Tropical Rivers and Wetlands in the Anthropocene

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2022) | Viewed by 29271

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Graduate Program in Environmental Sciences-CIAMB, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil
Interests: hydrogeomorphoogy; fluvial geomorphology; water resources; tropical regions; large rivers; human impacts
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Graduate Program in Environmental Sciences-CIAMB and IESA-LABOGEF, Federal University of Goias-UFG, Goiânia, Brazil
Interests: water resources in tropical regions; soil and hydric erosion; tropical soils; territorial planning; land use-land cover changes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Graduate Program in Environmental Sciences-CIAMB and IESA-LABOGEF, Federal University of Goias-UFG, Goiânia, Brazil
Interests: hydrogeomorphology; fluvial geomorphology; fluvial sedimentology; water resources; tropical regions; human impacts
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite a recent increase of published results on water resources in tropical regions, many tropical rivers and wetlands are still understudied or are barely known to the global scientific audience. This is particularly sensitive as the environmental pressure on tropical rivers and other freshwater wetlands has increased rampantly during the last two decades. Human pressure spread from dam construction to sand and gold mining,  land-use and land-cover changes, irrigation, pollution, waterways, flood hazards,  and others. This special issue intends to provide relevant results on how human activities and climate change impact fluvial basins, freshwater wetlands,  and river’s functioning, focusing on hydrological, hydro-geomorphological, hydrochemistry, and hydro-ecological research. The issue also will include sounds contributions on scientifically sustained water resources management plans and assessments that focus on the relevance of (abiotic) hydro environmental components of fluvial science.  The results will be a collection of articles aiming to contrinute to solve the tropical rivers' ongoing and future environmental challenges.

We are pleased to invite you to contribute to the special issue Tropical Rivers and Wetlands in the Anthropocene.

The environmental pressure on tropical rivers has increased rampantly during the last two decades, from dam construction to sand and gold mining,  land-use and land-cover changes, irrigation, pollution, waterways, flood hazards,  and others. We intend to provide relevant results on how human activities and climate change impact fluvial basins, freshwater wetlands,  and river’s functioning, focusing on hydrological, hydro-geomorphological, hydrochemistry, and hydro-ecological research. The issue also will include sounds contributions on scientifically sustained water resources management plans and assessments that focus on the relevance of (abiotic) hydro environmental components of fluvial science.  The special issue aims to collect key articles aiming to solve the ongoing and future environmental challenges tropical rivers face.

We are excited and pleased in looking forward to your relevant contribution to the special issue.

Prof. Dr. Edgardo M. Latrubesse
Prof. Dr. Karla M. Silva de Farias
Prof. Dr. Maximiliano Bayer
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • tropical rivers
  • anthropocene
  • human impacts
  • wetlands
  • hydrophysical pollution
  • mining
  • water
  • resources
  • floods
  • climate change
  • management

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 3502 KiB  
Article
Health Risks in a Brazilian Cerrado Population Due to Pathogens Transmitted through Water and Land Use Conditions
by Débora Pereira da Silva, Nolan Ribeiro Bezerra, Raviel Eurico Basso, Maria da Natividade Vieira and Paulo Sérgio Scalize
Water 2023, 15(1), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010158 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are pathogenic agents which cause risk to public health. The goal of this research was to evaluate the risk of infection by cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in a population of the Cerrado biome and its relation to land use. Raw water [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are pathogenic agents which cause risk to public health. The goal of this research was to evaluate the risk of infection by cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in a population of the Cerrado biome and its relation to land use. Raw water samples were collected from 41 different surface sources of the state of Goiás (Brazil). The parasites were quantified via the membrane filtration method. The probability of an individual contracting an infection after consuming contaminated water was estimated using the quantitative microbial risk assessment. Generally, the analyzed watersheds (WS) presented Giardia cysts in 63.4% of the samples (<LD at 116.67 cysts/L) and Cryptosporidium oocysts in 87.8% of the samples (<LD at 300 oocysts/L). The WS with pasture predominance were statistically associated with the presence of Cryptosporidium, in which the possible contamination source is the excrements of animals. There is a greater risk of giardiasis. It is concluded that there is a need to implement improvement actions regarding environmental quality and the management of the use and occupation of surface sources in the Cerrado Biome, in order to reduce the spreading of diseases and negative impacts to the local population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Rivers and Wetlands in the Anthropocene)
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15 pages, 4874 KiB  
Article
Methodological Contribution to the Assessment of Generation and Sediment Transport in Tropical Hydrographic Systems
by Elizon D. Nunes, Patrícia de A. Romão, Maurício M. Sales, Newton M. de Souza and Marta P. da Luz
Water 2022, 14(24), 4091; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14244091 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1326
Abstract
The efficiency and useful life of reservoirs are directly related to the production and input rates of sediments resulting from erosive processes at the edges and those resulting from the action of surface runoff in contribution areas and transported via tributary channels. Knowledge [...] Read more.
