Special Issue "Measurements and Instrumentation in Hydraulic Engineering"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Manousos Valyrakis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Infrastructure and Environment Research Division, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
Interests: sediment transport dynamics; monitoring environmental flows; geomorphic processes and instrumentation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Massimo Guerrero
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory-DICAM, University of Bologna, via Terracini 28, 40131 Bologna, Italy
Interests: hydro-acoustics monitoring in riverine and coastal environments, experimental hydraulics, fluvial sediment transport processes
Dr. Rui M. L. Ferreira
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: fluvial, estuarine and coastal processes, flow and sediment transport measurements and instrumentation
Dr. Katinka Koll
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Leichtweiß-Institut für Wasserbau, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Interests: fluvial, estuarine and coastal processes, flow and sediment transport measurements and instrumentation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advances in hardware and software, as well as conceptual advances, have widened the range of tools and methods available to measure key flow variables in fluvial and other natural or built environments. Nowadays, a range of lasers (3D LDV, stereo-PIV), acoustics (ADV, ADCP, ABS) and ultrasonics (UVP) are typically deployed towards obtaining flow field variables, at an unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution, expanding the range of scales and applications, driving our understanding of fundamental dynamical flow and transport processes as well as leading to improved engineering designs. For instance, geomorphology and environmental hydraulics researchers, as well as engineering practitioners, customarily deploy established velocimetry methods such as ADV or PIV to retrieve all three components of the velocity field at a high space and time resolution. Optical flow methods are increasingly used by industrial flow communities along with LDA/LDV and ultrasound velocimetry. Acoustic techniques (such as UVP or ADCP) enable the investigation of velocity fields along with sediment transport in harsh conditions, especially where turbidity may hinder optical-laser penetration. The domain of application continues to expand from the micro-scale (e.g., eco-biological and industrial applications in the field of micro-fluidics) to river reach scales and coastal areas (in the case of planar LSPIV and ADCP-ABS). Pressure can be derived from time-resolved 3D PIV while data assimilation techniques allow for hybrid experimental-numerical flow descriptions with higher temporal or spatial resolutions. Laser-based methods can be used to reconstruct detailed bed surface morphologies, while advances in photogrammetry and 3D scanning enable the reconstruction of detailed bathymetries of channels and free-surface profiles. In addition, stone tracing (RFID), particle instrumentation (MEMS) and optical methods (PTV, LSPIV which can also be drone-enabled), allow from directly assessing particle transport rate and identifying its dynamics, to indirectly measuring flow field quantities.

This Special Issue invites contributions that deal with novel aspects of flow and sediment transport monitoring and instrumentation across environments and scales and is promoted by the IAHR committee on Experimental Methods and Instrumentation.

Dr. Manousos Valyrakis
Dr. Massimo Guerrero
Dr. Rui M. L. Ferreira
Dr. Katinka Koll
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Particle image velocimetry
  • Optical/video particle tracking
  • Particle tracking velocimetry
  • Laser Doppler Anemometry
  • Laser scanning
  • Drones/UAV
  • Ultrasound/ultrasonic velocimetry
  • Current profiling
  • Lagrangian drifters
  • Micro-electromechanical sensors
  • RFID stone tracing

