Special Issue "Nature-Based Solutions for Coastal Engineering and Management"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Oceans and Coastal Zones".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 October 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Marcel J.F. Stive
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands
Interests: nearshore hydrodynamics; sediment transport; coastal and estuarine morphodynamics; coastal and estuarine engineering and management; natural hazards; vulnerability and risk assessment; climate change
Prof. Dr. Jill H. Slinger
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Multi Actor Systems, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands
Interests: environmental systems science; policy analysis and design; mathematical modeling and simulation; estuary hydrodynamics; integrated water and coastal management
Dr. Arjen Luijendijk
Website
Guest Editor
Deltares and Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands
Interests: advanced numerical modeling techniques in the field of tides; sediment transport; density-driven flows; waves; wave-current interaction and coastal morphology; global shoreline changes; remote sensing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is a growing scientific and engineering interest in exploring how natural processes can provide management solutions to resolve the degradation and/or vulnerability of coastal environments. While climate change and associated sea level rise are often suggested as major risk factors, anthropogenic drivers, such as subsidence, reduced sediment supply, and coastal squeeze, are often more dominant risk factors. Using natural processes to deal with these risk factors presents a nontrivial challenge. This Special Issue invites state-of-the-art contributions describing nature-based solutions and interventions in the coastal environment. The issue would benefit from contributions dealing with diverse coastal ecosystems, from beaches and dunes to salt marshes and mangroves. Moreover, papers focusing on the increased complexity and the challenges presented by nature-based interventions in inlets and bays are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Marcel J.F. Stive
Prof. Dr. Jill H. Slinger
Dr. Arjen Luijendijk
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • building with nature
  • nature-based solutions
  • coastal engineering
  • coastal management
  • dunes
  • salt marshes
  • mangroves

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Assessment of the Flow Resistance of Coastal Wooden Fences
Water 2020, 12(7), 1910; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071910 - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
Wooden fences are applied as a nature-based solution to support mangrove restoration along mangrove coasts in general and the Mekong Delta coast in particular. The simple structure uses vertical bamboo poles as a frame to store horizontal bamboo and tree branches (brushwood). Fence [...] Read more.
Wooden fences are applied as a nature-based solution to support mangrove restoration along mangrove coasts in general and the Mekong Delta coast in particular. The simple structure uses vertical bamboo poles as a frame to store horizontal bamboo and tree branches (brushwood). Fence resistance is quantitatively determined by the drag coefficient exerted by the fence material on the flow; however, the behaviour of drag is predictable only when the arrangement of the cylinders is homogeneous. Therefore, for more arbitrary arrangements, the Darcy–Forchheimer equations need to be considered. In this study, the law of fluid flow was applied by forcing a constant flow of water through the fence material and measuring the loss of hydraulic pressure over a fence thickness. Fences, mainly using bamboo sticks, were installed with model-scale and full-scale diameters applying two main arrangements, inhomogeneous and staggered. Our empirical findings led to several conclusions. The bulk drag coefficient ( C D ¯ ) is influenced by the flow regime represented by Reynolds number. The drag coefficient decreases with the increase of the porosity, which strongly depends on fence arrangements. Finally, the Forchheimer coefficients can be linked to the drag coefficient through a related porosity parameter at high turbulent conditions. The staggered arrangement is well-predicted by the Ergun-relations for the Darcy–Forchheimer coefficients when an inhomogeneous arrangement with equal porosity and diameter leads to a large drag and flow resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Solutions for Coastal Engineering and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Tourism in Continental Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands: An Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Perspective
Water 2020, 12(6), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061647 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Tourism in coastal areas is becoming increasingly important in Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) as an integrated approach that balances the requirements of different tourist sectors. This paper analyzes ICZM in continental Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands from the perspective of the 3S [...] Read more.
