Special Issue "Dynamics and Biogeochemical Flows in Estuarine and Nearshore Systems"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Erosion and Sediment Transport".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Miguel Ortega-Sánchez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Environmental Fluid Dynamics Group, Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research (IISTA), University of Granada, Granada, Spain
Interests: coastal engineering; coastal morphology; sediment transport; wave processes; coastal management
Prof. Manuel Díez-Minguito
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Environmental Fluid Dynamics Group, Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research (IISTA), University of Granada
Interests: coastal physical oceanography; estuarine physics
Prof. Alejandro López-Ruiz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Aerospace Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of Seville
Interests: Coastal engineering; sediment transport; shoreline evolution; nearshore processes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is a urgent need of knowledge to understand the response of estuaries and nearshore systems to current and near-future challenges, such as natural and man-induced global changes. Sea level rise, increase in the probability of the occurrence of extreme events, increase in water temperature, reduction of run-off, and increase in human pressure on the ecosystems are just some examples of the changes that these coastal systems are facing. The sustainable management of estuaries and nearshore systems is therefore one of the greatest scientific and technical challenges of today. To tackle this challenge, it is required to have a precise knowledge of the dynamics and biogeochemical processes, and their interactions and modeling.

This Special Issue will contribute to obtain further insight into the hydrodynamic, sedimentary, and ecological processes in bays, marshes, estuaries, deltas, and different types of beaches. Manuscripts focusing on the (complex and idealized) modeling of hydrodynamics and biogeochemical flows and their interactions are welcome. Additionally, reviews identifying research priorities and showing recent advances in this field are invited.

Prof. Miguel Ortega-Sánchez
Prof. Manuel Díez-Minguito
Prof. Alejandro López-Ruiz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • estuaries
  • nearshore systems
  • coastal processes
  • tidal processes
  • field measurements
  • theoretical and numerical modeling
  • eco-morphodynamics
  • human impacts

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Short-Term Response of Chlorophyll a Concentration Due to Intense Wind and Freshwater Peak Episodes in Estuaries: The Case of Fangar Bay (Ebro Delta)
Water 2021, 13(5), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050701 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Estuaries and coastal bays are areas of large spatio-temporal variability in physical and biological variables due to environmental factors such as local wind, light availability, freshwater inputs or tides. This study focuses on the effect of strong wind events and freshwater peaks on [...] Read more.
Estuaries and coastal bays are areas of large spatio-temporal variability in physical and biological variables due to environmental factors such as local wind, light availability, freshwater inputs or tides. This study focuses on the effect of strong wind events and freshwater peaks on short-term chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration distribution in the small-scale and microtidal, Fangar Bay (Ebro Delta, northwestern Mediterranean). The hydrodynamics of this bay are primarily driven by local wind episodes modulated by stratification in the water column. Results based on field-campaign observations and Sentinel-2 images revealed that intense wind episodes from both NW (offshore) and NE-E (onshore) caused an increase in the concentration of surface Chl a. The mechanisms responsible were horizontal mixing and the bottom resuspension (also linked to the breakage of the stratification) that presumably resuspended Chl a containing biomass (i.e., micropyhtobentos) and/or incorporated nutrients into the water column. On the other hand, sea-breeze was not capable of breaking up the stratification, so the chlorophyll a concentration did not change significantly during these episodes. It was concluded that the mixing produced by the strong winds favoured an accumulation of Chl a concentration, while the stratification that causes a positive estuarine circulation reduced this accumulation. However, the spatial-temporal variability of the Chl a concentration in small-scale estuaries and coastal bays is quite complex due to the many factors involved and deserve further intensive field campaigns and additional numerical modelling efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Biogeochemical Flows in Estuarine and Nearshore Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Case Study of the Effects of Management Interventions on the Phosphorus Dynamics at a Coastal, Eutrophic, Caribbean lagoon (Laguna Cartagena, Puerto Rico)
Water 2021, 13(4), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040449 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 610
Abstract
Laguna Cartagena is a coastal, eutrophic, shallow lake and freshwater wetland in southwestern Puerto Rico, managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. This ecosystem has been impacted by phosphorus loading from adjacent agricultural areas since the 1950s, causing eutrophication and deteriorating wildlife [...] Read more.
Laguna Cartagena is a coastal, eutrophic, shallow lake and freshwater wetland in southwestern Puerto Rico, managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. This ecosystem has been impacted by phosphorus loading from adjacent agricultural areas since the 1950s, causing eutrophication and deteriorating wildlife habitats. Herein, we describe phosphorus input and export during September 2010–September 2011 (Phase One) and October 2013–November 2014 (Phase Two). These two phases bracket a period of intensified management interventions including excavation and removal of sediment and vegetation, draining, and burning during the summers of 2012 and 2013. Results indicate that Laguna Cartagena retains a phosphorus (sink) in its sediments, and exhibits nutrient-releasing events (source, mainly total phosphorus) to the lagoon water column, which are associated with rainfall and rising water levels. External factors including water level fluctuations and rainfall influenced phosphorus export during Phase One, but after management interventions (Phase Two), internal processes influenced sink/source dynamics, releasing elevated phosphorus concentrations to the water column. When exposed sediments were re-flooded, phosphorus concentrations to the water column increased, releasing elevated P concentrations downstream to an estuarine wetlands area and the Caribbean Sea. Herein we offer management recommendations to optimize wildlife habitat without elevating phosphorus concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Biogeochemical Flows in Estuarine and Nearshore Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Modeling Wave Overtopping on a Seawall with XBeach, IH2VOF, and Mase Formulas
Water 2020, 12(9), 2526; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092526 - 10 Sep 2020
Viewed by 719
Abstract
The advances in computational fluid dynamics have made numerical modeling a reliable complementary tool to the traditional physical modeling in the study of the wave overtopping phenomenon. This paper addresses overtopping on a seawall by combining the numerical models XBeach (non-hydrostatic and Surfbeat [...] Read more.
The advances in computational fluid dynamics have made numerical modeling a reliable complementary tool to the traditional physical modeling in the study of the wave overtopping phenomenon. This paper addresses overtopping on a seawall by combining the numerical models XBeach (non-hydrostatic and Surfbeat modes) and IH2VOF, and the Mase formulas. This work is structured in two phases: (i) phase I assesses the performance of numerical models and formulas in modeling wave run-up and overtopping on a seawall for a solid profile bottom and representative hydro-morphologic conditions of a study site in the Portuguese west coast; (ii) phase II investigates the effect of the profile bottom variation in the overtopping phenomenon for extreme maritime storm field conditions of the study site, considering a solid bottom and a varying sandy bottom. The results indicate that XBeach underestimates the wave energy, and the frequency and intensity of the overtopping occurrences predicted by IH2VOF; the numerical models’ run-up and overtopping discharge predictions are overestimated by the Mase formulas, in simplified and in storm field conditions; and the variation of the bottom morphology throughout the storm event greatly influences the XBeach predictions, while the Mase results are mostly influenced by the bottom roughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Biogeochemical Flows in Estuarine and Nearshore Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Natural and Human-Induced Flow and Sediment Transport within Tidal Creek Networks Influenced by Ocean-Bay Tides
Water 2019, 11(7), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071493 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
Improving current understanding of hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics in complex tidal embayments is of major importance to face future challenges derived from climate change and increasing human pressure. This work deepens the knowledge of the hydro-morphodynamics of complex creek networks that connect basins [...] Read more.
Improving current understanding of hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics in complex tidal embayments is of major importance to face future challenges derived from climate change and increasing human pressure. This work deepens the knowledge of the hydro-morphodynamics of complex creek networks that connect basins with different characteristics, identifying their morphodynamic trends and the potential impacts of channel deepening. We selected two tidal creeks which flow through salt marshes and tidal flats of the Cádiz Bay (SW Spain) in a singular network due to their double connection to the Atlantic Ocean and the inner bay. We study the interactions between tidal waves that penetrate into the creeks from these two different bodies of water, analyzing the tidal asymmetry and the morphodynamic tendencies of the system. For the analysis, we set up a hydro-morphodynamic model specifically developed for areas with very shallow and complex channels. Results show that the tidal wave penetrates within the tidal network both from the inner Bay and the open ocean with different amplitudes, phases and flow velocities. There is also an asymmetric pattern for the tidal flows caused by the deformation of the dominant astronomical tidal constituents, M2 and M4, due to the non-linear interaction of tidal currents with the irregular creek geometry and bottom topography. Tidal asymmetry promotes the progressive infilling of the area where the tidal waves meet closing the connection between the open ocean and the inner bay, such an infilling trend being accelerated by human interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Biogeochemical Flows in Estuarine and Nearshore Systems)
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