Special Issue "Viral Hepatitis Treatment"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Viral Immunology, Vaccines, and Antivirals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Pietro Andreone
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy
Interests: chronic hepatitis; liver cirrhosis; autoimmune liver diseases; epatocellular carcinoma; liver transplantation; hepatic stem cells; metabolic liver diseases
Prof. Dr. Stefano Brillanti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Università degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Italy
Interests: viral hepatitis; liver tumors; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; cirrhosis; liver transplantation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The last 30 years have represented a continuous evolution of therapies in the management of viral liver infections that have a chronic course, in particular hepatitis B and C.

At the present time, recovery for those suffering from hepatitis C is practically universal. For those suffering from hepatitis B, in addition to a more refined diagnostic evaluation, several drugs with different therapeutic targets are being studied with the aim of a definitive cure. Moreover, for delta hepatitis, we are finally on the road to being able to achieve the same goals as hepatitis B through the development of drugs that block viral replication with the hope that they can also be effective for a definitive recovery.

Finally, in the recent COVID-19 pandemic, infection occurs in the liver, which appears to be one of the target organs of the virus, and we still do not know the possible outcomes of this.

This Special Issue of the Viruses journal is dedicated to the diagnostic and therapeutic advancements of viral liver diseases with the aim of giving a complete update not only on the treatments currently available and future developments, but also on the still unmet needs in the management of special patient populations.

Prof. Dr. Pietro Andreone
Prof. Dr. Stefano Brillanti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hepatitis A
  • hepatitis B
  • hepatitis C
  • hepatitis delta
  • hepatitis E
  • COVID-19 hepatitis
  • antiviral treatment
  • viral hepatitis diagnosis

Published Papers (5 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Global Utilization Trends of Direct Acting Antivirals (DAAs) during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Time Series Analysis
Viruses 2021, 13(7), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13071314 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 892
Abstract
The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has placed a significant strain on hepatitis programs and interventions (screening, diagnosis, and treatment) at a critical moment in the context of hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination. We sought to quantify changes in Direct Acting Antiviral (DAA) [...] Read more.
The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has placed a significant strain on hepatitis programs and interventions (screening, diagnosis, and treatment) at a critical moment in the context of hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination. We sought to quantify changes in Direct Acting Antiviral (DAA) utilization among different countries during the pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional time series analysis between 1 September 2018 and 31 August 2020, using the IQVIA MIDAS database, which contains DAA purchase data for 54 countries. We examined the percent change in DAA units dispensed (e.g., pills and capsules) from March to August 2019 to the same period of time in 2020 across the 54 countries. Interrupted time-series analysis was used to examine the impact of COVID-19 on monthly rates of DAA utilization across each of the major developed economies (G7 nations). Overall, 46 of 54 (85%) jurisdictions experienced a decline in DAA utilization during the pandemic, with an average of −43% (range: −1% in Finland to −93% in Brazil). All high HCV prevalence (HCV prevalence > 2%) countries in the database experienced a decline in utilization, average −49% (range: −17% in Kazakhstan to −90% in Egypt). Across the G7 nations, we also observed a decreased trend in DAA utilization during the early months of the pandemic, with significant declines (p < 0.01) for Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The global response to COVID-19 led to a large decrease in DAA utilization globally. Deliberate efforts to counteract the impact of COVID-19 on treatment delivery are needed to support the goal of HCV elimination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Hepatitis Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Successful Direct Acting Antiviral Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis C Normalizes IFNγ and IL2 Production in T Cells Together with TLR8 Expression and Functionality in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
Viruses 2021, 13(4), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13040635 - 07 Apr 2021
Viewed by 749
Abstract
Chronic hepatitis C infection (HCV) activates a systemic cell-mediated immune response characterized by the production of IFNγ and an innate immune response addressed by the activation of TLR signaling. We aimed to investigate whether HCV eradication by direct acting antivirals (DAA) leads to [...] Read more.
Chronic hepatitis C infection (HCV) activates a systemic cell-mediated immune response characterized by the production of IFNγ and an innate immune response addressed by the activation of TLR signaling. We aimed to investigate whether HCV eradication by direct acting antivirals (DAA) leads to a recovery in cell-mediated immune response and TLR expression and functionality. Blood samples were obtained in HCV infected patients before DAA treatment and at week +48 after the end of treatment. Results were compared to healthy controls. Cell surface expression of TLR8 was assessed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by flow cytometry. Freshly isolated PBMCs were cultured with specific TLR8 agonists and intracellular production of cytokines was determined by flow-cytometry after ex vivo TLR8 activation with ssRNA 40. Production of IFNγ, IL2 and IL17 was assessed by flow cytometry in T cells after polyclonal activation. Included were 50 HCV-infected patients and 15 controls. TLR8 expression in PBMCs was significantly increased before treatment and recovered normal levels at week +48. Production of IL1b, IL6 and TNFα dependent on the activation of TLR8 in PBMCs was also increased in patients before DAA treatment, with a significant reduction at week +48. Combined expression of IFNγ and IL2 in CD4+ T cells in HCV-infected patients was significantly increased compared to controls and recovered normal levels at week +48. DAA-mediated clearance of HCV is associated with a decreased expression and activation of TLR8 in PBMCs until healthy control levels which is accompanied by a reduction in the Th1 response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Hepatitis Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Treatments for HBV: A Glimpse into the Future
Viruses 2021, 13(9), 1767; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13091767 - 04 Sep 2021
Viewed by 508
Abstract
The hepatitis B virus is responsible for most of the chronic liver disease and liver cancer worldwide. As actual therapeutic strategies have had little success in eradicating the virus from hepatocytes, and as lifelong treatment is often required, new drugs targeting the various [...] Read more.
The hepatitis B virus is responsible for most of the chronic liver disease and liver cancer worldwide. As actual therapeutic strategies have had little success in eradicating the virus from hepatocytes, and as lifelong treatment is often required, new drugs targeting the various phases of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) lifecycle are currently under investigation. In this review, we provide an overview of potential future treatments for HBV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Hepatitis Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Management and Treatment of Hepatitis C: Are There Still Unsolved Problems and Unique Populations?
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061048 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 937
Abstract
Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) have revolutionized the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, possibly leading to HCV elimination by 2030 as endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, some patients belonging to the so-called unique or special populations are [...] Read more.
Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) have revolutionized the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, possibly leading to HCV elimination by 2030 as endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, some patients belonging to the so-called unique or special populations are referred to as difficult-to-treat due to unreached sustained virological response, potential drug side effects or interactions or co-morbidities. Several years after the DAA introduction and on the basis of excellent findings in terms of efficacy and safety, some doubts arise around the exact meaning of the special population designation and whether this group of patients actually exists. The aim of this review is to discuss and analyze current evidence on the management and treatment of the so-called “unique populations”. We placed particular emphasis on patients with decompensated cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), coinfections, rare genotypes, and previous treatment failure, in order to provide physicians with an updated overview of the actual problems and needs in the current scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Hepatitis Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Hepatitis B Virus-Related Cryoglobulinemic Vasculitis: Review of the Literature and Long-Term Follow-Up Analysis of 18 Patients Treated with Nucleos(t)ide Analogues from the Italian Study Group of Cryoglobulinemia (GISC)
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061032 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 962
Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronic infection causes progressive liver damage, although about 20% of patients develop extrahepatic manifestations such as cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV). Clinical manifestations range from mild to moderate (purpura, asthenia, arthralgia) to severe (leg ulcers, peripheral neuropathy, glomerulonephritis, non-Hodgkin lymphoma). A [...] Read more.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronic infection causes progressive liver damage, although about 20% of patients develop extrahepatic manifestations such as cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV). Clinical manifestations range from mild to moderate (purpura, asthenia, arthralgia) to severe (leg ulcers, peripheral neuropathy, glomerulonephritis, non-Hodgkin lymphoma). A comprehensive review of therapeutic options for HBV-related CV is lacking. Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) suppress HBV replication in 90–100% of cases and induce clinical response in most patients with mild-to-moderate CV. Plasma exchange can be performed in patients with severe CV and should be considered in severe or life-threatening cases combined with high doses of corticosteroids and antiviral treatment. A cautious use of rituximab can be considered only in association with NA treatment in refractory cases. A review of the literature and an analysis of data collected by six centers of the Italian Group for the Study of Cryoglobulinemia on 18 HBV-CV nucleotide/nucleoside analogues (NAs)-treated patients were carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Hepatitis Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop