Advances in Management of Solid Waste and Wastewater Treatment

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 December 2023) | Viewed by 29639

Special Issue Editor

Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Textil, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
Interests: water
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite you to submit an article for a Special Issue of Water:

Advances in Management of Solid Waste and Wastewater Treatment

This special issue is focused in the state of the art and new tendencies in solid wastes management and wastewater treatment. The topics which are welcome are:

  • Solid waste composting
  • Metals in solid wastes
  • Advance treatment of solid wastes
  • Landfill leachate composition and treatment
  • Actual tendencies in wastewater treatment
  • Advance nutrient removal in wastewater
  • Modelling of wastewater treatment

Water is interested in articles which reflect data from real operating facilities (Wastewater Treatment Plants, Solid Waste Treatment Centres) and the proposal of new ideas of application of treatment and management of solid and liquid residues which have to be proven at real scale.

In resume, the behaviour of wastes and wastewater treatments in facility plants are welcome and articles which are focused in the research at the universities and research centres, with the aim of solving problems of pollution of these residues.

Water will consider specially articles which show new tendencies and effective methods in solid wastes and wastewater treatment.

Dr. Carlos Costa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Solid wastes
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Biological treatment
  • Composting
  • Landfill leachate
  • Flocculation

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 2663 KiB  
Article
Analysis on Mode and Benefit of Resource Utilization of Rural Sewage in a Typical Chinese City
Water 2023, 15(11), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112062 - 29 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
The treatment of rural domestic sewage is essential for the comprehensive improvement of the rural environment. At present, the rate of resource utilization of rural domestic sewage is generally low in China, which fits with the actual situation of rural areas, and low [...] Read more.
The treatment of rural domestic sewage is essential for the comprehensive improvement of the rural environment. At present, the rate of resource utilization of rural domestic sewage is generally low in China, which fits with the actual situation of rural areas, and low cost is becoming the requirement for the development of rural sewage treatment technologies. Adopting a tailored approach based on local conditions for utilising sewage resources is the best option for rural sewage management. Therefore, it is very important and urgent to explore and evaluate the mode of rural domestic sewage resource utilisation. This paper analyzes the current status of sewage resource utilization in rural China. It researches and explores sewage treatment technology and resource utilization models based on 10 study sites in Yongkang City, Zhejiang Province. At the same time, this article evaluates pollution control effectiveness and environmental emission reduction benefits. The results show that the effluent quality of the treated wastewater by the skid-mounted resource utilization equipment met the reuse requirements and maintained stable water quality. The project can save 251,900 tons of high-quality water resources annually, reducing COD by 78.51 tons, reducing NH3-N and TP by 5.62 tons and 0.39 tons, respectively, and reducing carbon emissions by more than 134 tons. The project has achieved significant comprehensive benefits in water conservation, pollution reduction, and carbon reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Management of Solid Waste and Wastewater Treatment)
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20 pages, 3565 KiB  
Article
Life Cycle Analysis of Lab-Scale Constructed Wetlands for the Treatment of Industrial Wastewater and Landfill Leachate from Municipal Solid Waste: A Comparative Assessment
Water 2023, 15(5), 909; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050909 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2197
Abstract
Purpose: The objective of this study was to measure the environmental impact of five different laboratory-scale constructed wetland (CW) treatment systems with varying design approaches, which have been employed to treat different types of wastewater. Moreover, the present study also assessed the feasibility [...] Read more.
Purpose: The objective of this study was to measure the environmental impact of five different laboratory-scale constructed wetland (CW) treatment systems with varying design approaches, which have been employed to treat different types of wastewater. Moreover, the present study also assessed the feasibility of treating landfill leachate using four different hybrid wetlands built outdoors, and analyzed the environmental viability based on the life cycle assessment (LCA). Primarily, the choice of media materials has been the focus of evaluating the sustainability of the systems, as for each system the media materials cover major material consumption and define treatment performance. Methods: This study applied a life cycle assessment using the SimaPro software tool to quantify the environmental impacts from the constructed wetland systems. Primarily, the LCA has been applied by adopting the ReCiPe 2016 method with cross-validation using the Impact 2002+ method. Moreover, an uncertainty analysis has been performed to determine any uncertainties involved in the datasets, along with sensitivity analysis on the inventory. Results and discussions: As the results suggest, the systems employed for wastewater treatment using cement mortar have the highest environmental burden. In contrast, the natural media choices, sugarcane bagasse and coco-peat, have proved to be environmentally favorable. Media employment from recycled materials like brick and steel slag could significantly redeem the previous environmental burdens of these materials, providing treatment efficiency. However, the systems employed for landfill leachate treatment revealed the CW using brick chips as the most vulnerable system with regards to environmental concerns, implying that the media brick chips are certainly the major contributor behind this high leap in the scale. However, both the systems worked very well in the carcinogenic category, providing good treatment performance, and eventually exerting lesser impact. Conclusion: The overall assessments suggested choice of media materials are essential to deciding the sustainability of a CW design. However, the CW is more beneficial and environmentally friendly than the other treatment methods, until the design scale has a high capacity. Nevertheless, the choice of the LCA method is also significant, while measuring impact scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Management of Solid Waste and Wastewater Treatment)
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12 pages, 868 KiB  
Article
Environmental Compliance through the Implementation of Effluent Treatment Plant at a Company in the Cosmetics Sector
Water 2023, 15(3), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030400 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2028
Abstract
The current water crisis is a governmental and a third sector reason for concern. The government tends to intensify its regulatory power mainly on companies that use water as raw material and generate wastewater from the production process. The search for loss reduction [...] Read more.
The current water crisis is a governmental and a third sector reason for concern. The government tends to intensify its regulatory power mainly on companies that use water as raw material and generate wastewater from the production process. The search for loss reduction on consumption and water treatment alternatives and reuse has been of increasing importance in the cosmetics sector. Thus, a case study was conducted with the aims of evaluating the environmental and economic benefits of the adoption of wastewater and water treatment plant to a cosmetics company and analyzing environmental compliance regarding water quality for release into the environment after the treatment process. The results indicate feasible economic gain from investment and operation costs with the adoption of a wastewater treatment plant. Additionally, environmental compliance regarding the existing regulations due to reduction of the environmental impact was recognized. Therefore, the cosmetics industry company must implement the wastewater treatment plant to avoid legal penalties and also be capable to operate it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Management of Solid Waste and Wastewater Treatment)
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12 pages, 3636 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Energetic Potential from Solid Waste Landfills in Jordan: A Comparative Modelling Analysis
Water 2023, 15(1), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010155 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1778
Abstract
Landfilling of solid waste has been and continues to be among the most common practices of solid waste disposal. This is particularly true for Jordan, where approximately 3.3 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) is annually generated, with 90% of the generated [...] Read more.
Landfilling of solid waste has been and continues to be among the most common practices of solid waste disposal. This is particularly true for Jordan, where approximately 3.3 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) is annually generated, with 90% of the generated amount disposed into landfills. The main objective of this study is to estimate the quantities of landfill gas (LFG) generated from the solid waste disposal and its potential as a source of clean energy in Jordan using four different models, namely, GasSim 2.5, LandGEM, Afvalzorg, and Mexico Landfill Gas Model V2 (MLFGM V2). Furthermore, the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential of LFG projects was estimated. Currently, there are 18 active landfills that are distributed across the country. Based on screening criteria, the landfills were grouped into three categories: five landfills were considered for energy production, four were strong candidates for LFG collection and flaring, while the remaining nine landfills do not receive enough waste to be considered for either energy recovery or flaring. The total amount of LFG emissions was found to be 1.6 billion M3 of LFG, while the landfill energetic potential of the recovered LFG was estimated to be 34.8 MW. On the other hand, GHG mitigation potential was assessed between the years 2020 and 2030, which was found to be 18 million ton CO2 eq. The proposed LFG energy recovery projects will lead to increased biogas contribution to Jordan’s local renewable energy mix from a current level of 1% to 6%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Management of Solid Waste and Wastewater Treatment)
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20 pages, 7453 KiB  
Article
A Comparison Study on Defluoridation Capabilities Using Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava: Process Optimization, Isotherm, Kinetic, Reusability Studies
Water 2022, 14(23), 3939; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14233939 - 03 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1504
Abstract
For the first time, this work conducted a comparison of two indigenous plants in Iran, namely, Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava, which were prepared as low-cost adsorbents to remove fluoride contamination from aqueous solution. The results revealed the nonlinearity of the interactive [...] Read more.
For the first time, this work conducted a comparison of two indigenous plants in Iran, namely, Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava, which were prepared as low-cost adsorbents to remove fluoride contamination from aqueous solution. The results revealed the nonlinearity of the interactive effects and showed that the pH and adsorbent dosage were the most influential factors during fluoride adsorption. The results of characterization exhibited a mesoporous structure of prepared biosorbents; therefore, the adsorption process may involve multiple functional groups, resulting in electrostatic attraction and hydrogen binding between fluoride ions and the biosorbents. In the case of Syzygium cumini, the maximum removal efficiency of 72.5% was obtained under optimum experimental conditions (Co = 6 mg/L, pH = 5, adsorbent dose = 8 g/L, and contact time = 75 min). For the Psidium guajava, the maximum removal efficiency of 88.3% was achieved at a Co of 6 mg/L, adsorbent dose of 6 g/L, initial pH of 5.1, and a contact time of 90 min. Moreover, four consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles with the chemical agent of NaOH solution (0.1 mol/L) showed excellent reusability of the biosorbents. The adsorption isotherm fitted better to the Langmuir model and the kinetic data best accorded with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model for both biosorbents, expressing a monolayer chemisorption process with recorded maximum adsorption capacities of 1.14 and 1.50 mg/g for Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava, respectively. Therefore, given their removal capacity and potential utility, the prepared biomass could be effective reusable biosorbents to treat water contaminated with fluoride. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Management of Solid Waste and Wastewater Treatment)
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13 pages, 2982 KiB  
Article
Kinetics of Arab Light Crude Oil Degradation by Pseudomonas and Bacillus Strains
Water 2022, 14(23), 3802; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14233802 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1956
Abstract
The biodegradation of crude oil is a consequence of the presence of a specific enzymatic system in the microorganisms selected: the alkane hydroxylase (AlkH). The enzymatic biodegradation has been described since 1994, when the enzyme was first isolated from P. putida (formerly P. [...] Read more.
The biodegradation of crude oil is a consequence of the presence of a specific enzymatic system in the microorganisms selected: the alkane hydroxylase (AlkH). The enzymatic biodegradation has been described since 1994, when the enzyme was first isolated from P. putida (formerly P. oleovorans), but the kinetics of microbial degradation has been weakly considered. We studied and described in this work the kinetics of Arab Light biodegradation, a light crude oil used for gasoline production (46.4% C7–C12 n-alkanes), using two oleophilic strains (Bacillus licheniformis and Pseudomonas putida). Alkanes were extracted from aqueous solutions in the bioreactors by dichloromethane, with a high ratio aqueous:organic volumes (1:0.2 mL) for the amplification of the GC n-alkane signals, and GC spectra were monitored in time over 40 days. Petroleum emulsions were visualized using optical microscopy as a result of biosurfactant segregation, which is necessary for the enzymatic biodegradation of oil by microorganisms. Kinetic analysis in biodegradation of Arab Light (total petroleum hydrocarbons, TPH) exhibits first-order kinetics with 0.098 d−1 and 0.082 d−1 as kinetic coefficients for 8.6 g/L initial crude oil concentration (30 °C), which results in degradation rates of 843 mg/Ld and 705 mg/Ld in B. licheniformis and P. putida, respectively. These results can be applied for oil spill bioremediation, using these microorganisms with the objective of removing contamination by petroleum alkanes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Management of Solid Waste and Wastewater Treatment)
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15 pages, 2266 KiB  
Article
Use of Aloe vera as an Organic Coagulant for Improving Drinking Water Quality
Water 2021, 13(15), 2024; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152024 - 24 Jul 2021
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 10358
Abstract
The coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation process is widely used for removal of suspended solids and water turbidity reduction. The most common coagulants used to conduct this process are aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate. In this paper, the use of Aloe vera as a natural-based coagulant for [...] Read more.
The coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation process is widely used for removal of suspended solids and water turbidity reduction. The most common coagulants used to conduct this process are aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate. In this paper, the use of Aloe vera as a natural-based coagulant for drinking water treatment was tested. The bio-coagulant was used in two different forms: powder as well as liquid; the latter was extracted with distilled water used as a solvent. The obtained results showed that the use of the natural coagulant (Aloe vera) in both powder (AV-Powder) and liquid (AV-H2O) forms reduced the water turbidity at natural pH by 28.23% and 87.84%, respectively. Moreover, it was found that the use of the two previous forms of bio-coagulant for drinking water treatment had no significant influence on the following three parameters: pH, alkalinity, and hardness. The study of the effect of pH on the process performance using Aloe vera as a bio-coagulant demonstrated that the maximum turbidity removal efficiency accounted for 53.53% and 88.23% using AV-Powder and AV-H2O, respectively, at optimal pH 6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Management of Solid Waste and Wastewater Treatment)
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21 pages, 2426 KiB  
Review
Microplastic Accumulation and Degradation in Environment via Biotechnological Approaches
Water 2022, 14(24), 4053; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14244053 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6591
Abstract
The extensive use of plastics in daily life has led to the generation of huge amounts of plastic waste, which causes an enormous burden on the environment. More than half of the plastic waste ends up in the landfill, and about one-fifth of [...] Read more.
The extensive use of plastics in daily life has led to the generation of huge amounts of plastic waste, which causes an enormous burden on the environment. More than half of the plastic waste ends up in the landfill, and about one-fifth of waste is managed by incineration. Only about one-tenth of plastic waste is recycled, and the rest, about one-fifth of mismanaged plastic waste, ends up in the terrestrial and aquatic environment. Here, we review how the deterioration of plastics leads to the formation of microplastics and nanoplastics, which are now found abundantly and are contaminating aquatic life and water bodies. It observed that increasing experimental evidence provides data about the presence of these microplastics in food items, terrestrial environment, and even the human body. The harmful effects of microplastics on human health still need to be substantiated with more precise experimental studies. However, measures can be taken to reduce the production of microplastics by improving the methods used for plastic degradation. This review focuses on the use of genetic engineering, genome editing, synthetic biology, and system biology approaches to increase the potential of microorganisms to degrade plastics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Management of Solid Waste and Wastewater Treatment)
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