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

Article
Accurate Open Channel Flowrate Estimation Using 2D RANS Modelization and ADCP Measurements
Water 2021, 13(13), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131772 - 27 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
Boat-mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) are commonly used to measure the streamwise velocity distribution and discharge in rivers and open channels. Generally, the method used to integrate the measurements is the velocity-area method, which consists of a discrete integration of flow velocity [...] Read more.
Boat-mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) are commonly used to measure the streamwise velocity distribution and discharge in rivers and open channels. Generally, the method used to integrate the measurements is the velocity-area method, which consists of a discrete integration of flow velocity over the whole cross-section. The discrete integration is accomplished independently in the vertical and transversal direction without assessing the hydraulic coherence between both dimensions. To address these limitations, a new alternative method for estimating the discharge and its associated uncertainty is here proposed. The new approach uses a validated 2D RANS hydraulic model to numerically compute the streamwise velocity distribution. The hydraulic model is fitted using state estimation (SE) techniques to accurately reproduce the measurement field and hydraulic behaviour of the free-surface stream. The performance of the hydraulic model has been validated with measurements on two different trapezoidal cross-sections in a real channel, even with asymmetric velocity distribution. The proposed method allows extrapolation of measurement information to other points where there are no measurements with a solid and consistent hydraulic basis. The 2D-hydraulic velocity model (2D-HVM) approach discharge values have been proven more accurate than the ones obtained using velocity-area method, thank to the enhanced use of the measurements in addition to the hydraulic behaviour represented by the 2D RANS model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measurements and Instrumentation in Hydraulic Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Predicting Dam Flood Discharge Induced Ground Vibration with Modified Frequency Response Function
Water 2021, 13(2), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020144 - 10 Jan 2021
Viewed by 704
Abstract
Ground vibrations induced by large flood discharge from a dam can damage surrounding buildings and impact the quality of life of local residents. If ground vibrations could be predicted during flood discharge, the ground vibration intensity could be mitigated by controlling or tuning [...] Read more.
Ground vibrations induced by large flood discharge from a dam can damage surrounding buildings and impact the quality of life of local residents. If ground vibrations could be predicted during flood discharge, the ground vibration intensity could be mitigated by controlling or tuning the discharge conditions by, for example, changing the flow rate, changing the opening method of the orifice, and changing the upstream or downstream water level, thereby effectively preventing damage. This study proposes a prediction method with a modified frequency response function (FRF) and applies it to the in situ measured data of Xiangjiaba Dam. A multiple averaged power spectrum FRF (MP-FRF) is derived by analyzing four major factors when the FRF is used: noise, system nonlinearity, spectral leakages, and signal latency. The effects of the two types of vibration source as input are quantified. The impact of noise on the predicted amplitude is corrected based on the characteristics of the measured signal. The proposed method involves four steps: signal denoising, MP-FRF estimation, vibration prediction, and noise correction. The results show that when the vibration source and ground vibrations are broadband signals and two or more bands with relative high energies, the frequency distribution of ground vibration can be predicted with MP-FRF by filtering both the input and output. The amplitude prediction loss caused by filtering can be corrected by adding a constructed white noise signal to the prediction result. Compared with using the signal at multiple vibration sources after superimposed as input, using the main source as input improves the accuracy of the predicted frequency distribution. The proposed method can predict the dominant frequency and the frequency bands with relative high energies of the ground vibration downstream of Xiangjiaba Dam. The predicted amplitude error is 9.26%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measurements and Instrumentation in Hydraulic Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Large-Scale Particle Image Velocimetry for Estimating Vena-Contracta Width for Flow in Contracted Open Channels
Water 2021, 13(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13010031 - 26 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
This paper presents the findings of a flume study using large-scale particle velocimetry (LSPIV) to estimate the top-width of the vena contracta formed by an approach open-channel flow entering a contraction of the channel. LSPIV is an image-based method that non-invasively measures two-dimensional [...] Read more.
This paper presents the findings of a flume study using large-scale particle velocimetry (LSPIV) to estimate the top-width of the vena contracta formed by an approach open-channel flow entering a contraction of the channel. LSPIV is an image-based method that non-invasively measures two-dimensional instantaneous free-surface velocities of water flow using video equipment. The experiments investigated the requisite dimensions of two essential LSPIV components—search area and interrogation area– to establish the optimum range of these components for use in LSPIV application to contractions of open-channel flows. Of practical concern (e.g., bridge hydraulics) is flow contraction and contraction scour that can occur in the vena contracta region. The study showed that optimum values for the search area (SA) and interrogation area (IA) were 10 and 60 pixels, respectively. Also, the study produced a curve indicating a trend for vena-contracta width narrowing with a variable ratio of approach-channel and contracted-channel widths and varying bed shear stress of approach flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measurements and Instrumentation in Hydraulic Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Bedload Velocity and Backscattering Strength from Mobile Sediment Bed: A Laboratory Investigation Comparing Bistatic Versus Monostatic Acoustic Configuration
