Experimental Analysis and Numerical Modeling in Ecohydrolgy and Ecohydraulics: From Groundwater to River Hydraulics

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 9717

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Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Campania University “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Caserta, Italy
Interests: hydrology; hydrogeology; groundwater flows; environmental science; water quality; geostatistical analysis; digital mapping; ecohydrology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will focus on the analysis and prediction of ecohydrological and ecohydraulical effects caused by the interaction between flow and riparian vegetation in natural and manmade vegetated waterways. Vegetation elements have a paramount impact on both hydrodynamic traits and water quality in vegetated water systems, the effects of which range from groundwater flows to river hydraulics. Determining the most appropriate management practice for vegetation both for natural and manmade water bodies is crucial for assuring the balance between a satisfactory level of hydraulic conveyance and water resources’ high environmental value. Moreover, vegetation considerably influences both mean and turbulent flow fields, with important implications for oxygen production and the transport of nutrients. This Special Issue will consider papers focusing on natural and urban watersheds, rivers, vegetated channels, wetlands, and lowlands. Topics of interest include scientific research findings from the analysis of ecohydrological and ecohydraulic phenomena under both experimental and modeling viewpoints (both numerical and statistical), river engineering, flume and field-scale ecohydrodynamics, effects of land cover strategies on agricultural soil losses, and watershed hydrological processes.

Dr. Giuseppe Francesco Cesare Lama
Dr. Gianluigi Busico
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • ecohydraulics
  • vegetated flows
  • ecohydrology
  • turbulence
  • CFD
  • experimental analysis
  • water resources management
  • sediment transport
  • river hydraulics
  • natural and urban watersheds

