Topic Editors

Department of Education, Psychology, Communication, University of Bari, Bari, Italy
Department of Education, Psychology, Communication, University of Bari, Bari, Italy
1. Faculty of Law, "Giustino Fortunato" University of Benevento, 82100 Benevento, Italy
2. Department of Education Science, Psychology, Communication, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Piazza Umberto I, 70120 Bari, BA, Italy

Healthy, Safe and Active Aging

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 March 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 May 2023)
Viewed by
67162

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The ageing of the population on a global scale is a complex demographic process involving social, cultural and economic aspects. While the increase in longevity in recent decades is undoubtedly a great success, on the other hand it is necessary to ensure and maintain psychophysical and relational well-being in older persons in order to monitor and manage the progressive loss of functional abilities as well as the onset of age-related diseases. In addressing the challenge of the ageing population, policies aimed at prevention, rehabilitation, environmental facilitation and economic, social and motivational support of the elderly and their family were developed. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines healthy ageing as “the process of developing and maintaining the functional ability that enables wellbeing in older age”. The interaction between the intrinsic capacity of an individual (mental and physical capacities) and the relevant environmental characteristics (home, community and broader society, the built environment, people and their relationships, attitudes and values in addition to health and social policies) is a requirement for healthy ageing. Moreover, in order to turn ageing into a positive experience, the WHO has adopted the term active ageing to define “the process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation and security in order to enhance quality of life as people age”. During the entire course of their life, people should act in favor of their physical, social and mental wellbeing, according to their needs, desires and capacities. This Topic is devoted to providing a contribution regarding the determinants of healthy, safe and active aging, embracing the biopsychosocial model, by considering biological, psychological and social factors as well as their complex interactions in understanding health, illness and healthcare delivery in ageing. Demographic and cultural characteristics, social and economic determinants, physical environments and personal as well as behavioral determinants, from a medical, psychological, sociological and technological point of view, will be considered. We welcome manuscripts related to a) mental health, the promotion of the decrease in risk factors associated with major diseases and the increase in factors protecting health; b) psychological factors (cognition, emotion and personality) in normal and pathological aging; c) biological factors (genetic, molecular and cellular); d) quality of life, assessment, prevention, effective treatments and interventions, holistic medicine, age-friendly as well as safe environments and social support; and e) available and emerging technologies for interfacing with the human brain and of their application to support elderly individuals (assistive technologies, neuroengineering, biomedical engineering, information technology and sensor technology).

Prof. Dr. Andrea Bosco
Dr. Alessandro Oronzo Caffò
Dr. Antonella Lopez
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • active aging
  • healthy aging
  • health policies
  • health promotion
  • health and environment
  • assessment and intervention
  • technology and virtual reality
  • individual differences
  • spatial cognition
  • cognitive reserve
  • holistic medicine
  • engineering
  • aging-friendly technologies

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Brain Sciences
brainsci
2.7 4.8 2011 12.9 Days CHF 2200
Healthcare
healthcare
2.4 3.5 2013 20.5 Days CHF 2700
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
- 7.3 2004 24.3 Days CHF 2500
Journal of Ageing and Longevity
jal
- - 2021 30.7 Days CHF 1000
Nursing Reports
nursrep
2.4 2.5 2011 39.6 Days CHF 1800

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Published Papers (27 papers)

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15 pages, 963 KiB  
Article
Empowering Older Adults in Underserved Communities—An Innovative Approach to Increase Public Health Capacity for Fall Prevention
by Subi Gandhi, Laurie Long, Viraj Gandhi and Muna Bashir
J. Ageing Longev. 2023, 3(4), 450-464; https://doi.org/10.3390/jal3040019 - 9 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1494
Abstract
Although evidence-based programs have been effective for fall prevention in many communities, older adults living in underserved areas cannot access these services due to the shortage of providers and trainers. In this cross-sectional study, a multi-agency approach was adopted for integrating an evidence-based [...] Read more.
Although evidence-based programs have been effective for fall prevention in many communities, older adults living in underserved areas cannot access these services due to the shortage of providers and trainers. In this cross-sectional study, a multi-agency approach was adopted for integrating an evidence-based program, A Matter of Balance (AMOB), into the public health curriculum at a rurally placed university. We assessed student learning as well as the community benefits of fall prevention among those who participated in the AMOB program. Eighty-four percent of the students reported intentions of using AMOB training in their future careers. The average of the items for the effectiveness of “Classroom Training” and “Community Training” provided by the students (n = 25) ranged from 3.52 to 4.32 and 3.48 to 4.36, on a Likert scale (1 = Strongly Disagree to 5 = Strongly Agree), respectively. Older adults who participated in the fall prevention community workshops showed increased confidence in reducing falls, protecting themselves from falling, and becoming steadier on their feet after the training (p < 0.05). Our study demonstrates the value of integrating evidence-based programs such as AMOB in a university curriculum to address rural health disparities related to falls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Healthy, Safe and Active Aging)
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12 pages, 292 KiB  
Article
Effects of Strategy-Based Memory Training for Older Adults: Do Booster Sessions Prompt Long-Term Benefits?
by Erika Borella, Enrico Sella, Anna Simonetto, Nicola Bellorio, Graziana Lenti, Laurence Taconnat and Elena Carbone
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(9), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13091301 - 9 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1378
Abstract
This study examined the efficacy of a strategy-based memory training for older adults at short- and long-term with two (5- and 11 months) follow-ups. We also explored whether booster sessions (additional training before the first follow-up) facilitated the maintenance of benefits. Thirty-three older [...] Read more.
This study examined the efficacy of a strategy-based memory training for older adults at short- and long-term with two (5- and 11 months) follow-ups. We also explored whether booster sessions (additional training before the first follow-up) facilitated the maintenance of benefits. Thirty-three older adults received a training based on the teaching of different effective memory strategies. One group completed three booster sessions before the 5 months follow-up. Training gains were examined using a word-list and a face–surname association recall tasks, and transfer effects with a grocery-word list (GL) recall task, a working memory (WM) measure, and a perceived memory functioning questionnaire. Training gains and transfer effects to the WM measure emerged and were maintained up to the second follow-up. No benefits for the GL and perceived memory functioning were found. The “boosted” group had only a slight advantage—in one of the transfer tasks—as shown by effect sizes. This pilot study confirms the efficacy of strategy-based memory training in supporting older adults’ memory performance up to 11 months since training completion. However, booster sessions seem not to make a clear difference in prompting long-lasting benefits. Training features capable of fostering generalized, prolonged effects are worth investigating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Healthy, Safe and Active Aging)
18 pages, 602 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Subjective Poverty on the Mental Health of the Elderly in China: The Mediating Role of Social Capital
by Yanghan Li, Tianyi Chen, Quan Li and Linxiu Jiang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(17), 6672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20176672 - 29 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
Reducing subjective poverty among the elderly is an important aspect of poverty governance and is a necessary part of implementing the healthy aging strategy in China. In both China and the majority of low- and middle-income countries, systematic research on the relationship between [...] Read more.
