Application of Catalysis in Wastewater Treatment

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2023) | Viewed by 8273

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Interests: nanomaterials; nanocatalysts; environmental remediation; energy production; characterization of nanomaterials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The growing demand for clean water and the increasing contamination of water resources by toxic contaminants have motivated innovations in water and wastewater treatment and environmental remediation areas for the removal of recalcitrant contaminants. Some biological, chemical and physical techniques are used to acquire high-quality effluents in wastewater treatment. Nevertheless, these techniques have some restrictions related to the treatment efficiency, inactivation by toxic pollutants, high energy and cost requirements, production of secondary sludge, etc. Catalytic treatment of polluted water is considered a promising alternative for the removal of aqueous organic contaminants. Heterogeneous catalytic technologies involving the production of different reactive species have recently emerged with capabilities to convert organic contaminants in aqueous media. The contaminants falling under this category include detergents, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, microplastics, dyes, personal care products, plasticizers, illicit drugs, disinfection byproducts, endocrine-disrupting compounds, artificial sweeteners, estrogens, anticorrosives, etc. This Special Issue will mainly consider novel research works and reviews focusing on the recent trends and progress in the development of heterogeneous catalytic processes for water treatment through modifications of system designs and fabrication of novel materials. Different catalytic technologies including photo/electrochemical techniques, photocatalysis, sonocatalysis, Fenton and Fenton-like processes, catalytic ozonation, catalysis-membrane-integrated processes, self-purifying methods with reduced resource and energy consumption, persulfate activation, novel activation methods, modeling and simulation, etc. are covered as effective techniques for the removal of pollutants in this Special Issue. Investigations on the synthesis and use of advanced nanomaterials and economic analyses of developing techniques for environmental remediation are also welcomed.

Dr. Peyman Gholami
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • water treatment
  • water quality
  • removal of pollutants
  • advanced oxidation processes
  • catalysis
  • photocatalysis
  • Fenton-based processes
  • sonocatalysis
  • catalytic ozonation
  • nanomaterials
  • refractory organic pollutants
  • photodegradation
  • reactive species
  • catalytic materials
  • catalysis-membrane-integrated processes
  • catalytic reactor systems
  • hybrid processes (photo-electrocatalysis, sono-photocatalysis, photo-electro-Fenton, photo-Fenton, electro-Fenton, photocatalytic-Fenton)
  • modeling and kinetics

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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30 pages, 15214 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Optimization of Hybrid Fenton and Ultrasound Process for Crystal Violet Degradation Using AI Techniques
by Sabrina Mechati, Meriem Zamouche, Hichem Tahraoui, Oumaima Filali, Safa Mazouz, Iheb Nour Elhak Bouledjemer, Selma Toumi, Zakaria Triki, Abdeltif Amrane, Mohammed Kebir, Sonia Lefnaoui and Jie Zhang
Water 2023, 15(24), 4274; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15244274 - 14 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1142
Abstract
This study conducts a comprehensive investigation to optimize the degradation of crystal violet (CV) dye using the Fenton process. The main objective is to improve the efficiency of the Fenton process by optimizing various physicochemical factors such as the Fe2+ concentration, H [...] Read more.
This study conducts a comprehensive investigation to optimize the degradation of crystal violet (CV) dye using the Fenton process. The main objective is to improve the efficiency of the Fenton process by optimizing various physicochemical factors such as the Fe2+ concentration, H2O2 concentration, and pH of the solution. The results obtained show that the optimal dosages of Fe2+ and H2O2 giving a maximum CV degradation (99%) are 0.2 and 3.13 mM, respectively. The optimal solution pH for CV degradation is 3. The investigation of the type of acid for pH adjustment revealed that sulfuric acid is the most effective one, providing 100% yield, followed by phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid. Furthermore, the examination of sulfuric acid concentration shows that an optimal concentration of 0.1 M is the most effective for CV degradation. On the other hand, an increase in the initial concentration of the dye leads to a reduction in the hydroxyl radicals formed (HO), which negatively impacts CV degradation. A concentration of 10 mg/L of CV gives complete degradation of dye within 30 min following the reaction. Increasing the solution temperature and stirring speed have a negative effect on dye degradation. Moreover, the combination of ultrasound with the Fenton process resulted in a slight enhancement in the CV degradation, with an optimal stirring speed of 300 rpm. Notably, the study incorporates the use of Gaussian process regression (GPR) modeling in conjunction with the Improved Grey Wolf Optimization (IGWO) algorithm to accurately predict the optimal degradation conditions. This research, through its rigorous investigation and advanced modeling techniques, offers invaluable insights and guidelines for optimizing the Fenton process in the context of CV degradation, thereby achieving the twin goals of cost reduction and environmental impact minimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Catalysis in Wastewater Treatment)
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24 pages, 4681 KiB  
Article
Facile Green Synthesis of ZnO NPs and Plasmonic Ag-Supported ZnO Nanocomposite for Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue
by Elham A. Alzahrani, Arshid Nabi, Majid Rasool Kamli, Soha M. Albukhari, Shaeel Ahmed Althabaiti, Sami A. Al-Harbi, Imran Khan and Maqsood Ahmad Malik
Water 2023, 15(3), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030384 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3411
Abstract
Removing organic pollutants, textile dyes, and pharmaceutical wastes from the water bodies has become an essential requirement for a safe environment. Therefore, the present study aimed to prepare semiconductor zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and plasmonic Ag-supported ZnO nanocomposite (ZnO–Ag) using an environmentally [...] Read more.
Removing organic pollutants, textile dyes, and pharmaceutical wastes from the water bodies has become an essential requirement for a safe environment. Therefore, the present study aimed to prepare semiconductor zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and plasmonic Ag-supported ZnO nanocomposite (ZnO–Ag) using an environmentally friendly bio-approach as an alternative to hazardous synthesis approaches. ZnO NPs and ZnO–Ag nanocomposite were characterized by using UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–DRS) (the Ag-supported ZnO nanocomposite exhibited an absorption band between 450–550 nm, attributed to the Ag NPs surface plasmon resonance (SPR)), Photoluminescence (PL) spectral investigation, which revealed the PL emission intensity of ZnO–Ag NPs was lower than pure ZnO NPs, describing an extended electron-hole pair (e--h+) lifespan of photogenerated charge carriers, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), FT-Raman, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were deduced. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed and further ascertained the successful biosynthesis and thermally stable ZnO Nps and ZnO–Ag nanocomposite. The as-prepared ZnO–Ag nanocomposite displayed increased photocatalytic characteristics due to the decline in the bandgap energy from 3.02 eV (ZnO NPs) to 2.90 eV (ZnO–Ag nanocomposite). The photocatalytic activity of the developed nanocomposite for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye, a primary textile industry released water-pollutant, was conducted under UV light irradiation. Meanwhile, the maximum % degradation of MB dye molecules was attained by 98.0 % after 60 min exposure of UV-light irradiation. Increased photocatalytic activity of ZnO–Ag nanocomposites and a faster rate of MB degradation were achieved by the deposition of plasmonic Ag NPs and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect possessed by Ag NPs. The primary oxidative route that resulted in MB degradation was the production of hydroxyl radicals (OH). The SPR effect of the photocatalyst induced the synergistic enhancement of the optical response and separation of the photo-induced charge carriers. The combined study gives comprehensive information and directions for future research on noble metal-modified nanocatalysts for direct applications in the photocatalytic degradation of textile and organic wastes in water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Catalysis in Wastewater Treatment)
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12 pages, 7793 KiB  
Article
Development of ZnFeCe Layered Double Hydroxide Incorporated Thin Film Nanocomposite Membrane with Enhanced Separation Performance and Antibacterial Properties
by Cigdem Balcik, Bahar Ozbey-Unal, Busra Sahin, Ecem Buse Aydın, Bengisu Cifcioglu-Gozuacik, Ramazan Keyikoglu and Alireza Khataee
Water 2023, 15(2), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020264 - 08 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1925
Abstract
Developing thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes by incorporating nanomaterials into the selective polyamide (PA) layer is an effective strategy to improve separation and antibacterial properties. In this study, TFN nanofiltration (NF) membranes were fabricated by interfacial polymerization of piperazine (PIP) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) [...] Read more.
Developing thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes by incorporating nanomaterials into the selective polyamide (PA) layer is an effective strategy to improve separation and antibacterial properties. In this study, TFN nanofiltration (NF) membranes were fabricated by interfacial polymerization of piperazine (PIP) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) with the addition of Zinc-Iron-Cerium (ZnFeCe) layered double hydroxide (LDH). The improved surface hydrophilicity of TFN membranes was investigated by water contact angle analyses and pure water flux measurements. Successful production of the PA layer on the membrane surface was determined by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) images showed that the addition of LDH into the membrane resulted in a smoother surface. The scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) mapping of TFN membrane proved the presence of Ce, Fe, and Zn elements, indicating the successful addition of LDH nanoparticles on the membrane surface. TFN 3 membrane was characterized with the highest flux resulting in 161% flux enhancement compared to the pristine thin film composite (TFC) membrane. All membranes showed great rejection performances (with a rejection higher than 95% and 88% for Na2SO4 and MgSO4, respectively) for divalent ions. Additionally, TFN membranes exhibited excellent antibacterial and self-cleaning properties compared to the pristine TFC membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Catalysis in Wastewater Treatment)
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Review

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24 pages, 2632 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review on Catalytic Activities of Green-Synthesized Selenium Nanoparticles on Dye Removal for Wastewater Treatment
by Amin Barani, Seyedeh Roya Alizadeh and Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh
Water 2023, 15(18), 3295; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183295 - 18 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
The increase in economic activities and the industrialization of countries have caused the growth of pollution created by waste and sewage. In particular, the textile industry produces large amounts of liquid contaminants due to the large amounts of water employed during the production [...] Read more.
The increase in economic activities and the industrialization of countries have caused the growth of pollution created by waste and sewage. In particular, the textile industry produces large amounts of liquid contaminants due to the large amounts of water employed during the production of fabrics. In addition, dyes are another category of organic compound used in many industries, such as pharmaceuticals and rubber making. The presence of limitations in physico-chemical methods for the degradation of various dyes has stimulated the interest of researchers worldwide. One of the most economical ways is the use of photocatalytic decomposition under UV light radiation by green nanoparticles (NPs). In recent years, various metal NPs have been made using the green method that is cost-effective, eco-friendly, safe, and simple. Selenium (Se) is a crucial semiconductor metal that is widely utilized for its outstanding photovoltaic and optoelectronic attributes. Due to the excellent physical characteristics of Se, such as thermo-conductivity, anisotropy, and high photoconductivity, it has been used for removing various organic dyes. Hence, green SeNPs have attracted much attention in the catalytic decomposition process. The current review focuses on providing comprehensive studies concerning the degradation or reduction of various organic dyes through green SeNPs as an effective and efficient method and their mechanisms. It highlights the importance of utilizing green chemistry and catalytic properties. The aim is to benefit researchers from both academic and industrial backgrounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Catalysis in Wastewater Treatment)
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