Contribution of Carbon Dioxide from Water Bodies to the Atmosphere

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and Climate Change".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 8072

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Research Institute for Volcanology and Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9500-321 Azores, Portugal
Interests: hydrogeochemistry; hydrology; groundwater; lake, water resources management; climate change; carbon dioxide; water resources

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Freshwater ecosystems are environmentally and economically valuable and offer benefits to millions of people worldwide. Currently, these ecosystems and the biodiversity they support are among the most threatened: climate change is accelerating its degradation, the reduction in the snow cover of the glaciers is clearly visible. Simultaneously, extreme climatic situations, such as long periods of drought, intense precipitation and intense heat waves, are becoming more and more frequent and intensifying in many regions of the world. And one of the reasons is the high release of CO2 into the atmosphere.

Large lakes, wetlands, rivers as well as springs, in some places contribute significantly to the high levels of carbon dioxide emitted. The origin of CO2 can have different origins (e.g. deep or biogenic), in some cases increased by human action.

The objective of this special issue is to evaluate and quantify the contribution of these water systems in the final CO2 output, differentiating its origins and impacts in the different regions and geological environments inserted. The international scientific community has been giving a growing importance to the study of lakes, inserted in regions with active volcanism, but sometimes forgetting the other existing water resources (springs, rivers...), as well as other wetlands located in areas without active volcanism.

Thus, as carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the main gases released in volcanic regions, the quantification of CO2 flux from water bodies, as well as the identification of preferential degassing zones, is an emerging issue and with an impact in terms of climate change.

Dr. Cesar Andrade
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • climate change
  • lake
  • surface water
  • carbon dioxide
  • water quality
  • climate impacts
  • environmental change
  • organic carbon
  • eutrophication
  • rivers
  • water bodies

