Evapotranspiration Measurements and Modeling II

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Ecohydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2023) | Viewed by 7827

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Institute, Rishon LeZion, Israel
Interests: agricultural meteorology; environmental physics; evapotranspiration; crop water consumption; eddy covariance and other turbulent transport measurements of surface fluxes; microclimate in agricultural screenhouses and greenhouses; properties of wind above and inside vegetated canopies; evaporation processes; natural ventilation of buildings; experimental methods in agricultural meteorology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A major component of the water balance in agricultural and natural vegetation systems is evapotranspiration (ET), which comprises transport of water vapor to the atmosphere through soil evaporation and plant transpiration. Understanding ET is vital for the high water use efficiency of irrigated agriculture, the efficient management of natural ecosystems such as forests, and as a boundary condition for atmospheric or soil water modeling. Recently, much research has been devoted to developing ET modeling and measurement approaches, in order to understand its dynamics under various conditions.

This Special Issue welcomes articles dedicated to all aspects of evapotranspiration measurements and modeling in agricultural and natural systems. Articles on modeling may focus on but are not limited to mechanistic models such as Penman-Monteith and its derivatives, machine learning algorithms such as artificial neural networks, and other theoretical or numerical modeling approaches. Papers on field studies should include ET measurements and estimations using methods such as eddy covariance, scintillometer, Bowen ratio, flux gradient, surface renewal, remote sensing, or other monitoring approaches.

Dr. Josef Tanny
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • evaporation
  • transpiration
  • turbulent fluxes
  • latent heat flux
  • sensible heat flux
  • energy balance
  • radiation
  • temperature
  • humidity
  • wind speed

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 1963 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Cropping System Models for Simulation of Soybean Evapotranspiration with Eddy Covariance Measurements in a Humid Subtropical Environment
by Amitava Chatterjee and Saseendran S. Anapalli
Water 2023, 15(17), 3078; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15173078 - 28 Aug 2023
Viewed by 865
Abstract
Crop evapotranspiration (ETC) water demands are critical decision support information for the sustainable use of water resources for optimum crop productivity. When measurements of ETC at all locations are not feasible, the prediction of ETC and crop growth from weather [...] Read more.
Crop evapotranspiration (ETC) water demands are critical decision support information for the sustainable use of water resources for optimum crop productivity. When measurements of ETC at all locations are not feasible, the prediction of ETC and crop growth from weather and soil–water–crop management data using state-of-the-science cropping system simulations is a viable alternative. This study compared soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) ETC quantified using the eddy covariance (EC) method against simulations from two models, (i) the CSM-CROPGRO-soybean module within the Decision Support System for Agroecology Transfer (DSSAT) and (ii) CSM-CROPGRO-soybean module within the Root Zone Water Quality Model v2.0 (RZWQM) for a grower’s field in the Mississippi Delta, USA, during 2017, 2018, and 2019 growing seasons. The measured soybean grain yields during the three seasons, respectively, were 4979 kg ha−1, 5157 kg ha−1, and 5665 kg ha−1. The DSSAT and RZWQM simulated yields deviated from the measured yields by −10.8% and 15.4% in 2017, −24.0% and 1.56% in 2018, and −6.22%, and 9.98% in 2019. Simulated daily ETC values were less than EC estimates by 0.33 mm, 0.29 mm, and 0.23 mm for DSSAT and 0.05 mm, 0.42 mm, and 0.24 mm for RZWQM, respectively, for the three seasons. EC-quantified seasonal values of ETC were 584 mm, 532 mm, and 566 mm, respectively, for three seasons. Similarly, simulated seasonal ETC values were less than EC estimates by 40 mm, 31 mm, and 16 mm by DSSAT, and 7 mm, 46 mm, and 29 mm by RZWQM. The results obtained demonstrated that accuracy in the prediction of ETC varied among models and growing seasons. When the magnitude of errors in daily ETC simulations does not deter its applications in tactical irrigation water management decisions, a higher degree of agreement between measured and simulated ETC values at a seasonal scale is more promising for strategical irrigation water management planning decision support. Further improvement of the models for more accurate simulations of daily ETC can help in more confident applications of these models for tactical crop-water management applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration Measurements and Modeling II)
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19 pages, 5157 KiB  
Article
Measuring Evapotranspiration Suppression from the Wind Drift and Spray Water Losses for LESA and MESA Sprinklers in a Center Pivot Irrigation System
by Behnaz Molaei, R. Troy Peters, Abhilash K. Chandel, Lav R. Khot, Claudio O. Stockle and Colin S. Campbell
Water 2023, 15(13), 2444; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132444 - 02 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1712
Abstract
Wind drift and evaporation loss (WDEL) of mid-elevation spray application (MESA) and low-elevation spray application (LESA) sprinklers on a center pivot and linear-move irrigation machines are measured and reported to be about 20% and 3%, respectively. It is important to estimate the fraction [...] Read more.
Wind drift and evaporation loss (WDEL) of mid-elevation spray application (MESA) and low-elevation spray application (LESA) sprinklers on a center pivot and linear-move irrigation machines are measured and reported to be about 20% and 3%, respectively. It is important to estimate the fraction of WDEL that cools and humidifies the microclimate causing evapotranspiration (ET) suppression, mitigating the measured irrigation system losses. An experiment was conducted in 2018 and 2019 in a commercial spearmint field near Toppenish, Washington. The field was irrigated with an 8-span center pivot equipped with MESA but had three spans that were converted to LESA. All-in-one weather sensors (ATMOS-41) were installed just above the crop canopy in the middle of each MESA and LESA span and nearby but outside of the pivot field (control) to record meteorological parameters on 1 min intervals. The ASCE Penman–Monteith (ASCE-PM) standardized reference equations were used to calculate grass reference evapotranspiration (ETo) from this data on a one-minute basis. A comparison was made for the three phases of before, during, and after the irrigation system passed the in-field ATMOS-41 sensors. In addition, a small unmanned aerial system (UAS) was used to capture 5-band multispectral (ground sampling distance [GSD]: 7 cm/pixel) and thermal infrared images (GSD: 13 cm/pixel) while the center pivot irrigation system was irrigating the field. This imagery data was used to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ETc) using a UAS-METRIC energy balance model. The UAS-METRIC model showed that the estimated ETc under MESA was suppressed by 0.16 mm/day compared to the LESA. Calculating the ETo by the ASCE-PM method showed that the instantaneous ETo rate under the MESA was suppressed between 8% and 18% compared to the LESA. However, as the time of the ET suppression was short, the total amount of the estimated suppressed ET of the MESA was less than 0.5% of the total applied water. Overall, the total reduction in the ET due to the microclimate modifications from wind drift and evaporation losses were small compared to the reported 17% average differences in the irrigation application efficiency between the MESA and the LESA. Therefore, the irrigation application efficiency differences between these two technologies were very large even if the ET suppression by wind drift and evaporation losses was accounted for. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration Measurements and Modeling II)
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19 pages, 5817 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Spring Maize Evapotranspiration in Semi-Arid Regions of Northeast China Using Machine Learning: An Improved SVR Model Based on PSO and RF Algorithms
by Wenjie Hou, Guanghua Yin, Jian Gu and Ningning Ma
Water 2023, 15(8), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081503 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1488
Abstract
Accurate estimation of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is crucial for effective irrigation and water management. To achieve this, support vector regression (SVR) was applied to estimate the daily ETc of spring maize. Random forest (RF) as a data pre-processing technique [...] Read more.
Accurate estimation of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is crucial for effective irrigation and water management. To achieve this, support vector regression (SVR) was applied to estimate the daily ETc of spring maize. Random forest (RF) as a data pre-processing technique was utilized to determine the optimal input variables for the SVR model. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) was employed to optimize the SVR model. This study used data obtained from field experiments conducted between 2017 and 2019, including crop coefficient and daily meteorological data. The performance of the innovative hybrid RF–SVR–PSO model was evaluated against a standalone SVR model, a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) model and a RF model, using different input meteorological variables. The ETc values were calculated using the Penman–Monteith equation, which is recommended by the FAO, and used as a reference for the models’ estimated values. The results showed that the hybrid RF–SVR–PSO model performed better than all three standalone models for ETc estimation of spring maize. The Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and coefficient of determination (R2) ranges were 0.956–0.958, 0.275–0.282 mm d−1, 0.221–0.231 mm d−1 and 0.957–0.961, respectively. It is proved that the hybrid RF–SVR–PSO model is appropriate for estimation of daily spring maize ETc in semi-arid regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration Measurements and Modeling II)
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15 pages, 4785 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Evapotranspiration Based on a Modified Penman–Monteith–Leuning Model Using Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture
by Hao Duan, Hongli Zhao, Qiuju Li, Haowei Xu and Chengxin Han
Water 2023, 15(7), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071418 - 05 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
Most of the current parameterization schemes for the Penman–Monteith–Leuning evapotranspiration (ET) model (PML) consider meteorological and energy factors and land use types, but the analysis of the effect of soil moisture (SM) changes on ET processes lacks sufficient attention. This paper proposes a [...] Read more.
Most of the current parameterization schemes for the Penman–Monteith–Leuning evapotranspiration (ET) model (PML) consider meteorological and energy factors and land use types, but the analysis of the effect of soil moisture (SM) changes on ET processes lacks sufficient attention. This paper proposes a parameterization scheme for the sensitive parameters of the PML model considering soil water content, i.e., coupling the land surface SM in the calculation of soil evaporation coefficient f and coupling the SM of the root zone layer in the calculation of maximum stomatal conductance gsx, respectively. The new parameterization scheme is validated at 13 flux sites worldwide and showed significant improvements in improving the correlation with measured values. Moreover, based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of soil evaporation and vegetation transpiration, and the correlation between SM and ET, the regional characteristics of the effect of SM on ET are further revealed. This study provides a new idea for conducting the fusion simulation of SM based on a PML model, which is useful for the subsequent development of the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration Measurements and Modeling II)
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18 pages, 2842 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Evapotranspiration in the Desert–Oasis Transition Zone Using the Water Balance Method and Groundwater Level Fluctuation Method—Taking the Haloxylon ammodendron Forest at the Edge of the Gurbantunggut Desert as an Example
by Ping Jiao and Shun-Jun Hu
Water 2023, 15(6), 1210; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061210 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1551
Abstract
Shallow groundwater is an important water source for Haloxylon ammodendron (H. ammodendron). The accurate estimation of evapotranspiration (ETg) from groundwater is of great significance for the water cycle and the maintenance of ecological stability. Using a combination of [...] Read more.
Shallow groundwater is an important water source for Haloxylon ammodendron (H. ammodendron). The accurate estimation of evapotranspiration (ETg) from groundwater is of great significance for the water cycle and the maintenance of ecological stability. Using a combination of the water balance method and the groundwater level fluctuation method (WTF), the water balance components (precipitation, soil moisture, groundwater depth, and Bowen ratio meteorological data) in the desert–oasis transition zone were continuously monitored from 2015 to 2018 and the ETg was estimated The results showed that the closed degree of Bowen specific energy after data screening was higher, and the annual actual evapotranspiration (ETa) value could be reliably calculated at 260.87 mm. As the main contributor to water consumption in the growing season, latent heat accounted for 70.16~91.86% of the energy balance. Precipitation had no significant impact on water consumption for H. ammodendron vegetation growth, and the precipitation in the main growing season accounted for 59.44% of the ETa. The groundwater depth in the study area decreased yearly and had a significant impact on the growth of H. ammodendron vegetation. Although the groundwater depth in the study area was greater than 9 m, the ETg, as an important part of the water balance, was found to participate in the evapotranspiration process brought about by H. ammodendron due to the strong root system and supporting capillary water in the soil. The actual evapotranspiration ETa for H. ammodendron in the main growing season was 244.32 mm, and the contribution rate for ETg was as high as 74.78% or approximately 182.35 mm. After the ETg was verified using the water balance method and WTF, R was greater than 0.96, the RMSE range was 1.5931~4.5706, the bias range was −0.15~0.11, and the IOA value was greater than 0.95. The accuracy of the estimation model was high, and the results were relatively accurate. The model can be applied in the desert–oasis transition zone to obtain accurate ETg estimations and provide theoretical guidance and a scientific basis for local water resource management and ecological protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration Measurements and Modeling II)
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