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Article

Building for Nature: Preserving Threatened Bird Habitat in Port Design

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Department of Hydraulic Engineering, TU Delft, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
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Royal Boskalis Westminster N.V., P.O. Box 43, 3350 AA Papendrecht, The Netherlands
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Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences (GELIFES), University of Groningen, P.O. Box 11103, 9700 CC Groningen, The Netherlands
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Department of Coastal Systems, NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research and Utrecht University, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, The Netherlands
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Global Flyway Network, P.O. Box 3089, Broome WA 6725, Australia
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College of Harbor, Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
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Unit of Marine and Coastal Systems, Deltares, P.O. Box 177, 2600 MH Delft, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(8), 2134; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082134
Received: 3 June 2020 / Revised: 17 July 2020 / Accepted: 21 July 2020 / Published: 28 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Solutions for Coastal Engineering and Management)
The fast economic development of the People’s Republic of China has created an increasing demand for usable land, resulting in large-scale land reclamations along the coastal zone. One of these regions is Tongzhou Bay (Jiangsu coast), a region characterized by large intertidal mudflats and deep tidal channels with potential for the development of agri-aquaculture and the construction of a deep-sea port. However, these intertidal mudflats also provide vital ecosystem services and support many wildlife species, including several endangered migratory shorebirds within the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. With increasing realization of the importance of maintaining such ecological values, a more integrated coastal development strategy is needed. This study aims to develop a sustainable integrated design for the Tongzhou Bay port, following a “Building with Nature” approach. We use a morphodynamic model to compute habitat suitability for two shorebird species (Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris and Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica). Several port configurations were developed on the basis of three design criteria: (1) create area for future port development, whilst (2) preserving existing high-value ecotopes for shorebirds and (3) enhance the natural accretion rate of such ecotopes. Simulation results showed a clear difference in siltation patterns, preservation and enhancement of preferred ecotopes. This work therefore demonstrates the potential and importance of morphological and habitat suitability modelling when designing large-scale reclamations and port constructions, especially in dynamic areas such as Tongzhou Bay. View Full-Text
Keywords: mapping; ecotope; ecotope map; intertidal mudflats; migratory shorebirds; reclamations; Tongzhou Bay; Jiangsu coast mapping; ecotope; ecotope map; intertidal mudflats; migratory shorebirds; reclamations; Tongzhou Bay; Jiangsu coast
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MDPI and ACS Style

Muller, J.R.M.; Chan, Y.-C.; Piersma, T.; Chen, Y.-p.; Aarninkhof, S.G.J.; Hassell, C.J.; Tao, J.-f.; Gong, Z.; Wang, Z.B.; van Maren, D.S. Building for Nature: Preserving Threatened Bird Habitat in Port Design. Water 2020, 12, 2134. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082134

AMA Style

Muller JRM, Chan Y-C, Piersma T, Chen Y-p, Aarninkhof SGJ, Hassell CJ, Tao J-f, Gong Z, Wang ZB, van Maren DS. Building for Nature: Preserving Threatened Bird Habitat in Port Design. Water. 2020; 12(8):2134. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082134

Chicago/Turabian Style

Muller, Jos R.M., Ying-Chi Chan, Theunis Piersma, Yong-ping Chen, Stefan G.J. Aarninkhof, Chris J. Hassell, Jian-feng Tao, Zheng Gong, Zheng B. Wang, and Dirk S. van Maren 2020. "Building for Nature: Preserving Threatened Bird Habitat in Port Design" Water 12, no. 8: 2134. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082134

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