Reducing subjective poverty among the elderly is an important aspect of poverty governance and is a necessary part of implementing the healthy aging strategy in China. In both China and the majority of low- and middle-income countries, systematic research on the relationship between subjective poverty and the mental health of the elderly needs to be expanded. In this study, we aimed to examine how social capital, including bonding and bridging social capital, mediate the relationship between subjective poverty and mental health among the elderly in China. Relying on the 2018 Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) data, we used ordered probit (oprobit) regression, propensity score matching (PSM), and instrumental variable (IV) regression to estimate the effects of subjective poverty on mental health. The results indicate that subjective poverty has a significant negative impact on the mental health of the elderly in China. More importantly, social capital, including bonding and bridging social capital, partially mediates the relationship between subjective poverty and mental health. We believe that, in the process of implementing the government’s healthy aging strategy in China, society and government should recognize the importance and value of subjective poverty governance for the elderly. In particular, the construction of a social relationship network that centers on bonding and bridging social capital could be instrumental in dealing with subjective poverty among the elderly and safeguarding their mental health and wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Healthy, Safe and Active Aging)
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9 pages, 257 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Mental Health and Loneliness in the Elderly during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Mahsa Sadatnia, Amir Jalali, Laili Tapak and Farshid Shamsaei
J. Ageing Longev. 2023, 3(3), 433-441; https://doi.org/10.3390/jal3030017 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1805
Abstract
Background and Aim: The coronavirus pandemic has had a negative impact on the health and well-being of communities and individuals around the world. One of the concerns about the COVID-19 epidemic is the impact of social isolation due to social distancing on the [...] Read more.
Background and Aim: The coronavirus pandemic has had a negative impact on the health and well-being of communities and individuals around the world. One of the concerns about the COVID-19 epidemic is the impact of social isolation due to social distancing on the mental health of older adults. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between mental health and loneliness among seniors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 211 retirees of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences were selected by available sampling method in 2021. Data were collected through the Demographic, Mental Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the Adult Social and Emotional Feeling Questionnaire (SELSA-S). Data were analyzed using paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance, covariance, and chi-squared tests. The significance level was considered 0.05. Results: The mean age of participants was 71.26 years and the results showed a significant relationship between feeling lonely and mental health (r = 0.535, p = 0.001). There were statistically significant relationships between mental health and social functioning (r = −0.204, p ≥ 0.001) and depression (r = 0.501, p = 0.001) and also between mental health and three subscales of loneliness: romantic loneliness (r = 0.001, p = 0.001), social loneliness (r = 0.493, p = 0.001), and family loneliness (r = 0.289, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Feeling lonely during the coronavirus disease pandemic has a negative effect on the mental health of older adults; therefore, it is necessary for mental health professionals to improve the mental health of the elderly with proper planning and interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Healthy, Safe and Active Aging)
14 pages, 528 KiB  
Article
Perceptions and Intentions around Uptake of the COVID-19 Vaccination among Older People: A Mixed-Methods Study in Phuket Province, Thailand
by Chayanit Luevanich, Ros Kane, Aimon Naklong and Prapaipim Surachetkomson
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(11), 5919; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20115919 - 23 May 2023
Viewed by 1394
Abstract
Background: A 70% vaccination rate against COVID-19 in the general population was required for re-opening Phuket tourist industry. However, prior to this research, 39.61% of older people remained unvaccinated. This study aimed to examine perceptions and intentions around COVID-19 vaccination amongst older people [...] Read more.
Background: A 70% vaccination rate against COVID-19 in the general population was required for re-opening Phuket tourist industry. However, prior to this research, 39.61% of older people remained unvaccinated. This study aimed to examine perceptions and intentions around COVID-19 vaccination amongst older people and to explore the reasons and factors influencing their decisions to receive or refuse vaccination. Methods: This was a mixed-methods approach with a sequential explanatory design. We conducted an online survey and semi-structured qualitative interview with a subsample. Multinomial logistic regression was applied and thematic content analysis was conducted. Results: 92.4% of participants reported intention to receive the vaccine. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that perceived barriers (AdjOR = 0.032; 95% CI: 0.17–0.59), perceived benefit (AdjOR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.49–4.71), good health (AdjOR = 3.51; 95% CI: 1.01–12.12) and health not good (AdjOR = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.02–0.49) were predictors of vaccine uptake. In the qualitative interviews, four key influences on up-take for the 28 vaccinated participants were: prevention and protection, convenience, fear of death from COVID-19, and trust in the vaccine. Four key influences on refusal of vaccination in the eight unvaccinated participants were: rarely leaving the house, fear of vaccine side-effects, fear of death after getting the vaccine, and not enough information for decision-making. Conclusion: Intervention and campaigns addressing COVID-19 vaccination should employ strategies, including the widespread use of social and other popular media to increase older people’s perceived benefit of vaccination on their current and future health status, while decreasing perceived barriers to receiving the vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Healthy, Safe and Active Aging)
20 pages, 8242 KiB  
Article
Active and Assisted Living, a Practice for the Ageing Population and People with Cognitive Disabilities: An Architectural Perspective
by Santiago Quesada-García, Pablo Valero-Flores and María Lozano-Gómez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(10), 5886; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20105886 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2523
Abstract
The current digital revolution is causing a paradigm shift encompassing all environments in which human beings conduct their daily activities. Technology is starting to govern the world, gradually modifying not only individual and social behaviour, but also ways of living. The necessary adaptation [...] Read more.