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 5942 KiB  
Article
Modeling of Soil Loss by Water Erosion and Its Impacts on the Cantareira System, Brazil
by Guilherme Henrique Expedito Lense, Luca Lämmle, Joaquim Ernesto Bernardes Ayer, Giuseppe Francesco Cesare Lama, Felipe Gomes Rubira and Ronaldo Luiz Mincato
Water 2023, 15(8), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081490 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2273
Abstract
The Cantareira System is one of the largest water supply systems in the world, supplying about half of the water consumed by 22 million inhabitants in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil. In this scenario, in view of climate change, [...] Read more.
The Cantareira System is one of the largest water supply systems in the world, supplying about half of the water consumed by 22 million inhabitants in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil. In this scenario, in view of climate change, silting is a serious environmental threat and a major challenge to the sustainability of water reservoirs. Therefore, identifying the provenance of sediments is an essential tool to support soil conservation policies, slowing erosion processes and mitigating the deposition of sediments in water reservoirs. Thus, this study aimed to model soil losses—sediment production, by water erosion in the Cantareira System, based on the RUSLE model—Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, GIS—Geographic Information System and SR—Remote Sensing. The work was conducted on data obtained from online platforms of Brazilian public institutions. The results indicate an average rate of soil loss of 13 Mg ha−1 yr−1, which corresponds to an annual loss of 3 million tons, of which 22% reaches water bodies. The data also show that: (1) in 66 % of the Cantareira System, soil losses are below the soil loss tolerance limits, and, in 34% of the region, water erosion is compromising the sustainability of water and soil resources; (2) the areas with the greatest soil losses are predominantly located in planted forests, agricultural crops and non-vegetated areas; and (3) sectors with high rates of soil loss require the adoption of conservationist practices aimed at reducing sediment production rates and thereby increasing supply and improving water quality. Full article
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26 pages, 2867 KiB  
Article
On the Precipitation Trends in Global Major Metropolitan Cities under Extreme Climatic Conditions: An Analysis of Shifting Patterns
by Ali Aldrees, Mohd Sayeed Ul Hasan, Abhishek Kumar Rai, Md. Nashim Akhtar, Mohammad Amir Khan, Mufti Mohammad Saif, Nehal Ahmad and Saiful Islam
Water 2023, 15(3), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030383 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1982
Abstract
On a local and regional level, climate change has had a significant impact on precipitation in the global climatic state. The purpose of this research is to examine the trend and character of urban precipitation in the world’s most densely inhabited metropolis. From [...] Read more.
On a local and regional level, climate change has had a significant impact on precipitation in the global climatic state. The purpose of this research is to examine the trend and character of urban precipitation in the world’s most densely inhabited metropolis. From 1981 to 2020, 40 years of monthly and annual precipitation data from 50 major metropolitan cities throughout the world, based on population statistics, were analysed. The monthly and annual precipitation analysis was done using a homogeneity test, shifting point test, non-parametric Modified Mann Kendall test, and also through computing the magnitude of the trend using Sen’s slope estimate. According to the findings of the study, the most homogeneous data was obtained in May (90 %) and the least in September (74%). In 2002, the highest number of breakpoints were found in July (9 cities) and August (8 cities). The month of January has the largest significant positive trend (10 cities) whereas annually it has 20 cities. The monthly maximum of the significant negative trend was discovered in February (4 cities) and annually in 2 main cities. In November, the maximum positive and minimum positive Sen’s slope values were found to be 82% and 56%, respectively. The findings of this study are important for future water resource projections, flood or drought predictions, and engineering, scientific, industrial, agricultural, and social studies. The goal of this research is to come up with a good plan for dealing with urban flash floods and droughts as precipitation acts as the key parameter of the hydrological cycle. Full article
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15 pages, 2075 KiB  
Article
Towards i5 Ecohydraulics: Field Determination of Manning’s Roughness Coefficient, Drag Force, and Macroinvertebrate Habitat Suitability for Various Stream Vegetation Types
by Christos Theodoropoulos, Georgios Vagenas, Ioanna Katsogiannou, Konstantinos Gritzalis and Anastasios Stamou
Water 2022, 14(22), 3727; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223727 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1788
Abstract
Ecohydraulic models have commonly used the flow velocity, water depth, and substrate type (i3 models) as the three fundamental determinants of the distribution of freshwater biota, but a fourth determinant has largely been neglected: stream vegetation. In this study, we provide the hydraulic [...] Read more.
Ecohydraulic models have commonly used the flow velocity, water depth, and substrate type (i3 models) as the three fundamental determinants of the distribution of freshwater biota, but a fourth determinant has largely been neglected: stream vegetation. In this study, we provide the hydraulic and habitat information required to develop vegetation-adapted ecohydraulic models (i4 models) in streams. We calculated drag forces and Manning’s roughness coefficients (nV) for nine types of submerged, emergent, and overhanging stream vegetation. In addition, we developed habitat suitability curves (HSCs) for benthic macroinvertebrates for these stream vegetation types. Hydraulic modules can now be upgraded to simulate stream vegetation by including the vegetation-adapted nV values within an additive approach in which nV is added to the n value of the inorganic substrate to which the vegetation is rooted. Habitat modules can also be upgraded to include macroinvertebrate HSCs for stream vegetation, again by adding the vegetation-adapted habitat suitability to that of the inorganic substrate to which the vegetation is rooted. In combination, i4 ecohydraulic models (including vegetation) can now be designed and applied, and we suggest that ecohydraulic research should further focus on including a fifth variable (water temperature) to ultimately advance to i5 ecohydraulic models that will optimally simulate the hydroecological reality. Full article
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23 pages, 6099 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Hole Size (3DHS) Approach for Water Flow Turbulence Analysis over Emerging Sand Bars: Flume-Scale Experiments
by Mohammad Amir Khan, Nayan Sharma, Giuseppe Francesco Cesare Lama, Murtaza Hasan, Rishav Garg, Gianluigi Busico and Raied Saad Alharbi
Water 2022, 14(12), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121889 - 12 Jun 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3003
Abstract
The many hydrodynamic implications associated with the geomorphological evolution of braided rivers are still not profoundly examined in both experimental and numerical analyses, due to the generation of three-dimensional turbulence structures around sediment bars. In this experimental research, the 3D velocity fields were [...] Read more.
The many hydrodynamic implications associated with the geomorphological evolution of braided rivers are still not profoundly examined in both experimental and numerical analyses, due to the generation of three-dimensional turbulence structures around sediment bars. In this experimental research, the 3D velocity fields were measured through an acoustic Doppler velocimeter during flume-scale laboratory experimental runs over an emerging sand bar model, to reproduce the hydrodynamic conditions of real braided rivers, and the 3D Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) components were analyzed and discussed here in detail. Given the three-dimensionality of the examined water flow in the proximity of the experimental bar, the statistical analysis of the octagonal bursting events was applied to analyze and discuss the different flume-scale 3D turbulence structures. The main novelty of this study is the proposal of the 3D Hole Size (3DHS) analysis, used for separating the extreme events observed in the experimental runs from the low-intensity events. Full article
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