Water 2020, 12(12), 3318; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123318 - 26 Nov 2020
Viewed by 575
Abstract
Despite the many advantages of using active ultrasound sonars, recent studies have shown that the specific acoustic geometry, signal-processing configuration, and complex surface-volume scattering process at the riverbed introduce several uncertainties in bedload estimation. This study presents a comparison of bedload velocity and [...] Read more.
Despite the many advantages of using active ultrasound sonars, recent studies have shown that the specific acoustic geometry, signal-processing configuration, and complex surface-volume scattering process at the riverbed introduce several uncertainties in bedload estimation. This study presents a comparison of bedload velocity and bottom echo intensity measurements performed by monostatic and bistatic active ultrasound systems. The monostatic configuration is widely applied in the field to measure the apparent velocity at the riverbed with an acoustic current Doppler profiler (ADCP). Two laboratory investigations were conducted in two different hydraulic facilities deploying ADCP Stream Pro, monostatic and bistatic acoustic velocity profilers, manufactured by Ubertone. The bistatic instruments provided more accurate bedload velocity measurements and helped in understanding the acoustic sampling of the monastic systems. The bistatic profiles succeeded in measuring a profile over the active bedload layer, and the monostatic instruments resulted in different bedload velocity estimations depending on the acoustic resolution and sampling. The echo intensity increased in the cells measured within the active bedload layer with respect to the cell measuring the water column above. The cells that sampled the immobile bed surface beneath the bedload layer showed a reduction of the echo intensity compared with the cells above. The acoustic sampling, which combines the measurement volume geometry and internal processing, seems crucial for more accurate outputs. Future research about the use of monostatic instruments in the field should aim to define the best possible setting for the acoustic parameters at a given bedload condition that may be tuned by evaluating the backscattering at the river bottom together with the apparent bedload velocity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measurements and Instrumentation in Hydraulic Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Non-Intrusive Measurements of Wave-Induced Flow over Dikes by Means of a Combined Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry and Videography
Water 2020, 12(11), 3053; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113053 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 573
Abstract
The performance of non-intrusive instruments, such as acoustic profilers and cameras, to describe the wave-induced flow processes over maritime dike crest was investigated in experiments carried out at the University of Bologna. Direct and derived measurements from the acoustic probes deployed along the [...] Read more.
The performance of non-intrusive instruments, such as acoustic profilers and cameras, to describe the wave-induced flow processes over maritime dike crest was investigated in experiments carried out at the University of Bologna. Direct and derived measurements from the acoustic probes deployed along the structure crest were discussed in relation to the observed backscatter rates. Image processing was implemented by means of clustering algorithm, in order to detect the free surface during overtopping events and characterize wave front propagation over the dike crest. UVP data were processed to indirectly derive flow depths and overtopping rates and compare them with the direct measurements in order to assess the measurement reliability and discuss their limits. Individual overtopping volume distribution as obtained by UVP data were estimated and compared with well-consolidated formulations, showing a good agreement. Finally, suggestions for an appropriate use of non-intrusive instruments to characterize a shallow, transient and aerated flow were provided, such as the control of the artificial seeding density, the use of a bi-static UVP configuration and adjustments to light exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measurements and Instrumentation in Hydraulic Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

Technical Note
Technical Note: On the Production and Accuracy of CNC-Manufactured Hydraulic Scale Models
Water 2021, 13(7), 916; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070916 - 27 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 643
Abstract
This Technical Note addresses the workflow for the production of hydraulic scale models using a Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) production technique and investigates the possibilities to accurately reproduce topographical roughness features. Focusing on the construction of three scale models of unlined rock blasted [...] Read more.
This Technical Note addresses the workflow for the production of hydraulic scale models using a Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) production technique and investigates the possibilities to accurately reproduce topographical roughness features. Focusing on the construction of three scale models of unlined rock blasted tunnels, their accuracy is evaluated based on the comparison of differences between scaled prototype point clouds obtained by terrestrial laser scanning, spatially filtered meshes that served as input for the milling of the models, and digital twins of the constructed models that were created by Structure from Motion photogrammetry. The direct comparison between the point clouds and meshes as well as the comparison of derived statistical parameters show that the models could be reproduced with a high degree of accuracy. Observed deviations between the point clouds of the milled models and the milling meshes, as well as the scaled original point cloud, are identified and discussed in light of the production technique and the accuracy of the applied methods for the comparison. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measurements and Instrumentation in Hydraulic Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop