Lake Processes and Lake’s Climate Effects under Global Warming

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and Climate Change".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2024) | Viewed by 8804

Special Issue Editors

1. Land-Atmosphere Interaction and Its Climatic Effects Group, State Key Laboratory of Tibetan Plateau Earth System, Resources and Environment (TPESRE), Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2. College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Interests: the observation, simulation and satellite application of lake processes; the regional climate effects of high-elevation lakes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
College of Resources and Environment, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, China
Interests: lake process modeling; regional climate; hydrological cycles; crop modeling; dynamic vegetation
Key Laboratory of Land Surface Process and Climate Change in Cold and Arid Regions, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
Interests: climate change; regional climate; atmosphere boundary layer process; lake–atmosphere interaction; development of lake model

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lakes are important indicators of climate change and show significance in terms of regional hydrological cycles and water balance. Under global warming, lakes’ attributes (lake area, lake level, lake volume, lake turbidity and transparency), meteorological variables and the lake–atmosphere turbulent heat flux (evaporation, ice sublimation, etc.)  all show significant variations, and thus have strengthened or weakened regional climate effects in different climatic regions of the world.  Thus, it is important to monitor the variation in lake variables in different continents and in all kinds of climate regions via in situ measurements, satellite data and numerical simulations. In this Special Issue, all research will focus on the measurements and numerical simulation of lake–atmosphere interaction processes, as well as lakes’ regional climate effects, including lake surface temperature, lake ice phenology detection, lake evaporation and lake sublimation estimation, lake level and lake volume change, lake catchment hydrological cycle and energy budget, lakes’ regional climate effects, etc.

This Special Issue is dedicated to highlighting new advancements in lake monitoring research with all kinds of in situ measurements, including satellite data with visible, thermal and microwave bands and numerical simulations.

Prof. Dr. Yaoming Ma
Prof. Dr. Binbin Wang
Prof. Dr. Jiming Jin
Prof. Dr. Lijuan Wen
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • lake–atmosphere interaction processes
  • lake ice phenology
  • lake catchment-scale hydrological cycle
  • lakes’ climate effects
  • satellite data
  • numerical simulations

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 3141 KiB  
Article
Study of Interannual Variability of the Winter Mesothermal Temperature Maximum Layer in Southern Baikal
Water 2024, 16(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010021 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 517
Abstract
This paper is devoted to the study of the mesothermal temperature maximum layer (MTML) in Lake Baikal, which is observed during the period of winter stratification. On the one hand, this is a rather well-known phenomenon; on the other hand, it is not [...] Read more.
This paper is devoted to the study of the mesothermal temperature maximum layer (MTML) in Lake Baikal, which is observed during the period of winter stratification. On the one hand, this is a rather well-known phenomenon; on the other hand, it is not sufficiently studied, although it has a significant impact on the thermal regime in winter and water dynamics during the periods of formation and breakdown of inverse temperature stratification. Our work presents the results of analyzing the spatial and temporal variability of the main MTML parameters and their dependence on hydrometeorological factors. For this purpose, CTD soundings and mooring data obtained in the western part of the southern basin of Lake Baikal in 2000–2022 were analyzed in comparison to ERA5-Land reanalysis. The MTML parameters have noticeable within-season and interannual spatial and temporal variability. This is obviously related to the influence of the processes of vertical turbulent mixing, internal wave action, and current patterns. The analysis of interannual differences revealed four types of behavior of the maximum MTML temperature during the ice season. The influence of wind conditions on the main MTML parameters (maximum MTML temperature, depth of its occurrence, and depth of the upper MTML boundary) was shown not only in the fall, but also in the summer period, when heat accumulation in the Baikal water column takes place. With the increased wind activity in the late fall, the MTML is formed deeper and has lower maximum temperature values. At lower wind activity in the fall, the MTML is closer to the surface and the values of the maximum MTML temperature are higher. A change in wind activity in the summer leads to the opposite effect. In spite of the essential trends over the study period in the dates of the occurrence of hydrological events, no noticeable trends were registered for the maximum MTML temperature, its depth, and the depth of the upper boundary of the MTML. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Processes and Lake’s Climate Effects under Global Warming)
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18 pages, 1788 KiB  
Article
Monitoring the Efficiency of a Catchment Restoration to Further Reduce Nutrients and Sediment Input into a Eutrophic Lake
Water 2023, 15(21), 3794; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213794 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 685
Abstract
The restoration of eutrophic river and lake ecosystems is an important task that has been conducted in numerous ways and at many locations around the world. However, such improvements of water quality are often temporary, as such ecosystems are dynamic, and restoration measures [...] Read more.
The restoration of eutrophic river and lake ecosystems is an important task that has been conducted in numerous ways and at many locations around the world. However, such improvements of water quality are often temporary, as such ecosystems are dynamic, and restoration measures must be reassessed and modified. The restored catchment of a shallow eutrophic lake, Lake Seeburg, in central Germany, was monitored over a 13-month period. The restoration of the inflowing river a decade earlier included riverbed prolongation, gradient reduction, and the construction of wetlands upstream, which reduced the sediment input and silting up of the lake. As nutrient fluxes in the tributaries were still high, these restoration measures seemed to be insufficiently effective. This study aimed to locate nutrient hotspots and quantify the nutrient balances of the catchment. Nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations, river discharge, hydrochemical parameters (pH, temperature, oxygen concentrations) and turbidity, as a proxy for suspended particulate matter (SPM), were monitored monthly. Our data show that the lake functions as a nitrogen sink, whereas the phosphorous fluxes follow a seasonal trend with the negative balance in winter turning into a positive balance in summer with the onset of cyanobacterial blooms. The release of phosphorous from the wetland throughout the year indicates supersaturation and thus a permanent input of phosphorous into the lake. Consequently, phosphorus loading in the lake is quite high, fostering eutrophication. Furthermore, the very low precipitation rates during the study highlighted that the lake was not only controlled by external nutrient loads but rather was sustained by high internal phosphorous loading. Consequently, the remediation action of creating the wetland to restore the sedimentation trap and nutrient accumulation capacity was not sufficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Processes and Lake’s Climate Effects under Global Warming)
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15 pages, 2061 KiB  
Article
Study on Characteristics of Water Level Variations and Water Balance of the Largest Lake in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Water 2023, 15(20), 3614; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203614 - 16 Oct 2023
Viewed by 786
Abstract
Qinghai Lake is the largest lake in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and China, it is also an important part of the national ecological security strategy. Since 1950s, the water level of Qinghai Lake has been changing rapidly, which induces great effects on the surrounding traffic [...] Read more.
Qinghai Lake is the largest lake in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and China, it is also an important part of the national ecological security strategy. Since 1950s, the water level of Qinghai Lake has been changing rapidly, which induces great effects on the surrounding traffic facilities, residents’ safety and the development of animal husbandry, etc. Therefore, it is necessary to study the water level evolution and water balance of Qinghai Lake under the main impact of climate change. Based on meteorological and hydrological data from Buha River Hydrological Station, Xiashe Hydrological Station, and Gangcha Meteorological Station, CMFD, and water balance equation, this article first analyzes the interannual and intra-year water level evolution characteristics of Qinghai Lake from 1956 to 2020, including lake surface precipitation (P), runoff into the lake (Rs) and evaporation (E). Secondly, we conducted a study on the water level change characteristics calculated for fixed months. Finally, the contribution rate of each factor to the fluctuation of Qinghai Lake water level was quantitatively calculated using the ridge regression method. Results show that the annual average water level declined at a rate of 0.8 m decade−1 from 1956 to 2004, primarily due to E exceeding the sum of P and Rs. However, from 2004 to 2020, the water level increased at a rate of 1.7 m decade−1, mainly attributed to the increase in P and Rs. Qinghai Lake exhibits evident intra-year variations, with the water level starting to rise in May and reaching its peak in September, which aligns with the monthly variations of Rs, P, and E. Furthermore, the impacts of the current year’s P, Rs, and E on the annual water level fluctuations for fixed months of September to December is greater than that of the previous year. Specifically, the contributions of the current year’s P, Rs and E to the water level fluctuations calculated based on December data are 10%, 70%, and 20%, respectively. The contribution rate of meteorological factors to the rise and fall of water level was wind speed (33%), downward short-wave radiation (27%), precipitation (27%), downward long-wave radiation (11%) and specific humidity (2%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Processes and Lake’s Climate Effects under Global Warming)
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19 pages, 7290 KiB  
Article
Improvements and Evaluation of the FLake Model in Dagze Co, Central Tibetan Plateau
Water 2023, 15(17), 3135; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15173135 - 31 Aug 2023
Viewed by 722
Abstract
FLake has been one of the most extensively used lake models in many studies for lake thermal structure simulations. However, due to the scarcity of lake temperature observations, its applicability and performance on lakes over the Tibetan Plateau are still poorly investigated, especially [...] Read more.
FLake has been one of the most extensively used lake models in many studies for lake thermal structure simulations. However, due to the scarcity of lake temperature observations, its applicability and performance on lakes over the Tibetan Plateau are still poorly investigated, especially in small- to medium-sized lakes. In this study, based on water profile observations in Dagze Co, a medium-sized lake on the central Tibetan Plateau, the sensitivity of lake thermal features to three key parameters in FLake was investigated. The performance of FLake in reproducing the lake thermal features was evaluated and improved by optimizing these key parameters. The results showed that the FLake model with default parameter settings can generally reproduce the thermal features of Dagze Co, but there are still significant deviations compared to observation. The sensitive experiments demonstrated that the thermal structure of the lake obviously responds to the change in the water extinction coefficient (Kd), friction velocity (u*), and ice albedo (αice). Based on previous studies and sensitive experiments, the three key parameters were set to the optimized value, which substantially improved the performance of FLake. The values of bias and RMSE of simulated lake surface water temperature decreased from 3.08 °C and 3.62 °C to 2.0 °C and 2.48 °C after parameter optimization. The integration of a simple salinity scheme further improved the ability of FLake to reproduce the observed thermal features of Dagze Co. These results will improve our understanding of thermal processes in lakes on the Tibetan Plateau, as well as the applicability of lake models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Processes and Lake’s Climate Effects under Global Warming)
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14 pages, 3044 KiB  
Article
Lake Ice Simulation and Evaluation for a Typical Lake on the Tibetan Plateau
Water 2023, 15(17), 3088; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15173088 - 29 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
This study aims to simulate the lake ice conditions in the Nam Co lake using a lake ice model, which is a one-dimensional physics-based model that utilizes enthalpy as the predictor variable. We modified the air density schemes within the model to improve [...] Read more.
This study aims to simulate the lake ice conditions in the Nam Co lake using a lake ice model, which is a one-dimensional physics-based model that utilizes enthalpy as the predictor variable. We modified the air density schemes within the model to improve the accuracy of the lake ice simulation. Additionally, the process of lake ice sublimation was included, and the effect of lake water salinity on the freezing point was considered. Using the improved lake ice model, we simulated lake surface water temperature, lake ice thickness, and interannual variations in lake ice phenology, and we compared these results with observations at Nam Co. The results demonstrate that the improved model better reproduces the lake surface water temperature, lake ice thickness, and lake ice phenology at Nam Co. Additionally, the thin air density affects lake processes by weakening sensible heat and latent heat, which ultimately leads to a delayed ice-on date and a slightly earlier ice-free date in Nam Co. This study contributes to an enhanced understanding of the freeze–thaw processes in Nam Co and reduces the biases in lake ice simulation on the Tibetan Plateau through the lake model improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Processes and Lake’s Climate Effects under Global Warming)
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21 pages, 11676 KiB  
Article
Climate Change and Hydrological Response in the Ranwu Lake Basin of Southeastern Tibet Plateau
Water 2023, 15(11), 2119; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112119 - 02 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1044
Abstract
It is of great practical significance to accurately distinguish the different water supply sources of rivers and lakes under climate change for regional water resources utilization. This study examines the impact of climate change on the hydrological processes of the Ranwu Lake basin [...] Read more.
It is of great practical significance to accurately distinguish the different water supply sources of rivers and lakes under climate change for regional water resources utilization. This study examines the impact of climate change on the hydrological processes of the Ranwu Lake basin in the southeastern Tibet Plateau. The authors used China Meteorological Forcing Dataset (CMFD) historical data, CanESM5′s future climate predictor, and the SPHY model to analyze trends in temperature, precipitation, and water supply sources in the basin. The study found that warming in the basin was higher than that in the Tibet Plateau, with high-altitude areas and winter showing more significant warming. From 1998 to 2018, precipitation in the basin showed a trend of fluctuation and decline. The study also found that glacial meltwater accounted for the majority of total runoff in the basin (54.13%), while snow meltwater, rainfall, and baseflow accounted for about 22.98%, 11.84%, and 11.06%, respectively, on average in recent years. The total runoff in the Ranwu Lake Basin will continue to decrease due to the accelerating retreat of glaciers, with the hydrological process transforming from being dominated by glacier processes to rain–snow processes. The study also predicts that three-quarters of glaciers in the basin will vanish within the next forty years, and by 2100, only around 20% of glaciers will remain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Processes and Lake’s Climate Effects under Global Warming)
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17 pages, 6709 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Lake Stratification and Mixing and Its Influencing Factors over High Elevation Large and Small Lakes on the Tibetan Plateau
Water 2023, 15(11), 2094; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112094 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Lake stratification and mixing processes can influence gas and energy transport in the water column and water–atmosphere interactions, thus impacting limnology and local climate. Featuring the largest high-elevation inland lake zone in the world, comprehensive and comparative studies on the evolution of lake [...] Read more.
Lake stratification and mixing processes can influence gas and energy transport in the water column and water–atmosphere interactions, thus impacting limnology and local climate. Featuring the largest high-elevation inland lake zone in the world, comprehensive and comparative studies on the evolution of lake stratification and mixing and their driving forces are still quite limited. Here, using valuable temperature chain measurements in four large lakes (Nam Co, Dagze Co, Bangong Co, and Paiku Co) and a “small lake” adjacent to Nam Co, our objectives are to investigate the seasonal and diurnal variations of epilimnion depth (Ep, the most important layer in stratification and mixing process) and to analyze the driving force differences between “small lake” and Nam Co. Results indicate that Ep estimated by the methods of the absolute density difference (<0.1 kg m−3) from the surface and the Lake-Analyzer were quite similar, with the former being more reliable and widely applicable. The stratification and mixing in the four large lakes showed a dimictic pattern, with obvious spring and autumn turnovers. Additionally, the stratification form during heat storage periods, with Ep quickly locating at depths of approximately 10–15 m, and, after that, increasing gradually to the lake bottom. Additionally, the diurnal variation in Ep can be evidenced both in the large and small lakes when temperature measurements above 3 m depth are included. For Nam Co, the dominant influencing factors for the seasonal variation of Ep were the heat budget components (turbulent heat fluxes and radiation components), while wind speed only had a relatively weak positive correlation (r = 0.23). In the “small lake”, radiation components and wind speed show high negative (r = −0.43 to −0.59) and positive (r = 0.46) correlation, with rare correlations for turbulent heat flux. These reported characteristics have significance for lake process modeling and evaluation in these high-elevation lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Processes and Lake’s Climate Effects under Global Warming)
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21 pages, 20091 KiB  
Article
Simulation of Runoff through Improved Precipitation: The Case of Yamzho Yumco Lake in the Tibetan Plateau
Water 2023, 15(3), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030490 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
Alpine lakes on the Tibetan Plateau have significantly changed under a changing climate over past decades. However, the changing patterns of the inflow sources of the lakes, i.e., rainfall and the melt water of snow and glaciers, and their response to climate change [...] Read more.
Alpine lakes on the Tibetan Plateau have significantly changed under a changing climate over past decades. However, the changing patterns of the inflow sources of the lakes, i.e., rainfall and the melt water of snow and glaciers, and their response to climate change remain uncertain because obtaining accurate precipitation and melt water discharge is difficult due to the complex topography, spatial variability, and scarce stations of the alpine area. A distributed hydrological model, J2000, was employed in this study to simulate runoff component variations of the Yamzho Yumco Lake glaciated basin during 1974–2019. Except for observed daily runoff from two tributaries, a High Asia Refined (HAR) high-resolution reanalysis of precipitation data was combined with field precipitation gradient observation and snow cover area validation, all performed simultaneously to reduce the uncertainty of inflow components in the model. Results showed that the average runoff into the lake during 1974–2019 was 5.5 ± 1.4 × 108 m3/10a, whereas rainfall runoff, glacier melt runoff, snowmelt runoff, and baseflow contributed to 54.6%, 10.8%, 1.8%, and 32.7% of total runoff in mean, respectively. Seasonal runoff in spring, summer, autumn, and winter accounted for 6.7%, 60.6%, 23.9% and 8.8% of annual total runoff, respectively. In glacial areas, the reduction in total runoff after removing the precipitation trend was 1.4 times than that of temperature, and in non-glacial areas, the reduction in total runoff after removing the precipitation trend was 1.6 times than the increase in total runoff after removing the temperature trend. The proportion of rainfall runoff increased at a rate of 1.0%/10a, whereas the proportion of melt runoff decreased at a rate of 0.07%/10a during the study period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Processes and Lake’s Climate Effects under Global Warming)
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