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 2858 KiB  
Article
Hydrogeochemistry and Strontium Isotopic Signatures of Mineral Waters from Furnas and Fogo Volcanoes (São Miguel, Azores)
by Letícia Ferreira, José Virgílio Cruz, Fatima Viveiros, Nuno Durães, Rui Coutinho, César Andrade, José Francisco Santos and Maria Helena Acciaioli
Water 2023, 15(2), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020245 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
This study focused on 13 water samples collected from two of the main active volcanoes (Furnas and Fogo) at São Miguel, Azores. Based on the major element composition, the waters are classified into Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl types. While the concentrations of chloride [...] Read more.
This study focused on 13 water samples collected from two of the main active volcanoes (Furnas and Fogo) at São Miguel, Azores. Based on the major element composition, the waters are classified into Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl types. While the concentrations of chloride seem to reflect the contribution of sea salt aerosols, the behavior of the main cationic species and Sr in the analyzed waters appear to have been largely controlled by the interaction between meteoric waters and the underlying bedrock. The temperature and input of CO2 from the secondary volcanic activity are enhancing the silicate leaching. The stable isotopic data show that these waters have a meteoric origin (δ18O = −2.03 to −4.29‰; δ2H = −7.6 to −17.4‰) and are influenced by a deep hydrothermal/volcanic carbon source (δ13C = −4.36 to −7.04‰). The values of δ34S (0.13 to 12.76‰) reflects a juvenile sulfur source derived from the leaching of volcanic rocks. The Sr isotopic ratios show a slight difference between the values from Furnas (87Sr/86Sr = 0.705235–0.705432) and Fogo (87Sr/86Sr = 0.705509–0.707307) whereas the Furnas waters are less radiogenic. The Sr isotope also shows that the hydrochemical signatures of the groundwater was controlled by the rock leaching, and the samples Furnas reached water-rock isotopic equilibrium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contribution of Carbon Dioxide from Water Bodies to the Atmosphere)
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12 pages, 3441 KiB  
Article
The Regulating Role of Meteorology in the Wetland-Air CO2 Fluxes at the Largest Shallow Grass-Type Lake on the North China Plain
by Gang Li, Kai Xiao, Qianqian Wang, Yan Zhang, Haitao Li and Hailong Li
Water 2023, 15(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010139 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
Lakes are hot spots of carbon cycles in inland aquatic systems. As a vital factor, meteorology, including air temperature, precipitation, wind speed and evapotranspiration, is profoundly affecting or even regulating the wetland-air CO2 exchanges. Compared with some other similar lakes in China, [...] Read more.
Lakes are hot spots of carbon cycles in inland aquatic systems. As a vital factor, meteorology, including air temperature, precipitation, wind speed and evapotranspiration, is profoundly affecting or even regulating the wetland-air CO2 exchanges. Compared with some other similar lakes in China, the largest shallow grass-type Baiyangdian Lake (BYDL) acts as a vital CO2 sink on the North China Plain. The purpose of this study is to reveal the effects of meteorology on the process of CO2 flux variation. Based on the method of the eddy covariance, the daily average wetland-air CO2 flux at the BYDL over the monitoring period from April 2019 to November 2020, reached −0.63 μmol m−2 s−1, and the annual average reached −0.71 μmol m−2 s−1 from 12 April 2019 to 12 April 2020. The CO2 sink fluxes varied with the seasons and reached the maximum in summer. Temperature and evapotranspiration are two major driving factors, whose higher values can positively improve the wetland CO2 sinks. Precipitation generally coincides with the CO2 sinks, but the relatively larger summertime precipitation (0.39 m in 2020, compared with that of 0.17 m in 2019) inhibits the CO2 uptakes on longer timescales. A moderate wind speed in the range of 1.6~3.3 m s−1, promoted the CO2 sinks for the shallow grass-type lake. Compared with previous studies at the same or similar wetlands, consistent CO2 sink fluxes are found. Further in this study, the variation trends of CO2 sinks with the changing meteorological factors are revealed for the first time in this type of wetland. Once meteorology is determined under both the anthropogenic and climatic impacts, the evaluation and prediction of the lacustrine carbon cycling could be more precise. Generally, this study will serve as an important data point into the global understanding of lake carbon fluxes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contribution of Carbon Dioxide from Water Bodies to the Atmosphere)
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18 pages, 1492 KiB  
Article
Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Emissions along a Trophic Gradient in Tropical Karst Lakes
by Mariana Vargas-Sánchez, Javier Alcocer, Salvador Sánchez-Carrillo, Luis A. Oseguera, Erika M. Rivera-Herrera, Ismael Soria-Reinoso, Andrea Guzmán-Arias, Felipe García-Oliva and Martín Merino-Ibarra
Water 2023, 15(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010013 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Inland aquatic ecosystems are valuable sentinels of anthropic-associated changes (e.g., agriculture and tourism). Eutrophication has become of primary importance in altering aquatic ecosystem functioning. Quantifying the CO2 emissions by inland aquatic ecosystems of different trophic statuses may provide helpful information about the [...] Read more.
Inland aquatic ecosystems are valuable sentinels of anthropic-associated changes (e.g., agriculture and tourism). Eutrophication has become of primary importance in altering aquatic ecosystem functioning. Quantifying the CO2 emissions by inland aquatic ecosystems of different trophic statuses may provide helpful information about the role of eutrophication on greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigated diel and seasonal carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and emissions in three tropical karst lakes with different trophic statuses. We measured CO2 emissions using static floating chambers twice daily during the rainy/warm and dry/cold seasons while the lakes were thermally stratified and mixed, respectively. The CO2 concentration was estimated by gas chromatography and photoacoustic spectroscopy. The results showed a significant seasonal variation in the dissolved CO2 concentration (CCO2) and the CO2 flux (FCO2), with the largest values in the rainy/warm season but not along the diel cycle. The CCO2 values ranged from 13.3 to 168.6 µmol L−1 averaging 41.9 ± 35.3 µmol L−1 over the rainy/warm season and from 12.9 to 38.0 µmol L−1 with an average of 21.0 ± 7.2 µmol L−1 over the dry/cold season. The FCO2 values ranged from 0.2 to 12.1 g CO2 m−2 d−1 averaging 4.9 ± 4.0 g CO2 m−2 d−1 over the rainy/warm season and from 0.1 to 1.7 g CO2 m−2 d−1 with an average of 0.8 ± 0.5 g CO2 m−2 d−1 over the dry/cold season. During the rainy/warm season the emission was higher in the eutrophic lake San Lorenzo (9.1 ± 1.2 g CO2 m−2 d−1), and during the dry/cold the highest emission was recorded in the mesotrophic lake San José (1.42 ± 0.2 g CO2 m−2 d−1). Our results indicated that eutrophication in tropical karst lakes increased CO2 evasion rates to the atmosphere mainly due to the persistence of anoxia in most of the lake’s water column, which maintained high rates of anaerobic respiration coupled with the anaerobic oxidation of methane. Contrarily, groundwater inflows that provide rich-dissolved inorganic carbon waters sustain emissions in meso and oligotrophic karstic tropical lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contribution of Carbon Dioxide from Water Bodies to the Atmosphere)
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19 pages, 4660 KiB  
Article
Distributions and Influencing Factors of Carbonate Species in Bohai Bay and Relevant Rivers Flowing into the Bay in Summer 2020
by Xiaolong Yuan, Xi Wu and Jun Sun
Water 2022, 14(21), 3389; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213389 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1568
Abstract
The distributions of pH, total alkalinity (Alk), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) were investigated in Bohai Bay in northeastern China during summer 2020. The CO2 air–sea fluxes were also estimated for [...] Read more.
The distributions of pH, total alkalinity (Alk), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) were investigated in Bohai Bay in northeastern China during summer 2020. The CO2 air–sea fluxes were also estimated for that summer. The results of the survey showed that the distributions of Alk and DIC in surface and bottom seawater were generally consistent, with the maximum values of DIC and Alk appearing at the same station, station BHB33 at the surface and station BHB35 at the bottom, which were in the middle of the bay. The minimum values of pH and the maximums value of pCO2 were both located at station HH2 at the surface and station HH3 at the bottom, which were near the mouth of the Haihe River. Bohai Bay was estimated as a source of CO2 in summer 2020. Carbonate species presented significant correlations with biochemical parameters, such as chlorophyll α (Chl-α), dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients. In addition, terrestrial inputs and human activities, together with the poor hydrodynamics of Bohai Bay are also the main factors influencing the carbonate species in Bohai Bay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contribution of Carbon Dioxide from Water Bodies to the Atmosphere)
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21 pages, 12527 KiB  
Article
Multivariate Statistical Analysis of the Phytoplankton Interactions with Physicochemical and Meteorological Parameters in Volcanic Crater Lakes from Azores
by João Lopes, Afonso Silva Pinto, Telmo Eleutério, Maria Gabriela Meirelles and Helena Cristina Vasconcelos
Water 2022, 14(16), 2548; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14162548 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
This study aimed to identify the key factors influencing the phytoplankton development in four lakes on the island of São Miguel (Azores). We used a multivariate analysis of biological parameters (phytoplankton), physicochemical parameters, and meteorological data. Data were collected between 2003 and 2018 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to identify the key factors influencing the phytoplankton development in four lakes on the island of São Miguel (Azores). We used a multivariate analysis of biological parameters (phytoplankton), physicochemical parameters, and meteorological data. Data were collected between 2003 and 2018 in the volcanic Lakes of Sete Cidades (Green and Blue), Fogo, and Furnas. The ecosystems of these bodies of water are increasingly vulnerable to anthropogenic activities (increasing human pressure) as well as to changing climate patterns. This analysis is the first exploratory approach to this dataset to explore trends and patterns of evolution from a multivariate perspective. This approach is also intended to improve understanding of the conditions that favor the emergence of different Cyanobacterial divisions. For this purpose, several statistical and chemometric methods were used, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Multivariate models combining biological and meteorological data focused from 2010 to 2012. The results from the PCA models showed that the abundance of Bacillariophyta, Dinophyta, and Cryptophyta phyla are correlated and appear to be influenced by high levels of precipitation, evaporation, and wind speed. On the other hand, the Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, and Chrysophyta phyla appear to be more correlated with high values of air temperature, water temperature, and radiation. Also, the Euglenophyta phylum appears to be associated with low levels of precipitation, evaporation and wind speed, and high temperatures. Finally, we can conclude that these lakes have endured physicochemical parameters over the past 15 years, meaning that the measures adopted to monitor and protect the lakes are effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contribution of Carbon Dioxide from Water Bodies to the Atmosphere)
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