The current digital revolution is causing a paradigm shift encompassing all environments in which human beings conduct their daily activities. Technology is starting to govern the world, gradually modifying not only individual and social behaviour, but also ways of living. The necessary adaptation to new information and communication technologies forces societies to rethink both public and private spaces, in which evolution is slower than rapid social transformation. As part of this change, the concept of Active Assisted Living (AAL) has developed. Assisted spaces can be designed to provide older adults, carers, or people who have cognitive disabilities, such as Alzheimer’s disease or other dementias, with a healthier, safer, and more comfortable life, while also affording them greater personal autonomy. AAL aims to improve people’s quality of life and allow them to remain in their own homes for as long as possible, not in residences. This study conducted a critical review about AAL from an architectural point of view. The research adopted a qualitative approach in which we collected the studies during the last twenty years, then used descriptive, narrative and critical analysis methods. Based on these, this paper aims to explain this new technological paradigm, its characteristics, its main development trends, and its implementation limitations. The results obtained show how the development of AAL will be in the next ten years, and how this concept, and its application, can influence architecture and provide the bases for further research into the design of buildings and cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Healthy, Safe and Active Aging)
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11 pages, 3403 KiB  
Article
Perceived Social Support Mediates the Relationship between Use of Greenspace and Geriatric Depression: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Sample of South-Italian Older Adults
by Elisabetta Ricciardi, Giuseppina Spano, Luigi Tinella, Antonella Lopez, Carmine Clemente, Andrea Bosco and Alessandro Oronzo Caffò
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5540; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085540 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1610
Abstract
A growing body of evidence is suggestive for the beneficial role of contact with greenspace (e.g., use of greenspace, visual access to greenspace, etc.) on mental health (e.g., depression, anxiety, etc.). In addition, several studies have pointed out the benefits of social support [...] Read more.
A growing body of evidence is suggestive for the beneficial role of contact with greenspace (e.g., use of greenspace, visual access to greenspace, etc.) on mental health (e.g., depression, anxiety, etc.). In addition, several studies have pointed out the benefits of social support and social interaction on psychological wellbeing. Even if evidence on the association between contact with greenspace and perceived social support were mixed, it was supposed that the use of greenspace could enhance social interactions and perceived social support, especially among older adults. The present study aims to explore the effect of use of greenspace on geriatric depression in a sample of South-Italian older adults and the mediating role of perceived social support in this association. A structural equation model was tested in a sample of 454 older adults (60–90 years old) residing in the Metropolitan Area of Bari, Apulia. The fit indices revealed the goodness of fit of the model (CFI = 0.934; TLI = 0.900; IFI = 0.911; NFI = 0.935; RMSEA = 0.074; SRMR = 0.056). Results showed that the use of greenspace was inversely associated with geriatric depression through perceived social support. These findings underlined the relevance of perceived social support on the pathway linking use of greenspace and geriatric depressive symptoms. This evidence may be useful to policymakers to plan interventions for promoting physical access to greenspace and social participation in an age-friendly city framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Healthy, Safe and Active Aging)
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26 pages, 460 KiB  
Concept Paper
Development and Peer Review of an Evidence-Based Decision-Support Tool for Non-Drug Prescribing for Healthy Ageing
by Zara Quail, Mark Carter and Charles Young
J. Ageing Longev. 2023, 3(2), 116-141; https://doi.org/10.3390/jal3020010 - 31 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2609
Abstract
Introduction: Promoting healthy ageing is increasingly important to maintain functional ability and wellbeing in older age. However, there is a lack of consolidated evidence-based information to support the selection of non-drug interventions to support healthy ageing outcomes for individuals. Methods: A narrative review [...] Read more.
Introduction: Promoting healthy ageing is increasingly important to maintain functional ability and wellbeing in older age. However, there is a lack of consolidated evidence-based information to support the selection of non-drug interventions to support healthy ageing outcomes for individuals. Methods: A narrative review of the evidence-based literature on non-drug interventions to support healthy ageing was performed. Evidence for intervention benefits was evaluated and mapped into the Systematic Wellness Intervention Pathway framework and aligned to relevant goals, needs and outcomes relating to physical fitness and function, emotional wellbeing, cognitive health, sleep and diet and nutrition. Comments from a modified Delphi survey of 75 expert peer reviewers were analysed to inform the development of the next Pathway iteration. Results: The narrative review identified key healthy ageing interventions, including physical activity, social interaction, interventions for emotional wellbeing, creative and cognitively stimulating activities and diet and nutrition. Peer review survey results indicated majority agreement with all domains and non-drug interventions for healthy ageing in the Pathway, and suggested interventions and outcome revisions informed Pathway iteration. Conclusion: The Pathway could be a step forward in operationalising the delivery of non-drug interventions in an accessible and scalable way, supplementing conventional health and social care, to enable older people to live well for longer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Healthy, Safe and Active Aging)
11 pages, 3784 KiB  
Review
The Use of Robotic Technology in the Healthcare of People above the Age of 65—A Systematic Review
by Ann-Chatrin Linqvist Leonardsen, Camilla Hardeland, Ann Karin Helgesen, Carina Bååth, Lilliana del Busso and Vigdis Abrahamsen Grøndahl
Healthcare 2023, 11(6), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11060904 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2639
Abstract
Aim: The integration of robots can help provide solutions in regards to the need for an increase in resources in healthcare. The aim of this review was to identify how robots are utilized in the healthcare of people who are over the age [...] Read more.
Aim: The integration of robots can help provide solutions in regards to the need for an increase in resources in healthcare. The aim of this review was to identify how robots are utilized in the healthcare of people who are over the age of 65 and how this population experiences interacting with healthcare robots. Design: A systematic literature review with an integrated design was conducted. Methods: A literature search was performed in the electronic databases CINAHL via EBSCO, EMBASE, and Medline via Ovid. Content analysis was performed to assess the studies that were included in this review. Results: A total of 14 articles were included. Participants in the studies included 453 older people ranging from 65 to 108 years of age. Nine of the studies focused on people with dementia or cognitive impairment. Seven studies included different types of socially assistive human-like robots, six of the studies included two different types of animal-like robots, and one study focused on a robotic rollator. The robots mainly served as social assistive- or engagement robots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Healthy, Safe and Active Aging)
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16 pages, 2067 KiB  
Article
Investigating White Matter Abnormalities Associated with Schizophrenia Using Deep Learning Model and Voxel-Based Morphometry
by Tripti Goel, Sirigineedi A. Varaprasad, M. Tanveer and Raveendra Pilli
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(2), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13020267 - 4 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1947
Abstract
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a devastating mental condition with significant negative consequences for patients, making correct and prompt diagnosis crucial. The purpose of this study is to use structural magnetic resonance image (MRI) to better classify individuals with SCZ from control normals (CN) and [...] Read more.
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a devastating mental condition with significant negative consequences for patients, making correct and prompt diagnosis crucial. The purpose of this study is to use structural magnetic resonance image (MRI) to better classify individuals with SCZ from control normals (CN) and to locate a region of the brain that represents abnormalities associated with SCZ. Deep learning (DL), which is based on the nervous system, could be a very useful tool for doctors to accurately predict, diagnose, and treat SCZ. Gray Matter (GM), Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF), and White Matter (WM) brain regions are extracted from 99 MRI images obtained from the open-source OpenNeuro database to demonstrate SCZ’s regional relationship. In this paper, we use a pretrained ResNet-50 deep network to extract features from MRI images and an ensemble deep random vector functional link (edRVFL) network to classify those features. By examining the results obtained, the edRVFL deep model provides the highest classification accuracy of 96.5% with WM and is identified as the best-performing algorithm compared to the traditional algorithms. Furthermore, we examined the GM, WM, and CSF tissue volumes in CN subjects and SCZ patients using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and the results show 1363 significant voxels, 6.90 T-value, and 6.21 Z-value in the WM region of SCZ patients. In SCZ patients, WM is most closely linked to structural alterations, as evidenced by VBM analysis and the DL model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Healthy, Safe and Active Aging)
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16 pages, 648 KiB  
Article
Older Adults’ Use of a Research-Based Web Platform for Social Interaction
by Annelie K. Gusdal, Ulrika Florin, Rose-Marie Johansson-Pajala, Caroline Eklund, Johanna Fritz and Petra von Heideken Wågert
Healthcare 2023, 11(3), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11030408 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2187
Abstract
Loneliness and social isolation are triggers for unfavorable changes in older adults’ health and well-being. Information and communication technology (ICT) can be used by older adults to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness and social isolation. However, ICT needs to be customized to [...] Read more.
Loneliness and social isolation are triggers for unfavorable changes in older adults’ health and well-being. Information and communication technology (ICT) can be used by older adults to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness and social isolation. However, ICT needs to be customized to the specific needs and conditions of older adults. The aim of this study was to explore older adults’ use of a new, co-designed and research-based web platform for social interaction from the perspectives of older adults, researchers, and social services personnel. The study is an intervention study with a multimethod approach in which 20 older adults used the web platform for social interaction “the Fik@ room” for eight weeks. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected pretest, during the test, and posttest. The Fik@ room met the expectations of those older adults who completed the study. It enabled them to expand their social network and develop new friendships, but their experiences of loneliness were not reduced. The involvement of social services personnel in recruitment and support was important in facilitating older adults’ use of the Fik@ room. Our study contributes knowledge about a new, co-designed and research-based web platform, customized specifically for older adults, which is valuable in guiding the design and delivery of future web platforms for social interaction among older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Healthy, Safe and Active Aging)
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13 pages, 268 KiB  
Article
Arbiters of Time: The Experience of Adults Aging with Spinal Cord Injury
by Lisa Reber, Nasya S. W. Tan, Michelle A. Meade, Martin Forchheimer, Denise G. Tate and Philippa Clarke
J. Ageing Longev. 2023, 3(1), 59-71; https://doi.org/10.3390/jal3010005 - 25 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2013
Abstract
Time is a fundamental component of our lives. It is both objective, a structure outside of ourselves, and subjective, an element that is relative to the life we live and how we experience it. The disabled body must come to terms with time [...] Read more.
Time is a fundamental component of our lives. It is both objective, a structure outside of ourselves, and subjective, an element that is relative to the life we live and how we experience it. The disabled body must come to terms with time to understand the future impact of the injury and its progression, as well as how the injury will impose a new more accelerated aging process in the body, resulting in a compressed lifespan. The body also challenges time’s control of the body. This paper extends the literature on the study of time to the experience of adults aging with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Drawing from interviews conducted with adults with long-term SCI, it examines how their narratives about aging and the proactive management of their lives reflect their orientation toward and anticipation of the future. Recognizing that the spoken word often carries a multiplicity of meanings, it considers what participants’ words might imply about their engagement with time. The results of this study show that the process of aging is characterized by uncertainty and the expectations of functional and health decline, requiring a sense of urgency and vigilance in the face of the uncertain course of aging with SCI. Participants understood that their lifespan was compressed due to the physiological impact of accelerated aging. Knowledge of this compression made time a scarce resource. Yet, despite it being the arbiters of their futures, so too were they the arbiters of time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Healthy, Safe and Active Aging)
14 pages, 990 KiB  
Article
Older Adults’ Experiences, Worries and Preventive Measures Regarding Home Hazards: A Survey on Home Safety in Sweden
by Elin Mauritzson, Kevin J. McKee, Marie Elf and Johan Borg
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(2), 1458; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20021458 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2220
Abstract
Home safety is important for preventing injuries and accidents among older adults living at home. Feeling safe at home is also essential for older adults’ well-being. Thus, this study aimed to explore older adults’ perceptions of safety in their homes by examining their [...] Read more.
Home safety is important for preventing injuries and accidents among older adults living at home. Feeling safe at home is also essential for older adults’ well-being. Thus, this study aimed to explore older adults’ perceptions of safety in their homes by examining their experiences, worries and preventive measures in relation to a range of potential home-based health and safety hazards. The study was a national cross-sectional telephone survey of 400 randomly selected adults over 70 years of age living at home in ordinary housing in Sweden. Participants were asked for their experience of, worry about, and preventive measures taken regarding fifteen home hazards. Data were also collected on background variables including age, health, and cohabitation status. Falls and stab/cut injuries were the most experienced hazards and worry was highest for burglary and falls, while preventive measures were most common for fire and burglary. While older adults’ experience and worry regarding home hazards were associated with preventive measures, these associations were not strong and other factors were associated with preventive behaviour. Further identification of the main determinants of older adults’ preventive behaviour can contribute to policy for effectively reducing home accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Healthy, Safe and Active Aging)
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11 pages, 431 KiB  
Article
Incarcerated Brazilian Elderly: Memories about Family
by Pollyanna Lima, Alessandra Oliveira, Luana Reis, Arianna Lopes, Elaine Santana, Thaiza Nobre and Luciana Reis
J. Ageing Longev. 2022, 2(4), 293-303; https://doi.org/10.3390/jal2040024 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1316
Abstract
This article aims to analyze the memories of incarcerated elderly people about family. This is an exploratory and analytical study, with a qualitative approach, carried out in three prison units in Bahia, with 31 incarcerated elderly people, through semi-structured interview. Most are male [...] Read more.
This article aims to analyze the memories of incarcerated elderly people about family. This is an exploratory and analytical study, with a qualitative approach, carried out in three prison units in Bahia, with 31 incarcerated elderly people, through semi-structured interview. Most are male (30), between 60 to 65-years-old (21), married (12) and with three to four children (10). The results show that the 10 most evoked words were: family; sons; mom; father; women; life; cry; today; brothers; and longing. The study showed that the family constitution is maintained because the experiences that are symbolized in it have socially crystallized definitions as references. Anchored by social frames of memories that remain, since they remain alive in the groups and are permanently maintained. It was also found that the family plays an extremely important role in their lives and that the mother is the central point of this family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Healthy, Safe and Active Aging)
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15 pages, 3211 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effects of Blood Flow Restriction Combined with Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Lower-Limb Muscle Strength and Mass in Post-Middle-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Hualong Chang, Mengxing Yao, Biao Chen, Yongle Qi and Jianli Zhang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 15691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315691 - 25 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3255
Abstract
We studied the effect of blood flow restriction (BFR) combined with low-intensity resistance training (LIRT) on lower-limb muscle strength and mass in post-middle-aged adults. The PubMed, OVID, ProQuest, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were used to obtain randomized controlled [...] Read more.
We studied the effect of blood flow restriction (BFR) combined with low-intensity resistance training (LIRT) on lower-limb muscle strength and mass in post-middle-aged adults. The PubMed, OVID, ProQuest, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were used to obtain randomized controlled trials, and the effects of BFR and LIRT (BFRt) on muscle strength and mass in adults were examined. The Cochrane risk of bias tool assessed bias in the included trials. The combined effects of BFR and LIRT (BFRt) were calculated by meta-analysis, the association between muscle strength/mass and interventions was determined by meta-regression, and beneficial variables of intervention were explored by subgroup analysis. A total of 11 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The combined effects showed that BFRt significantly improved lower extremity muscle strength but not muscle mass gain. Meta-regression analysis indicated that the effect of BFRt on changes in muscle strength was correlated with frequency of the intervention. Subgroup analysis revealed that BFRt achieved greater muscle strength gains than normal activity, LIRT, and similar muscle strength gains compared to high-intensity resistance training. The increased muscle strength after BFRt was noticed with a frequency of three times a week, but not with a frequency of two times a week, and the difference between these subgroups was statistically significant. Our findings indicate that BFRt can increase lower-limb muscle strength in post-middle-aged adults. Frequency of intervention is a key variable; particularly, a schedule of three times a week is effective in improving muscle strength. Full article
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12 pages, 969 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Suicide Rate of Older Adults According to Gender, Age, and Region in South Korea from 2010 to 2017
by Kyu-Hyoung Jeong, Ji-Yeon Yoon, Seoyoon Lee, Sunghwan Cho, Hyun-Jae Woo and Sunghee Kim
Healthcare 2022, 10(11), 2333; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10112333 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2488
Abstract
Background: South Korea’s suicide rates are the highest among Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, making it one of the most important societal issues in South Korea. Methods: the statistics on causes of death and resident registration central population (RRCP) provided [...] Read more.
Background: South Korea’s suicide rates are the highest among Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, making it one of the most important societal issues in South Korea. Methods: the statistics on causes of death and resident registration central population (RRCP) provided by the National Statistical Office were used to calculate the suicide rate among older adults in Korea. We examined gender (male, female), age (young–old, old–old), and region (urban, rural) by conducting latent growth modeling to estimate changes in the overall older adult suicide rate and verify its relationship. Results: over a period of 8 years, the older adult suicide rate was 104.232 on average in 2010 and it decreased by approximately 10.317 every year, and the rate of decrease gradually slowed down. The initial value of the older adult suicide rate was found to be higher among males, the old–old group, and those living in rural regions. In the quadratic function change rate, only males and the old–old group were statistically significant. Conclusion: in this study, the direction of and the rate of change in the older adult suicide rates and the relationship between gender, age, and region were examined. It is expected that this study will provide basic data to assist in establishing older adult suicide prevention policies, considering the gender, age, and region of the aging population. Full article
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11 pages, 471 KiB  
Article
Might Dog Walking Reduce the Impact of COPD on Patients’ Life?
by Ilaria Baiardini, Salvatore Fasola, Chiara Lorenzi, Nicole Colombo, Matteo Bruno, Stefania La Grutta, Carla Scognamillo and Fulvio Braido
Healthcare 2022, 10(11), 2317; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10112317 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1690
Abstract
Low levels of physical activity (PA) lead to a worsening of physical condition and contributes to multimorbidity in Chronic Obstructive Respiratory Disease (COPD). Unsupervised PA related to dog ownership may contribute to reducing sedentary behavior. We aimed to investigate the relationship between dog [...] Read more.
Low levels of physical activity (PA) lead to a worsening of physical condition and contributes to multimorbidity in Chronic Obstructive Respiratory Disease (COPD). Unsupervised PA related to dog ownership may contribute to reducing sedentary behavior. We aimed to investigate the relationship between dog walking, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and exacerbations in COPD. A pre-defined sample of 200 COPD patients (dog owners and non-dog owners) with symptomatic COPD was sourced from a database representative of the Italian population. A computer-assisted personal interview was used to assess health status impairment (CAT), fatigue (FACIT), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (EQ-5D), and PA frequency. In the whole sample, PA was associated with better CAT, EQ-5D, VAS, FACIT scores and reduced number of exacerbation (p < 0.001). Under the same CAT scores, dog-walking duration was associated with a better HRQoL (EQ5D, p = 0.015) and less fatigue (FACIT, p = 0.017). In an adjusted regression model, walking dogs >30 min was associated with lower fatigue (FACIT) than having no dogs and walking dogs <15 min (p = 0.026 and p = 0.009, respectively). Motivation related to dog walking could modify patients’ tendency to focus on symptoms during PA and, therefore, to perceive the fatigue. Dog walking may be effective for increasing and maintaining regular PA, reducing the subjective impact of COPD. Full article
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11 pages, 494 KiB  
Article
Correlations of Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity with Body Image and Quality of Life among Young and Older Adults: A Pilot Study
by Amir Dana, Sheida Ranjbari, Hasan Mosazadeh, Wojciech Jan Maliszewski and Aleksandra Błachnio
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 14970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192214970 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1604
Abstract
Significant evidence suggests that regular physical activity (PA) is correlated with numerous psychological benefits in adults such as improving body image and quality of life. However, this issue has not been differentiated between young and older adults. In addition, most previous studies used [...] Read more.