The efficiency and useful life of reservoirs are directly related to the production and input rates of sediments resulting from erosive processes at the edges and those resulting from the action of surface runoff in contribution areas and transported via tributary channels. Knowledge of the intensity, as well as the relationship between generation and input, allows more precise identification of critical environments, helping in the decision-making process and allowing the definition of mitigating measures. This work aims to relate the spatial variability of soil loss with the respective sediment transfer potential in two sub-basins tributary to the HPP Batalha reservoir in the Midwest region of Brazil. The methodology comprised the bivariate analysis between estimates of soil loss in areas of contribution and the Declivity-Extent Relationship along the channels. The results point to the configuration of four spatial patterns, indicating different levels of criticality in terms of sediment generation potential and transport capacity. In addition, they highlight basins with high potential and greater proximity to the reservoir, which constitute priority areas for monitoring, especially the conditions of soil cover and management, to contribute to the reduction of sediment inputs and prolong the efficiency of these structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Rivers and Wetlands in the Anthropocene)
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16 pages, 3565 KiB  
Article
Dams Pose a Critical Threat to Rivers in Brazil’s Cerrado Hotspot
by Manuel Eduardo Ferreira, Sérgio Henrique de Moura Nogueira, Edgardo Manuel Latrubesse, Marcia Nunes Macedo, Marcos Callisto, José Fernandes Bezerra Neto and Geraldo Wilson Fernandes
Water 2022, 14(22), 3762; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223762 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2728
Abstract
Hydropower dams are touted as one of the cleanest forms of energy production, yet they are associated with severe environmental impacts on both the physical structure and functioning of river ecosystems. The threat is particularly acute in the Brazilian Cerrado—a biodiverse savanna region, [...] Read more.
Hydropower dams are touted as one of the cleanest forms of energy production, yet they are associated with severe environmental impacts on both the physical structure and functioning of river ecosystems. The threat is particularly acute in the Brazilian Cerrado—a biodiverse savanna region, spanning over 2 million km2, that concentrates the headwaters of several critical South American watersheds. Our study analyzed the current distribution of large and small hydroelectric plants in the Cerrado and focused on understanding their effect on land use changes. We also propose a Dam Saturation Index (DSI) to help spur more integrated planning for this region. Results indicate that the Cerrado river basins contains 116 (30%) of Brazil’s large hydroelectric plants and 352 (36%) of its small hydroelectric plants. Moreover, these plants spurred significant land use changes within a 5-km buffer of the dams, with over 2255 km2 of native vegetation cleared by 2000 and an additional 379 km2 in the ensuing 20 years, could reach ~1000 km2. Based on the historical anthropization process in the Brazilian savannas, we expect new crops, pastures, and urban equipment to be incorporated into this landscape, with different impact loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Rivers and Wetlands in the Anthropocene)
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16 pages, 2453 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Different Artificial Intelligence Techniques to Predict Floods in Jhelum River, Pakistan
by Fahad Ahmed, Ho Huu Loc, Edward Park, Muhammad Hassan and Panuwat Joyklad
Water 2022, 14(21), 3533; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213533 - 3 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2994
Abstract
Floods are among the major natural disasters that cause loss of life and economic damage worldwide. Floods damage homes, crops, roads, and basic infrastructure, forcing people to migrate from high flood-risk areas. However, due to a lack of information about the effective variables [...] Read more.