Tourism in coastal areas is becoming increasingly important in Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) as an integrated approach that balances the requirements of different tourist sectors. This paper analyzes ICZM in continental Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands from the perspective of the 3S tourism, and presents its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT). The methodology used was based on a literature review of ten aspects of the highest relevance to ICZM, i.e., Policies, Regulations, Responsibilities, Institutions, Strategies and Instruments, Training, Economic Resources, Information, Education for Sustainability, and Citizen Participation. The results highlight four aspects as strengths (Policies, Responsibilities, Institutions and Citizen Participation), while the most notable weaknesses were Regulations and Education for sustainability. Strategies and Instruments, as well as Information, were identified as opportunities to stand out. The main threats were Economic Resources and Training. Ecuador does not have clearly established public policies that would allow for the integrated management of 3S tourism and be considered as productive, valuable alternatives. It is necessary to consolidate and promote 3S tourism as a State policy and as a means to improve the economies in coastal areas. Finally, Ecuador needs to overcome negative changes in the macroeconomic environment and reverse its current deteriorated image. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Solutions for Coastal Engineering and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Alternatives for Recovering the Ecosystem Services and Resilience of the Salamanca Island Natural Park, Colombia
Water 2020, 12(5), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051513 - 25 May 2020
Abstract
From a comprehensive diagnosis of the associated basins, islands, and wetlands of the coastal lagoon system of Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia, this work describes feasible options for the recovery of its ecosystem’s health and ecological resilience. Firstly, the state of the [...] Read more.
From a comprehensive diagnosis of the associated basins, islands, and wetlands of the coastal lagoon system of Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia, this work describes feasible options for the recovery of its ecosystem’s health and ecological resilience. Firstly, the state of the coastal lagoon was assessed, finding that hydrology, wave climate, and the morphological changes of the coastline explain recent changes in the coastal wetlands. Key variables were used to describe the level of conservation or degradation of the coastal lagoon system and to identify measures to improve its ecological functions. Finally, to mimic some of these functions and improve connectivity of the ecosystems, green infrastructure alternatives were proposed for the short and medium term to recover the services of these ecosystems and restore their resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Solutions for Coastal Engineering and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Sandbar Breakwater: An Innovative Nature-Based Port Solution
Water 2020, 12(5), 1446; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051446 - 19 May 2020
Abstract
The nature-based concept of the Sandbar Breakwater was born based on the typical natural dynamics of the West African coast (Gulf of Guinea). Learning from the development and coastal impact of the existing port infrastructure in West Africa, the application of sand as [...] Read more.
The nature-based concept of the Sandbar Breakwater was born based on the typical natural dynamics of the West African coast (Gulf of Guinea). Learning from the development and coastal impact of the existing port infrastructure in West Africa, the application of sand as a construction material for marine infrastructure seemed very obvious. Along this coast, ports experience heavy sedimentation at the western updrift side of the breakwaters, leading to the rapid burying of valuable armour rock. The Sandbar Breakwater concept is based on this principle by using natural accretion as the basis for the port protection. Such a concept is advantageous as a large sediment drift naturally supplements the sand filling works during construction and the required rock volumes are reduced significantly, saving construction time and minimising the environmental impact. To counteract the downdrift coastal retreat, a replenishable sand engine completes the scheme. The realisation of a Sandbar Breakwater at Lekki, Nigeria, in 2018, with subsequent safe and continuous port operations, proves the feasibility of the concept. Sustainable future development is further pursued by integrated maintenance campaigns following the Building with Nature principles to guarantee the operability of the port while preserving the alongshore sediment balance and minimising the environmental impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Solutions for Coastal Engineering and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Nature-Based Solution along High-Energy Eroding Sandy Coasts: Preliminary Tests on the Reinstatement of Natural Dynamics in Reprofiled Coastal Dunes
Water 2019, 11(12), 2518; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122518 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper describes a large-scale experiment designed to examine if reinstating natural processes in the coastal dune systems of Southwest France can be a relevant nature-based adaptation in chronically eroding sectors and a nature-based solution against coastal hazards, by maintaining the coastal dune [...] Read more.
This paper describes a large-scale experiment designed to examine if reinstating natural processes in the coastal dune systems of Southwest France can be a relevant nature-based adaptation in chronically eroding sectors and a nature-based solution against coastal hazards, by maintaining the coastal dune ecological corridor. An experiment started in late 2017 on a 4-km-long stretch of coast at Truc Vert, where experimental notches were excavated and intensively monitored in the incipient and established foredunes. Preliminary results indicate that most of the excavated notches did not develop into blowout. Only the larger elongated notches subsequently excavated in the established foredune in 2018 showed evidence of development, acting as an effective conduit for aeolian landward transport into the dunes. All notches were found to have a statistically significant impact on vegetation dynamics downwind, even those that did not develop. The area of bare sand landward and within the elongated notches notably increased implying a loss of vegetation cover during this first stage of development. Observations of a nearby coastal dune system that has been in free evolution over the last 40 years also indicate that, although the dune migrated inland by more than 100 m, it is now mostly made of bare sand. Further work is required to explore if and how dunes maintained as dynamic systems can become an efficient nature-based solution along this eroding coastline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Solutions for Coastal Engineering and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Financial Benefits of Mangroves for Surge Prone High-Value Areas
Water 2019, 11(11), 2374; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112374 - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
In this paper, protection options for a high-value, industrial area along the coast of West Bengal (India) are investigated. The options are designed to protect against cyclone surges with a probability of 1/100 per year. Two alternatives are compared, a classical solution of [...] Read more.
In this paper, protection options for a high-value, industrial area along the coast of West Bengal (India) are investigated. The options are designed to protect against cyclone surges with a probability of 1/100 per year. Two alternatives are compared, a classical solution of a dike with a revetment and a solution with a mangrove belt in front of the dike. The results reveal that from a pure infrastructural cash-flow point-of-view, the mangrove solution is at least 25% cheaper than the classical solution with a rock revetment. An important finding is that this conclusion does not need the financial evaluation of the obvious additional ecological advantages that mangroves offer. It is postulated that these results are generally valid for high-value coastal areas under the attack of waves during storm surges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Solutions for Coastal Engineering and Management)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Defining Coastal Resilience
Water 2019, 11(12), 2587; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122587 - 08 Dec 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The concept of resilience has taken root in the discourse of environmental management, especially regarding Building with Nature strategies for embedding natural physical and ecological dynamics into engineered interventions in developed coastal zones. Resilience is seen as a desirable quality, and coastal management [...] Read more.
The concept of resilience has taken root in the discourse of environmental management, especially regarding Building with Nature strategies for embedding natural physical and ecological dynamics into engineered interventions in developed coastal zones. Resilience is seen as a desirable quality, and coastal management policy and practice are increasingly aimed at maximising it. Despite its ubiquity, resilience remains ambiguous and poorly defined in management contexts. What is coastal resilience? And what does it mean in settings where natural environmental dynamics have been supplanted by human-dominated systems? Here, we revisit the complexities of coastal resilience as a concept, a term, and a prospective goal for environmental management. We consider examples of resilience in natural and built coastal environments, and offer a revised, formal definition of coastal resilience with a holistic scope and emphasis on systemic functionality: “Coastal resilience is the capacity of the socioeconomic and natural systems in the coastal environment to cope with disturbances, induced by factors such as sea level rise, extreme events and human impacts, by adapting whilst maintaining their essential functions.” Against a backdrop of climate change impacts, achieving both socioeconomic and natural resilience in coastal environments in the long-term (>50 years) is very costly. Cost trade-offs among management aims and objectives mean that enhancement of socioeconomic resilience typically comes at the expense of natural resilience, and vice versa. We suggest that for practical purposes, optimising resilience might be a more realistic goal of coastal zone management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Solutions for Coastal Engineering and Management)
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Open AccessReview
Enhancing the Ecological Value of Sea Dikes
Water 2019, 11(8), 1617; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081617 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Sea dikes protect low-lying hinterlands along many coasts all around the world. Commonly, they are designed as embankments with grass covers or grey revetments accounting for the prevailing hydraulic loads. So far, incorporation of ecological aspects in the dike design is limited. With [...] Read more.
Sea dikes protect low-lying hinterlands along many coasts all around the world. Commonly, they are designed as embankments with grass covers or grey revetments accounting for the prevailing hydraulic loads. So far, incorporation of ecological aspects in the dike design is limited. With regard to increasing environmental awareness and climate change adaptation needs, the present study reviews methods for ecological enhancement of sea dikes and discusses limitations and challenges related to these methods. In doing so, one key aspect is to maintain dike safety while increasing the ecological value. Potential for ecological enhancement of sea dikes has been found regarding natural or nature-based solutions in the foreshore, dike surface protection measures (vegetated dike covers, hard revetments and dike roads) and the dike geometry. While natural and nature-based solutions in the foreland are investigated thoroughly, so far only few experiences with ecological enhancements of the dike structure itself were gained resulting in uncertainties and knowledge gaps concerning the implementation and efficiency. Additional to technical uncertainties, engineers and ecologists meet the challenge of interdisciplinary collaboration under consideration of societal needs and expectations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Solutions for Coastal Engineering and Management)
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Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Masselink, G.; Lazarus, E.D. Defining Coastal Resilience. Water 2019, 11, 2587
Water 2020, 12(5), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051368 - 12 May 2020
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following erratum to this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Solutions for Coastal Engineering and Management)
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