute (NKTI). Logistic regression was used to predict pulmonary complications and obtain a scoring tool. The Kaplan–Meir method was used to describe survival rates. Among 380 patients with severe leptospirosis and kidney failure, the overall mortality was 14%, with pulmonary hemorrhage as the most common cause. In total, there were 85 (22.4%) individuals who developed pulmonary complications, the majority (95.3%) were observed within three days of admission. Among the patients with pulmonary complications, 56.5% died. Patients placed on mechanical ventilation had an 82.1% mortality rate. Multivariate analyses showed that dyspnea (OR = 28.76, p < 0.0001), hemoptysis (OR = 20.73, p < 0.0001), diabetes (OR = 10.21, p < 0.0001), renal replacement therapy (RRT) requirement (OR = 6.25, p < 0.0001), thrombocytopenia (OR = 3.54, p < 0.0029), and oliguria/anuria (OR = 3.15, p < 0.0108) were significantly associated with pulmonary complications. A scoring index was developed termed THe-RADS score (Thrombocytopenia, Hemoptysis, RRT, Anuria, Diabetes, Shortness of breath). The odds of developing pulmonary complications were 13.90 times higher among patients with a score >2 (63% sensitivity, 88% specificity). Pulmonary complications in severe leptospirosis with kidney failure have high mortality and warrant timely and aggressive management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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11 pages, 1504 KiB  
Article
Rabies Vaccination in Dogs in Laos: Owner Knowledge and Serological Status of Dogs
Pathogens 2022, 11(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11010069 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1894
Abstract
Rabies is an infectious disease which is virtually 100% fatal. Humans are most often infected through the bite of an infected dog, and most cases could be prevented by vaccinating dogs. However, vaccination coverage is insufficient in most countries where canine rabies occurs [...] Read more.
Rabies is an infectious disease which is virtually 100% fatal. Humans are most often infected through the bite of an infected dog, and most cases could be prevented by vaccinating dogs. However, vaccination coverage is insufficient in most countries where canine rabies occurs endemically. This study conducted interviews and sampling of dogs in Laos to understand more about the barriers for vaccination and to evaluate the antibody status of dogs using a commercial ELISA. The study found that only 62% out of 359 dog owners knew what rabies was, and only 24% knew the disease could be fatal. Higher education was associated with higher knowledge scores. Only 56 out of 437 (13%) dogs had been rabies vaccinated according to their owner, and out of these dogs, only 34 (61%) had antibodies, and only 48% had adequate levels (above 0.5 IU/mL). However, 24% of the dogs with no known history of vaccination had antibodies, indicating either exposure or vaccination in the past without the owner’s awareness. In conclusion, this study indicates that there is a low level of knowledge about rabies, and that owner knowledge is not a good indicator of whether a dog is vaccinated or not. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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6 pages, 563 KiB  
Commentary
One Health Approach: A Data-Driven Priority for Mitigating Outbreaks of Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7010004 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2726
Abstract
This paper discusses the contributions that One Health principles can make in improving global response to zoonotic infectious disease. We highlight some key benefits of taking a One Health approach to a range of complex infectious disease problems that have defied a more [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the contributions that One Health principles can make in improving global response to zoonotic infectious disease. We highlight some key benefits of taking a One Health approach to a range of complex infectious disease problems that have defied a more traditional sectoral approach, as well as public health policy and practice, where gaps in surveillance systems need to be addressed. The historical examples demonstrate the scope of One Health, partly from an Australian perspective, but also with an international flavour, and illustrate innovative approaches and outcomes with the types of collaborative partnerships that are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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14 pages, 9029 KiB  
Article
Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Cattle of Smallholder Farmers in Central Malawi
Pathogens 2021, 10(12), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10121613 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2580
Abstract
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is endemic in Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe where it circulates among animals and ticks causing sporadic outbreaks in humans. Although CCHF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological information is lacking in many countries, including Malawi. To assess [...] Read more.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is endemic in Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe where it circulates among animals and ticks causing sporadic outbreaks in humans. Although CCHF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological information is lacking in many countries, including Malawi. To assess the risk of CCHF in Malawi, we conducted an epidemiological study in cattle reared by smallholder livestock farmers in central Malawi. A cross-sectional study was conducted in April 2020 involving seven districts, four from Kasungu and three from Lilongwe Agriculture Development Divisions. A structured questionnaire was administered to farmers to obtain demographic, animal management, and ecological risk factors data. Sera were collected from randomly selected cattle and screened for CCHF virus (CCHFV) specific antibodies using a commercial ELISA kit. Ticks were collected from cattle and classified morphologically to species level. An overall CCHFV seropositivity rate of 46.9% (n = 416; 95% CI: 42.0–51.8%) was observed. The seropositivity was significantly associated with the age of cattle (p < 0.001), sex (p < 0.001), presence of ticks in herds (p = 0.01), district (p = 0.025), and type of grazing lands (p = 0.013). Five species of ticks were identified, including Hyalomma truncatum, a known vector of CCHFV. Ticks of the species Hyalomma truncatum were not detected in two districts with the highest seroprevalence for CCHF and vector competency must be further explored in the study area. To our knowledge, this is the first report of serologic evidence of the presence of CCHV among smallholder cattle in central Malawi. This study emphasizes the need for continued monitoring of CCHFV infection among livestock, ticks, and humans for the development of data-based risk mitigation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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16 pages, 5335 KiB  
Article
Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Sylvatic Rabies among High-Risk Households in Ceará State, Brazil
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(4), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed6040209 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2903
Abstract
Rabies transmitted by sylvatic populations has become an increasing concern in Brazil. A total of 113 participants with a history of contact with sylvatic populations were interviewed in 27 municipalities of Ceará State in northeast Brazil. Questionnaires included questions on knowledge, attitudes and [...] Read more.
Rabies transmitted by sylvatic populations has become an increasing concern in Brazil. A total of 113 participants with a history of contact with sylvatic populations were interviewed in 27 municipalities of Ceará State in northeast Brazil. Questionnaires included questions on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding sylvatic rabies. Most of the respondents (92%) knew about rabies and confirmed at least one species that transmitted the disease (79.6%). Of these respondents, 69% mentioned monkeys, and 67.2% mentioned dogs. However, 16% of the respondents listed an incorrect species. In general, knowledge on the symptoms and signs and on prevention measures was weak. The majority raised pets (93.8%), most commonly dogs and cats, and, of all the pets, 85.7% were claimed to be vaccinated against rabies. A total of 67.3% reported the appearance of free-living wild animals around their houses, mostly marmosets and wild canids; 18.3% reported that sylvatic populations had attacked animals or humans. Seventy-three percent had raised or still were raising wild animals as pets, mostly capuchin monkeys (79.5%) and marmosets (24.1%). This is the first KAP study on sylvatic rabies in Brazil. The data indicate important knowledge gaps and risk behavior within a high-risk population. There is a need for strengthening and improving sylvatic rabies surveillance and control, combined with the intensification of education and information campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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9 pages, 698 KiB  
Communication
Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Rickettsia spp. from Wild Small Mammals in Public Parks and Urban Areas of Bangkok Metropolitan, Thailand
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(4), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed6040199 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3890
Abstract
Rural areas usually show a higher prevalence of rickettsial infection than urban areas. However, information on the rickettsial infection status in urban settings (e.g., built-up areas and city parks) is still limited, particularly in the Bangkok metropolitan area. In this study, we performed [...] Read more.