Floods are among the major natural disasters that cause loss of life and economic damage worldwide. Floods damage homes, crops, roads, and basic infrastructure, forcing people to migrate from high flood-risk areas. However, due to a lack of information about the effective variables in forecasting, the development of an accurate flood forecasting system remains difficult. The flooding process is quite complex as it has a nonlinear relationship with various meteorological and topographic parameters. Therefore, there is always a need to develop regional models that could be used effectively for water resource management in a particular locality. This study aims to establish and evaluate various data-driven flood forecasting models in the Jhelum River, Punjab, Pakistan. The performance of Local Linear Regression (LLR), Dynamic Local Linear Regression (DLLR), Two Layer Back Propagation (TLBP), Conjugate Gradient (CG), and Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno (BFGS)-based ANN models were evaluated using R2, variance, bias, RMSE and MSE. The R2, bias, and RMSE values of the best-performing LLR model were 0.908, 0.009205, and 1.018017 for training and 0.831, −0.05344, and 0.919695 for testing. Overall, the LLR model performed best for both the training and validation periods and can be used for the prediction of floods in the Jhelum River. Moreover, the model provides a baseline to develop an early warning system for floods in the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Rivers and Wetlands in the Anthropocene)
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22 pages, 7451 KiB  
Article
Integrating Hydrological Connectivity in a Process–Response Framework for Restoration and Monitoring Prioritisation of Floodplain Wetlands in the Ramganga Basin, India
by Manudeo Singh and Rajiv Sinha
Water 2022, 14(21), 3520; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213520 - 3 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1947
Abstract
Floodplain wetlands are critical for sustaining various ecological and hydrological functions in a riverine environment. Severe anthropogenic alterations and human occupation of floodplains have threatened these wetlands in several parts of the world. A major handicap in designing sustainable restoration and monitoring strategies [...] Read more.
Floodplain wetlands are critical for sustaining various ecological and hydrological functions in a riverine environment. Severe anthropogenic alterations and human occupation of floodplains have threatened these wetlands in several parts of the world. A major handicap in designing sustainable restoration and monitoring strategies for these wetlands is the lack of scientific process-based understanding and information on the basin-scale controls of their degradation. Here, we offer a novel approach to integrate the connectivity of the wetlands with the surrounding landscape along with other attributes such as stream density, hydrometeorological parameters, and groundwater dynamics to explain their degradation and then to prioritise them for restoration and monitoring. We hypothesise that the best possible connectivity scenario for the existence of a wetland would be if (a) the wetland has a high connectivity with its upslope area, and (b) the wetland has a low connectivity with its downslope region. The first condition ensures the flow of water into the wetland and the second condition allows longer water residence time in the wetland. Accordingly, we define four connectivity-based wetland health scenarios—good, no impact, bad, and worst. We have implemented the proposed method in 3226 wetlands in the Ramganga Basin in north India. Further, we have applied specific selection criteria, such as distance from the nearest stream and stream density, to prioritise the wetlands for restoration and monitoring. We conclude that the connectivity analysis offers a quick process-based assessment of wetlands’ health status and serves as an important criterion to prioritise the wetlands for developing appropriate management strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Rivers and Wetlands in the Anthropocene)
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20 pages, 7029 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Methods for Filling Daily and Monthly Rainfall Missing Data: Statistical Models or Imputation of Satellite Retrievals?
by Luíza Virgínia Duarte, Klebber Teodomiro Martins Formiga and Veber Afonso Figueiredo Costa
Water 2022, 14(19), 3144; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193144 - 6 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3186
Abstract
Accurate estimation of precipitation patterns is essential for the modeling of hydrological systems and for the planning and management of water resources. However, rainfall time series, as obtained from traditional rain gauges, are frequently corrupted by missing values that might hinder frequency analysis, [...] Read more.
Accurate estimation of precipitation patterns is essential for the modeling of hydrological systems and for the planning and management of water resources. However, rainfall time series, as obtained from traditional rain gauges, are frequently corrupted by missing values that might hinder frequency analysis, hydrological and environmental modeling, and meteorological drought monitoring. In this paper, we evaluated three techniques for filling missing values at daily and monthly time scales, namely, simple linear regression, multiple linear regression, and the direct imputation of satellite retrievals from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, in rainfall gauging stations located in the Brazilian midwestern region. Our results indicated that, despite the relatively low predictive skills of the models at the daily scale, the satellite retrievals provided moderately more accurate estimates, with better representations of the temporal dynamics of the dry and wet states and of the largest observed rainfall events in most testing sites in comparison to the statistical models. At the monthly scale, the performance of the three methods was similar, but the regression-based models were unable to reproduce the seasonal characteristics of the precipitation records, which, at least to some extent, were circumvented by the satellite products. As such, the satellite retrievals might comprise a useful alternative for dealing with missing values in rainfall time series, especially in those regions with complex spatial precipitation patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Rivers and Wetlands in the Anthropocene)
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25 pages, 6498 KiB  
Article
Mathematical Modeling-Based Management of a Sand Trap throughout Operational and Maintenance Periods (Case Study: Pengasih Irrigation Network, Indonesia)
by Ansita Gupitakingkin Pradipta, Ho Huu Loc, Sigit Nurhady, Murtiningrum, S. Mohanasundaram, Edward Park, Sangam Shrestha and Sigit Supadmo Arif
Water 2022, 14(19), 3081; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193081 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2361
Abstract
Surface irrigation networks in Indonesia are damaged by several factors, and sedimentation is among the most severe challenges. Sand traps play a substantial role in improving irrigation system efficiency by reducing sedimentation. There are two periods in sand trap operation: the operational and [...] Read more.
Surface irrigation networks in Indonesia are damaged by several factors, and sedimentation is among the most severe challenges. Sand traps play a substantial role in improving irrigation system efficiency by reducing sedimentation. There are two periods in sand trap operation: the operational and maintenance periods. Pengasih is one of the irrigation schemes implemented in the Progo Opak Serang (POS) River Basin, which has a high level of erosion. This study aimed to propose an appropriate management strategy for the Pengasih sand trap as the first barrier in irrigation network sedimentation based on mathematical modeling. The HEC-RAS simulation software was used to simulate the sand trap hydraulic behaviour. The results show that the validated Manning’s coefficient was 0.025. The optimal transport parameters were Laursen for the potential function, Exner 5 for the sorting method, and Rubey for the fall velocity method. The recommended flushing timeframe is 315 min, with a discharge of 2 m3/s. We suggest that the sand trap flushing frequency be performed twice a year, and it can be performed at the end of March and October. This coincides with the end of the first and third planting seasons of the irrigation scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Rivers and Wetlands in the Anthropocene)
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19 pages, 70229 KiB  
Article
Planform Dynamics and Cut-Off Processes in the Lower Ucayali River, Peruvian Amazon
by Jorge D. Abad, Alejandro Mendoza, Kristin Arceo, Zara Torres, Henry Valverde, Gerles Medina, Christian Frias and Moisés Berezowsky
Water 2022, 14(19), 3059; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193059 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3482
Abstract
The Ucayali River is one of the most dynamic large rivers in the world, with high rates of channel migration regularly producing cutoffs. In the lower portion of the Ucayali River, before its confluence to the Marañon River where the Amazon River is [...] Read more.
The Ucayali River is one of the most dynamic large rivers in the world, with high rates of channel migration regularly producing cutoffs. In the lower portion of the Ucayali River, before its confluence to the Marañon River where the Amazon River is born, the increase in water and sediment discharge triggers bends with secondary channels (transitional stage from purely meandering to anabranching), which influence the planform migration rates and patterns of the sinuous channels. Based on remote sensing analysis, a comparison of planform dynamics of bends with and without secondary channels is presented. For the case of a bend with secondary channels (Jenaro Herrera, JH), detailed field measurements for bed morphology, hydrodynamics, bed and suspended load are performed for low-, transitional- and high-flow conditions (August, February and May, respectively). Additionally, a two-dimensional depth average hydraulic model is utilized to correlate observed migrating patterns with the hydrodynamics. Results indicate that the secondary channels have disrupted typical planform migration rates of the main meandering channel. However, at high amplitudes, these secondary channels reduce their capacity to capture flow and start a narrowing process, which in turn increases migration rates of the main channels (meandering reactivation process), suggesting that an imminent cutoff along the JH bend is underway by pure lateral migration or by the collapse into the existing paleochannels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Rivers and Wetlands in the Anthropocene)
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17 pages, 4070 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the IMERG-GPM Precipitation Product Analysis in Brazilian Midwestern Basins Considering Different Time and Spatial Scales
by Luíza Virgínia Duarte, Klebber Teodomiro Martins Formiga and Veber Afonso Figueiredo Costa
Water 2022, 14(16), 2472; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14162472 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
Precipitation products derived from satellites have emerged as a promising approach for obtaining precipitation estimates, enabling accurate long-term observations and describing the water cycle dynamics from a global scale to a local scale. The quality of these products has improved significantly in the [...] Read more.
Precipitation products derived from satellites have emerged as a promising approach for obtaining precipitation estimates, enabling accurate long-term observations and describing the water cycle dynamics from a global scale to a local scale. The quality of these products has improved significantly in the last decades, especially with the emergence of TRMM missions and its successor GPM. The objective of this study was to evaluate the daily, monthly and annual precipitation estimates provided by IMERG version 05 of the GPM, with the data observed by the rainfall stations of the Brazilian Agency of Water and Sanitation (ANA) in the basins of the Brazilian midwest. In order to compare the data, the spatialization of the data of the rainfall stations was performed by means of the ordinary kriging technique, interpolating the data for grids of 0.1° × 0.1° that correspond to the specialized grids of the GPM satellite. The data were evaluated quantitatively by means of statistical metrics. The GPM satellite precipitation product performed relatively well on a daily scale for regions with smooth topography, and was able to describe the rainfall regime on larger time scales, regardless of the terrain conditions. However, the satellite retrievals were unable to reproduce rainfall extremes in virtually all situations, which may limit their application in frequency analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Rivers and Wetlands in the Anthropocene)
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16 pages, 2522 KiB  
Article
Hydrological Scenarios and Malaria Incidence in the Amazonian Context
by Fernanda Fonseca, Bruna Worfarth-Couto, Andre Santos, Rogério Marinho, Jean-Michel Martinez and Naziano Filizola
Water 2022, 14(8), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081283 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1811
Abstract
In Brazil, approximately 99% of malaria cases are concentrated in the Amazon region. An acute febrile infectious disease, malaria is closely related to climatic and hydrological factors. Environmental variables such as rainfall, flow, level, and color of rivers, the latter associated with the [...] Read more.
In Brazil, approximately 99% of malaria cases are concentrated in the Amazon region. An acute febrile infectious disease, malaria is closely related to climatic and hydrological factors. Environmental variables such as rainfall, flow, level, and color of rivers, the latter associated with the suspended sediment concentration, are important factors that can affect the dynamics of the incidence of some infectious diseases, including malaria. This study explores the possibility that malaria incidence is influenced by precipitation, fluctuations in river levels, and suspended sediment concentration. The four studied municipalities are located in two Brazilian states (Amazonas and Pará) on the banks of rivers with different hydrological characteristics. The results suggest that precipitation and river level fluctuations modulate the seasonal pattern of the disease and evidence the existence of delayed effects of river floods on malaria incidence. The seasonality of the disease has a different influence in each municipality studied. However, municipalities close to rivers with the same characteristic color of waters (as a function of the concentration of suspended sediments) have similar responses to the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Rivers and Wetlands in the Anthropocene)
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Review

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28 pages, 733 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Ecological and Biogeographic Differences of Amazonian Floodplain Forests
by Florian Wittmann, John Ethan Householder, Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade, Jochen Schöngart, Layon Oreste Demarchi, Adriano Costa Quaresma and Wolfgang J. Junk
Water 2022, 14(21), 3360; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213360 - 23 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2807
Abstract
Amazonian floodplain forests along large rivers consist of two distinct floras that are traced to their differentiated sediment- and nutrient-rich (várzea) or sediment- and nutrient-poor (igapó) environments. While tree species in both ecosystems have adapted to seasonal floods that may last up to [...] Read more.
Amazonian floodplain forests along large rivers consist of two distinct floras that are traced to their differentiated sediment- and nutrient-rich (várzea) or sediment- and nutrient-poor (igapó) environments. While tree species in both ecosystems have adapted to seasonal floods that may last up to 270–300 days year−1, ecosystem fertility, hydrogeomorphic disturbance regimes, water shortage and drought, fire, and even specific microclimates are distinct between both ecosystems and largely explain the differences in forest productivity and taxonomic composition and diversity. Here, we review existing knowledge about the influence of these environmental factors on the tree flora of both ecosystems, compare species composition and diversity between central Amazonian várzeas and igapós, and show that both ecosystems track distinct species life-history traits. The ecosystem-level and taxonomic differences also largely explain the biogeographic connections of várzeas and igapós to other Amazonian and extra-Amazonian ecosystems. We highlight the major evolutionary force of large-river wetlands for Amazonian tree diversity and explore the scenarios by which the large number of Amazonian floodplain specialist tree species might even contribute to the gamma diversity of the Amazon by generating new species. Finally, we call attention to the urgent need of an improved conservation of Amazonian várzea and igapó ecosystems and their tree species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Rivers and Wetlands in the Anthropocene)
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Other

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17 pages, 1296 KiB  
Systematic Review
Investigation and Quantification of Erosions in the Margins of Water Bodies: A Systematic Review
by Viviane de Souza Dias, Karla Maria Silva de Faria, Marta Pereira da Luz and Klebber Teodomiro Martins Formiga
Water 2022, 14(11), 1693; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111693 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2052
Abstract
Erosive processes along the margins of water bodies are driven by various phenomena. Understanding and quantifying these processes require multidisciplinary approaches spanning across geology, ecology, and engineering. Accordingly, a variety of quantification approaches and techniques have been previously applied. To this end, the [...] Read more.
Erosive processes along the margins of water bodies are driven by various phenomena. Understanding and quantifying these processes require multidisciplinary approaches spanning across geology, ecology, and engineering. Accordingly, a variety of quantification approaches and techniques have been previously applied. To this end, the objective of the present research was to conduct a systematic review of the subject literature, with an aim to identify the techniques adopted in the quantification of erosion in the margins of water bodies. This study used a systematic review strategy based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses—PRISMA. The results showed that the primary focuses of the investigations were channel dynamics and the use and coverage of riparian soils. Two of the identified research focuses remain scarcely discussed due to the logistical difficulties surrounding continuous monitoring: (1) the direct impacts of rain on the removal of soil from the margin, and (2) the influence of water content on soil surfaces. Seven field techniques for measuring erosion in the margin were identified and summarily compared in this review. There is a consensus in the literature that the application of each technique is dependent on the characteristics of the study site, as well as the available resources for analysis; however, to overcome certain limitations, different techniques have been used simultaneously for a combination of data. The use of models has stood out in relation to the use of field techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Rivers and Wetlands in the Anthropocene)
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