Significant evidence suggests that regular physical activity (PA) is correlated with numerous psychological benefits in adults such as improving body image and quality of life. However, this issue has not been differentiated between young and older adults. In addition, most previous studies used a self-reported questionnaire for measuring PA, the objectivity of which is limited in several ways. Hence, by using accelerometer technology for monitoring PA, this study was designed to examine the correlations of PA with body image and quality of life in young and older adults. In this cross-sectional study, we used objective actigraphy and survey data from 147 young and older adults, including 77 young and 70 older adults from Tehran, Iran. To examine our variables and hypothesis, the following instruments were implemented: the Persian version of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ), the Persian version of the Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF), and the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT for measuring PA. An independent t-test and a multivariate regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The weekly PA of both young and older adults was found to be lower than the recommended amount. Young adults engaged in significantly more weekly PA than older adults. For young adults, PA (including MPA, VPA, and MVPA) was generally found to be significantly correlated with body image and quality of life. For older adults, however, we found only significant correlations between VPA and quality of life. These findings indicated that PA is a critical concern in adults, particularly older adults. Accordingly, it is necessary to adopt appropriate strategies to promote an active lifestyle among adults. Full article
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16 pages, 1951 KiB  
Article
The Autonomous Capacity of the Elderly Population in Spain for Shopping and Preparing Meals
by Jordi Pons-Novell and Montserrat Guillen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 14828; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192214828 - 11 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1543
Abstract
A loss of the ability to buy and prepare meals, especially in people aged 65 and over, leads to a deterioration in their optimal level of nutrition. The Index of Autonomy in Food Acquisition (IAFA) was used to identify contributing factors. This is [...] Read more.
A loss of the ability to buy and prepare meals, especially in people aged 65 and over, leads to a deterioration in their optimal level of nutrition. The Index of Autonomy in Food Acquisition (IAFA) was used to identify contributing factors. This is a composite indicator for shopping and meal preparation that can be used to assess the degree of autonomous capacity observed in a specific group. Data from the European Health Survey in Spain (7167 respondents aged 65 and over) show that capacity decreased with age and that women were less affected than men, with very little difference found in levels of autonomous capacity by territory. However, in relation to different income levels, after standardizing for age and sex, no evidence was found for differences in the ability to access and prepare meals in groups that were separated by income level. This result shows the importance of standardizing when analysing food acquisition autonomy in groups of people aged 65 years and over. Full article
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16 pages, 687 KiB  
Article
Effect of Music Therapy as a Non-Pharmacological Measure Applied to Alzheimer’s Disease Patients: A Systematic Review
by E. Begoña García-Navarro, Ana Buzón-Pérez and María Cabillas-Romero
Nurs. Rep. 2022, 12(4), 775-790; https://doi.org/10.3390/nursrep12040076 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6871
Abstract
The objective of this research was to learn about the effects of music as a non-pharmacological therapeutic intervention applied to Alzheimer’s disease. To this aim, we evaluated its results regarding symptomatology and caregiver burden. Methods: This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to learn about the effects of music as a non-pharmacological therapeutic intervention applied to Alzheimer’s disease. To this aim, we evaluated its results regarding symptomatology and caregiver burden. Methods: This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria. We searched Pubmed/Medline (NLM), Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane and Google Scholar, including articles from 1 January 2011–20 July 2021, using the keywords “Alzheimer’s disease”, “Music therapy”, “Caregivers overload”, “Amnesia retrograde” and “Clinical evolution”. To select the articles our criteria included complete text availability, quantitative research of an experimental nature and studies which, at least, figured in SJR or in JCR. Results: We found a relationship between the application of music therapy in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and an improvement regarding symptomatology, as it smoothed down the progress of the disease. Using music therapy in Alzheimer’s patients also led to a decrease in caregivers’ burden and an increase in their well-being. Conclusions: Our results showed the benefits of music therapy, as it improved both patients’ symptomatology and caregivers’ burden. Full article
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12 pages, 690 KiB  
Article
Unraveling the Protective Effects of Cognitive Reserve on Cognition and Brain: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Dorota Szcześniak, Marta Lenart-Bugla, Błażej Misiak, Anna Zimny, Marek Sąsiadek, Katarzyna Połtyn-Zaradna, Katarzyna Zatońska, Tomasz Zatoński, Andrzej Szuba, Eric E. Smith, Salim Yusuf and Joanna Rymaszewska
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912228 - 27 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2137
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that brain maintenance expressed in white matter hyperintensities and brain reserves, defined as gray and white matter volumes, mediate the association between cognitive reserve (CR) and cognitive performance. A cross-sectional population-based observational study was conducted, and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that brain maintenance expressed in white matter hyperintensities and brain reserves, defined as gray and white matter volumes, mediate the association between cognitive reserve (CR) and cognitive performance. A cross-sectional population-based observational study was conducted, and the final study sample consisted of 763 participants (282 men and 481 women) with a mean age of 61.11 years (±9.0). Data from different categories were collected from study participants, such as demographic, lifestyle, medical, and psycho-social characteristics. All participants underwent a detailed psychometric evaluation (MoCA and DSST) followed by a brain MRI. Volumetric measurements of the total gray matter (GMvol), total white matter (WMvol), and white matter hyperintensities (WMHvol) were performed using the Computational Anatomy Toolbox 12 (CAT12) and Statistical Parametric Maps 12 (SPM12) based on 3D T1-weighted sequence. Significant direct and indirect effects of cognitive reserve on cognitive functioning were measured with both scales—the MoCA and DSST. In each mediation model, the volumes of WMH and GM were significant mediators for the association between cognitive reserve and cognitive performance. This study confirms the importance of strengthening the cognitive reserve in the course of life through potentially modifiable effects on both cognition and the brain. Full article
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9 pages, 698 KiB  
Article
The Perception of Pelvic Floor Muscle Function amongst Exercising Women Who Are Repeatedly Instructed to Contract Their Pelvic Floor Muscles
by Gali Dar and Tamar Sharon Saban
Healthcare 2022, 10(9), 1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10091768 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2120
Abstract
In this study, the self-perception of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions amongst women receiving repeated verbal instructions during exercise classes was examined. The prevalence and severity of urinary stress incontinence were also assessed. This cross-sectional observational study included 46 women (mean age 48 [...] Read more.
In this study, the self-perception of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions amongst women receiving repeated verbal instructions during exercise classes was examined. The prevalence and severity of urinary stress incontinence were also assessed. This cross-sectional observational study included 46 women (mean age 48 (±8.6)), who regularly participated in Pilates classes where repeated instruction was given to contract PFM (“instruction group”; N = 22) or not (controls, N = 24). PFM function was evaluated using transabdominal ultrasound. Simultaneously, the participant described her personal evaluation of her PFM contraction ability. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire–Short Form was also utilized. Most women (80%) correctly contract PFM; however, 95% did not perform a voluntary contraction during leg movement, without differences observed between groups. A higher perception of PFM contraction was found in the “instruction group” when performing knee flexion towards the chest without specific verbal instruction. Women who were instructed to contract their PFM suffered less incontinence and had a lower degree of severity than the controls. Most women performing Pilates exercises correctly contracted their PFM. However, there was no PFM voluntary contraction during leg movement. Exposure to repeated verbal instructions to contract PFM, over time, might lead to an improvement in women’s perception of their ability to contract PFM. Verbal instructions for PFM contraction were found to be effective in reducing urinary incontinence. Full article
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8 pages, 251 KiB  
Brief Report
Antipodean Perspectives—Aged Care Nursing and the Multifaceted Role of the Aged Care Nurse
by Rajkumar Cheluvappa and Selwyn Selvendran
Nurs. Rep. 2022, 12(3), 629-636; https://doi.org/10.3390/nursrep12030062 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4387
Abstract
Healthy ageing refers to the development and maintenance of the functional ability of ageing individuals. Aged care nurses provide nursing care to elderly individuals and usually work in aged care residential facilities, nursing homes, home care services, and/or hospital departments. The registered nurse [...] Read more.
Healthy ageing refers to the development and maintenance of the functional ability of ageing individuals. Aged care nurses provide nursing care to elderly individuals and usually work in aged care residential facilities, nursing homes, home care services, and/or hospital departments. The registered nurse working in the aged care sector has several important roles. Key roles cover both therapeutic and preventative paradigms, as discussed in this paper. The aged care nurse is also “tasked with” holistic patient-centred care and the promotion of healthy ageing via advocacy and sociocultural roles. This paper examined, described, and analysed the multifaceted role of an aged care nurse from an Australian perspective. We conducted meticulous searches using PubMed, Google Scholar, government guidelines, authoritative body regulations, quality control guidelines, and government portals pertaining to aged care nursing in Australia. This paper relied upon the information garnered from publications, reports, and guidelines resulting from these searches and analyses. Multiple aspects of healthy ageing and holistic aged care nursing are discussed. The key roles of the aged care nurse are enumerated next, in accordance with the code of conduct from the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA). The NMBA promotes evidence-based, culturally sensitive, consultative, holistic aged care clinical practice that includes input from care recipients, their decision makers, and/or their health care providers. The difficult issue of loneliness is discussed with strategies to ameliorate aspects of this. Good social networks, community interactions, meaningful friendships, and participation in personalised spiritual/religious practices improve the quality of aged care. The key topic of elder abuse and its forms are discussed apropos of aged care nursing. Healthy ageing is promoted by identifying and reporting elder abuse at the earliest. Current Australian law and recent federal legislation changes pertaining to aged care nursing are discussed next. As a result of these legislation changes, several new quality control imperatives (for aged care organisations/facilities) under the Aged Care Quality and Safety Commission (ACQSC) have been implemented. Residential and flexible aged care providers should now have robust ongoing documentation and a well-developed behaviour support plan (BSP) for each care recipient who currently requires or may require restrictive practices, which must be reported under the new serious incident reporting scheme (SIRS). Various strategies to promote healthy ageing and approaches to communicate effectively with aged care recipients are also discussed. Healthy ageing is promoted when age care recipients are empowered with making their own autonomous choices in “major and minor” aspects of life. Finally, approaches to optimise quality aged care nursing care are discussed. The Roper–Logan–Tierney model is one of the models used to assess and optimise nursing care. This is premised on the capability of an ageing individual to accomplish 12 basic activities of daily living. Full article
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13 pages, 1119 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Traditional and Virtual Reality-Based Episodic Memory Performance in Clinical and Non-Clinical Cohorts
by Michael D. Barnett, Carmen J. W. Chek, Sydni S. Shorter and Thomas D. Parsons
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(8), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12081019 - 31 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
The California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II) and the Virtual Environment Grocery Store (VEGS) use list learning and recognition tasks to assess episodic memory. This study aims to: (1) Replicate prior construct validity results among a new sample of young adults and [...] Read more.
The California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II) and the Virtual Environment Grocery Store (VEGS) use list learning and recognition tasks to assess episodic memory. This study aims to: (1) Replicate prior construct validity results among a new sample of young adults and healthy older adults; (2) Extend this work to a clinical sample of older adults with a neurocognitive diagnosis; (3) Compare CVLT-II and VEGS performance among these groups; and (4) Validate the independence of CVLT and VEGS episodic memory performance measures from executive functioning performance measures. Typically developing young adults (n = 53) and older adults (n = 85), as well as older adults with a neurocognitive diagnosis (n = 18), were administered the CVLT-II, VEGS, and D-KEFS CWIT. Results found that (1) the relationship of the VEGS and CVLT-II measures was highly correlated on all variables, (2) compared to the CVLT-II, participants (particularly older adults) recalled fewer items on the VEGS, and (3) the CVLT-II and VEGS were generally independent of D-KEFS CWIT. It appeared that the VEGS may be more difficult than the CVLT-II, possibly reflecting the word length effect. Performance may have also been impacted by the presence of everyday distractors in the virtual environment. Full article
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12 pages, 2325 KiB  
Article
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Utilization of Inpatient Mental Health Services in Shanghai, China
by Hao Li, Xiaoli Chen, Jinhua Pan, Mengying Li, Meng Wang, Weibing Wang and Ying Wang
Healthcare 2022, 10(8), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10081402 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1984
Abstract
(1) Purpose: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on mental health and the utilization of hospital-based inpatient mental health care worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of this pandemic on the utilization of this service in [...] Read more.