Rural areas usually show a higher prevalence of rickettsial infection than urban areas. However, information on the rickettsial infection status in urban settings (e.g., built-up areas and city parks) is still limited, particularly in the Bangkok metropolitan area. In this study, we performed a molecular rickettsial survey of spleen samples of small mammals caught in public parks and built-up areas of Bangkok. Out of 198 samples, the Rattus rattus complex was found to be most prevalent. The amplification of rickettsial gltA fragment gene (338 bp) by nested PCR assay revealed positive results in four samples, yielding a low prevalence of infection of 2.02%. DNA sequencing results confirmed that three samples were matched with Rickettsia typhi, and one was identified as R. felis. It is noteworthy that this is the first report of the occurrence of R. felis DNA in rodents in Southeast Asia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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18 pages, 945 KiB  
Article
Entomological Risk Assessment for Dengue Virus Transmission during 2016–2020 in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand
Pathogens 2021, 10(10), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101234 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Individual houses with high risks of dengue virus (DENV) transmission might be a source of virus transmission within the neighborhood. We conducted an entomological risk assessment for DENV transmission at the household level, comprising family cohort members residing in the same location, to [...] Read more.
Individual houses with high risks of dengue virus (DENV) transmission might be a source of virus transmission within the neighborhood. We conducted an entomological risk assessment for DENV transmission at the household level, comprising family cohort members residing in the same location, to assess the risk for dengue virus transmitted by mosquito vectors. The studies were conducted in Kamphaeng Phet Province, Thailand, during 2016–2020. Entomological investigations were performed in 35 cohort families on day 1 and day 14 after receiving dengue case reports. DENV was found in 22 Aedes samples (4.9%) out of 451 tested samples. A significantly higher DENV infection rate was detected in vectors collected on day 1 (6.64%) compared to those collected on day 14 (1.82%). Annual vector surveillance was carried out in 732 houses, with 1002 traps catching 3653 Aedes females. The majority of the 13,228 water containers examined were made from plastic and clay, with used tires serving as a primary container, with 59.55% larval abundance. Larval indices, as indicators of dengue epidemics and to evaluate disease and vector control approaches, were calculated. As a result, high values of larval indices indicated the considerably high risk of dengue transmission in these communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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18 pages, 1869 KiB  
Article
Tracking the Distribution of Brucella abortus in Egypt Based on Core Genome SNP Analysis and In Silico MLVA-16
Microorganisms 2021, 9(9), 1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9091942 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2674
Abstract
Brucellosis, caused by the bacteria of the genus Brucella, is one of the most neglected common zoonotic diseases globally with a public health significance and a high economic loss among the livestock industry worldwide. Since little is known about the distribution of [...] Read more.
Brucellosis, caused by the bacteria of the genus Brucella, is one of the most neglected common zoonotic diseases globally with a public health significance and a high economic loss among the livestock industry worldwide. Since little is known about the distribution of B. abortus in Egypt, a total of 46 B. abortus isolates recovered between 2012–2020, plus one animal isolate from 2006, were analyzed by examining the whole core genome single nucleotide polymorphism (cgSNP) in comparison to the in silico multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Both cgSNP analysis and MLVA revealed three clusters and one isolate only was distantly related to the others. One cluster identified a rather widely distributed outbreak strain which is repeatedly occurring for at least 16 years with marginal deviations in cgSNP analysis. The other cluster of isolates represents a rather newly introduced outbreak strain. A separate cluster comprised RB51 vaccine related strains, isolated from aborted material. The comparison with MLVA data sets from public databases reveals one near relative from Argentina to the oldest outbreak strain and a related strain from Spain to a newly introduced outbreak strain in Egypt. The distantly related isolate matches with a strain from Portugal in the MLVA profile. Based on cgSNP analysis the oldest outbreak strain clusters with strains from the UK. Compared to the in silico analysis of MLVA, cgSNP analysis using WGS data provides a much higher resolution of genotypes and, when correlated to the associated epidemiological metadata, cgSNP analysis allows the differentiation of outbreaks by defining different outbreak strains. In this respect, MLVA data are error-prone and can lead to incorrect interpretations of outbreak events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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14 pages, 2090 KiB  
Article
High Diversity of Leptospira Species Infecting Bats Captured in the Urabá Region (Antioquia-Colombia)
Microorganisms 2021, 9(9), 1897; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9091897 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2552
Abstract
Leptospirosis is a globally distributed zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic bacteria of the genus Leptospira. This zoonotic disease affects humans, domestic animals and wild animals. Colombia is considered an endemic country for leptospirosis; Antioquia is the second department in Colombia, with the [...] Read more.
Leptospirosis is a globally distributed zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic bacteria of the genus Leptospira. This zoonotic disease affects humans, domestic animals and wild animals. Colombia is considered an endemic country for leptospirosis; Antioquia is the second department in Colombia, with the highest number of reported leptospirosis cases. Currently, many studies report bats as reservoirs of Leptospira spp. but the prevalence in these mammals is unknown. The goal of this study was to better understand the role of bats as reservoir hosts of Leptospira species and to evaluate the genetic diversity of circulating Leptospira species in Antioquia-Colombia. We captured 206 bats in the municipalities of Chigorodó (43 bats), Carepa (43 bats), Apartadó (39 bats), Turbo (40 bats), and Necoclí (41 bats) in the Urabá region (Antioquia-Colombia). Twenty bats tested positive for Leptospira spp. infection (20/206—9.70%) and the species of infected bats were Carollia perspicillata, Dermanura rava, Glossophaga soricina, Molossus molossus, Artibeus planirostris, and Uroderma convexum. These species have different feeding strategies such as frugivorous, insectivores, and nectarivores. The infecting Leptospira species identified were Leptospira borgpetersenii (3/20–15%), Leptospira alexanderi (2/20–10%), Leptospira noguchii (6/20–30%), Leptospira interrogans (3/20–15%), and Leptospira kirschneri (6/20–30%). Our results showed the importance of bats in the epidemiology, ecology, and evolution of Leptospira in this host-pathogen association. This is the first step in deciphering the role played by bats in the epidemiology of human leptospirosis in the endemic region of Urabá (Antioquia-Colombia). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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12 pages, 706 KiB  
Article
Participatory and Transdisciplinary Studies of Brucella Infection in Humans and Animals in Yunnan Province, China—Lessons Learned
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed6030134 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 4211
Abstract
Brucellosis is an important zoonosis occurring globally. In addition to the risk for disease in humans, the disease causes production losses, since the disease in livestock is characterized by abortion and other reproductive failures. The disease is a public health concern in China, [...] Read more.
Brucellosis is an important zoonosis occurring globally. In addition to the risk for disease in humans, the disease causes production losses, since the disease in livestock is characterized by abortion and other reproductive failures. The disease is a public health concern in China, but no information is available on knowledge, perception and awareness of potential risk groups such as farmers, butchers and animal health workers; yet successful control requires compliance of those affected groups to be effective. Following the principles of the Ecohealth approach, emphasis was given to participation of all relevant stakeholders, use of qualitative and quantitative tools, and cross-sectorial collaboration. Data collection included on-farm questionnaires (N = 192) and collection of bulk milk samples of goat (N = 40), cattle (N = 45) and buffalo (N = 41) from farms, as well as serum samples (N = 228) from humans. Milk samples were tested with an ELISA for presence of antibodies, while a serum agglutination test was used for human samples. Qualitative work included 17 focus group discussion (FGD) with villagers and 47 in-depth interviews (IDI) with village animal health workers, doctors, and butchers, focused on knowledge, perception and awareness on zoonoses including brucellosis. Results from questionnaires indicate that abortions are a common problem; cattle with abortion history are kept for further insemination and the milk still consumed or sold. Antibodies against Brucella were detected in cows’ (5/45) and goats’ (1/40) milk samples, and in human samples (5/126) in Yiliang, while in Mangshi, all buffalo (N = 41) and humans (N = 102) were negative. FGD and IDI results showed an alarmingly low knowledge and awareness on zoonoses; particularly, low awareness about brucellosis was noted, even among the professional groups. Collaboration between village animal health workers and doctors was uncommon. No confirmed brucellosis cases were found in retrospective investigation of hospital and veterinary stations. This study demonstrates the presence of brucellosis in livestock and humans in Yunnan, indicating a non-negligible risk for humans. It is also made apparent that there is a need for increased awareness among both farmers and professionals in order to reduce the risk of zoonotic transmissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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9 pages, 1469 KiB  
Case Report
Cluster of Angiostrongyliasis Cases Following Consumption of Raw Monitor Lizard in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Review of the Literature
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed6030107 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4536
Abstract
Angiostrongyliasis in humans causes a range of symptoms from mild headache and myalgia to neurological complications, coma and death. Infection is caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked intermediate or paratenic hosts infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis or via contaminated vegetables or water. [...] Read more.
Angiostrongyliasis in humans causes a range of symptoms from mild headache and myalgia to neurological complications, coma and death. Infection is caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked intermediate or paratenic hosts infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis or via contaminated vegetables or water. We describe a cluster of cases involved in the shared meal of wild raw monitor lizard in the Lao PDR. Seven males, aged 22–36 years, reported headaches, abdominal pain, arthralgia, myalgia, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, neurological effects and loss of appetite. Five were admitted to hospital. The final diagnosis was made by clinical presentation and case history, and positive A. cantonensis PCR for two cases. All hospitalized patients recovered fully following supportive treatment. The remaining two individuals sought local home remedies and made full recovery. Whilst most published reports concern infections via consumption of molluscs, few detailed reports exist on infections that result from the consumption of reptiles and there exists little awareness in Lao PDR. This case cluster, which originates from a single meal, highlights the potential public health risk of the consumption of raw and wild-caught meat in Lao PDR and the Southeast Asia region. Without specific diagnostics, clinical history and the consideration of recent food consumption are important when evaluating patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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12 pages, 634 KiB  
Article
Low Prevalence of Cysticercosis and Trichinella Infection in Pigs in Rural Cambodia
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed6020100 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5496
Abstract
Cysticercosis and Trichinella spp. infection are parasitic zoonoses prevalent among pigs in Southeast Asia, where pork is the most important source of meat. In rural Cambodia, many pigs are raised extensively in family backyards, and information regarding the prevalence in rural small-scale pig [...] Read more.
Cysticercosis and Trichinella spp. infection are parasitic zoonoses prevalent among pigs in Southeast Asia, where pork is the most important source of meat. In rural Cambodia, many pigs are raised extensively in family backyards, and information regarding the prevalence in rural small-scale pig production is very limited. This study was conducted in four provinces in north-eastern Cambodia to determine the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis and Trichinella spp. infection in rural villages, and to identify possible risk factors. Only households with less than 10 pigs above three months old were eligible. In total, 139 households participated, and 242 blood samples were collected. Farmers were interviewed about food and hygiene habits, disease knowledge and practices. The serum samples were analysed by ELISA to determine antigens to Taenia spp. cysticerci or antibodies to Trichinella spp. muscle larvae. Positivity among the pigs was 11.2% (95% CI 7.5–15.8) for Taenia spp. cysts and 2.5% (95% CI 0.9–5.4) for Trichinella spp. Cysticerci were more common in the province Preah Vihear (p < 0.001) than in the other provinces. Risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis were management systems for the pigs and access to human faeces (p < 0.001). Trichinella spp. infection in pigs was more common in the province Ratanakiri (p = 0.001). The main risk factor associated with Trichinella spp. transmission was feeding pigs with food waste (p = 0.048). More men had heard about cysticercosis than women (p = 0.002), and men also consumed undercooked pork meat to a greater extent (p = 0.004). Although the present study is relatively small, several risk factors could be identified for porcine infection with Taenia spp. and Trichinella spp., which can be used to guide future interventions to improve both porcine and human health in these provinces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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