(1) Purpose: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on mental health and the utilization of hospital-based inpatient mental health care worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of this pandemic on the utilization of this service in Shanghai by comparison with hospital-based health care records during the preceding 4 years. (2) Methods: The medical records were provided by the Shanghai Municipal Health Insurance Bureau. Diagnostic coding was based on International Classification of Diseases-10th revision (ICD-10), and inpatients with codes from F00 to F99 were examined. (3) Results: Inpatients were compared according to gender, age, pandemic stage, and type of mental disease. Utilization of psychiatric inpatient care in Shanghai during each of the four stages of the pandemic (1 January 2016 to 21 January 2020; 22 January 2020 to 9 February 2020; 10 February 2020 to 1 March 2020; 2 March 2020 to 31 July 2020) was analyzed. Before the lockdown, the utilization of psychiatric inpatient care had an overall upward trend; after the lockdown, the number of inpatients dropped sharply; as of 31 July 2020, it has not been restored. The utilization of this service for most types of mental disease declined rapidly during the pandemic; for vascular dementia (VAD, F01), it was relatively steady. The observed number of inpatient patients was about 51.07% lower than the predicted number in 2020. (4) Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic led to the implementation of prevention and control measures that reduced the utilization of psychiatric inpatient care in Shanghai. The use of inpatient services for categories F20–F29 had the greatest decline, and VAD (F01) had the smallest change during the pandemic. This service consequence of COVID-19 is apparent; to assure access to adequate service during a pandemic, health care professionals should pay close attention to changes in the utilization of different mental health services. Full article
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17 pages, 1501 KiB  
Article
A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Arterial Stiffness and Cognitive Performances in Physically Active Late Pre- and Early Post-Menopausal Females
by Amélie Debray, Louis Bherer, Christine Gagnon, Laurent Bosquet, Eva Hay, Audrey-Ann Bartlett, Daniel Gagnon and Carina Enea
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(7), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12070901 - 9 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1976
Abstract
Menopause accelerates increases in arterial stiffness and decreases cognitive performances. The objective of this study was to compare cognitive performances in physically active pre- and post-menopausal females and their relationship with arterial stiffness. We performed a cross-sectional comparison of blood pressure, carotid–femoral pulse [...] Read more.
Menopause accelerates increases in arterial stiffness and decreases cognitive performances. The objective of this study was to compare cognitive performances in physically active pre- and post-menopausal females and their relationship with arterial stiffness. We performed a cross-sectional comparison of blood pressure, carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and cognitive performances between physically active late pre- and early post-menopausal females. Systolic (post-menopause—pre-menopause: +6 mmHg [95% CI −1; +13], p = 0.27; ŋ2 = 0.04) and diastolic (+6 mmHg [95% CI +2; +11], p = 0.06; ŋ2 = 0.12) blood pressures, and cf-PWV (+0.29 m/s [95% CI −1.03; 1.62], p = 0.48; ŋ2 = 0.02) did not differ between groups. Post-menopausal females performed as well as pre-menopausal females on tests evaluating executive functions, episodic memory and processing speed. Group differences were observed on the computerized working memory task. Post-menopausal females had lower accuracy (p = 0.02; ŋ2 = 0.25) but similar reaction time (p = 0.70; ŋ2 < 0.01). Moreover, this performance was inversely associated with the severity of menopausal symptoms (r = −0.38; p = 0.05). These results suggest that arterial stiffness and performance on tests assessing episodic memory and processing speed and executive functions assessing inhibition and switching abilities did not differ between physically active pre- and post-menopausal females. However, post-menopausal females had lower performance on a challenging condition of a working memory task, and this difference in working memory between groups cannot be explained by increased arterial stiffness. Full article
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13 pages, 889 KiB  
Article
Effective Hospital Care Delivery Model for Older People in Nigeria with Multimorbidity: Recommendations for Practice
by Abdulsalam Ahmed, Hafiz T. A. Khan and Muili Lawal
Healthcare 2022, 10(7), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10071268 - 7 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4293
Abstract
The importance of developing an effective action-based model of care for multimorbid patients has become common knowledge, but it remains unclear why researchers in Nigeria have not paid attention to the issue. Hence, this study assessed the quality of health services using the [...] Read more.
The importance of developing an effective action-based model of care for multimorbid patients has become common knowledge, but it remains unclear why researchers in Nigeria have not paid attention to the issue. Hence, this study assessed the quality of health services using the Donabedian model and aimed to recommend an effective hospital care delivery model for older people in Nigeria with multimorbidity. A cross-sectional study using face-to-face data was conducted between October 2021 and February 2022. The reported data were collated, checked, coded, and entered into JISC online survey software and then exported to IBM Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 27 for analysis, sourced from the University of West London, London, United Kingdom. The data were collected from the outpatient department of four high-volume public secondary hospitals in Niger State (the largest hospital in the three senatorial zones and that of the state capital). Systematic random sampling was used to select 734 patients with two or more chronic diseases (multimorbidity) aged 60 years and above who presented for routine ambulatory outpatient and consented to participate in the study. A Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA) tool was used to assess the structure, and the process quality was assessed by the patients’ experiences as they navigated the care pathway, whereas the outcome was measured using the patients’ overall satisfaction. Using Spearman’s correlation, no statistically significant association was observed between satisfaction level with the healthcare that was received and the five domains of health facility readiness (Total score Basic Amenities, Total score Basic Equipment, Total score infection control, Total score diagnostic capacity, Total score essential drugs), and the general facility readiness. Finally, the process component superseded the structure as the determinant of the quality of healthcare among multimorbid patients in Niger State. The emphasis of the process should be on improving access to quality of care, improving patient–physician relationships and timing, reducing the financial burden of medical care, and building confidence and trust in medical care. Therefore, these factors should be incorporated into designing the healthcare model for multimorbid patients in Nigeria. Full article
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