Multiple Hosts of SARS-CoV-2: Second Volume

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Coronaviruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2024 | Viewed by 3608

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
Interests: emerging and zoonotic viruses; mechanisms of spillover; virus-host interactions; viral diagnostics and interventions
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Guest Editor
Department of Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Interests: pathogenic microbes; mechanisms of infection; colonization in host
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Interests: B cell memory; generation, regulation, and self-maintaining of B cell memory
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, 2130 Public Health, School of Public Health University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
Interests: virology; virus-host interactions; diagnostics; vaccines; viral immunology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Both human and non-human animal species are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and multiple spillovers from humans to non-human animal hosts have been documented, including amongst companion animals, farmed animals, and captive and free-living wild animals. The recent findings of widespread SARS-CoV-2 infection in free-living white-tailed deer highlight an urgent need to address the many open questions relating to the role of various animal hosts in the natural ecology and evolution, pathogenesis, transmission dynamics, and host responses of SARS-CoV-2.

For this second volume of the Special Issue, we encourage colleagues to submit original manuscripts, case reports, and targeted reviews relating to the ecology and evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in non-human animal hosts. Epidemiological and laboratory studies on reverse zoonoses, transmission dynamics at the animal–human interface, SARS-CoV-2 surveillance of animal populations, and the identification of animal reservoirs are strongly encouraged. Manuscripts describing comparative and mechanistic studies relating to SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, host innate and adaptive immune response, and virus adaptation in humans and animals are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Suresh Varma Kuchipudi
Prof. Dr. Vivek Kapur
Prof. Dr. Joshy Jacob
Dr. Santhamani Ramasamy
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • SARS-CoV-2
  • animal–human interface
  • animal reservoirs
  • one health
  • pathogenicity and pathogenesis
  • spillover and spillback
  • surveillance
  • virus evolution and adaptation
  • zoonoses and reverse zoonoses

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 3807 KiB  
Article
Acute and Long COVID Intestinal Changes in an Experimental Model of Coronavirus in Mice
by Hussain Hussain, Nila Elumalai, Natarajan Sampath, Nagarajarao Shamaladevi, Rima Hajjar, Brian Zachary Druyan, Amirah B. Rashed, Rajalakshmi Ramamoorthy, Norma S. Kenyon, Arumugam R. Jayakumar and Michael J. Paidas
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060832 - 24 May 2024
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Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic, which emerged in early 2020, has had a profound and lasting impact on global health, resulting in over 7.0 million deaths and persistent challenges. In addition to acute concerns, there is growing attention being given to the long COVID health [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic, which emerged in early 2020, has had a profound and lasting impact on global health, resulting in over 7.0 million deaths and persistent challenges. In addition to acute concerns, there is growing attention being given to the long COVID health consequences for survivors of COVID-19 with documented cases of cardiovascular abnormalities, liver disturbances, lung complications, kidney issues, and noticeable cognitive deficits. Recent studies have investigated the physiological changes in various organs following prolonged exposure to murine hepatitis virus-1 (MHV-1), a coronavirus, in mouse models. One significant finding relates to the effects on the gastrointestinal tract, an area previously understudied regarding the long-lasting effects of COVID-19. This research sheds light on important observations in the intestines during both the acute and the prolonged phases following MHV-1 infection, which parallel specific changes seen in humans after exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Our study investigates the histopathological alterations in the small intestine following MHV-1 infection in murine models, revealing significant changes reminiscent of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), celiac disease. Notable findings include mucosal inflammation, lymphoid hyperplasia, goblet cell hyperplasia, and immune cell infiltration, mirroring pathological features observed in IBD. Additionally, MHV-1 infection induces villous atrophy, altered epithelial integrity, and inflammatory responses akin to celiac disease and IBD. SPIKENET (SPK) treatment effectively mitigates intestinal damage caused by MHV-1 infection, restoring tissue architecture and ameliorating inflammatory responses. Furthermore, investigation into long COVID reveals intricate inflammatory profiles, highlighting the potential of SPK to modulate intestinal responses and restore tissue homeostasis. Understanding these histopathological alterations provides valuable insights into the pathogenesis of COVID-induced gastrointestinal complications and informs the development of targeted therapeutic strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple Hosts of SARS-CoV-2: Second Volume)
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16 pages, 2214 KiB  
Article
Epidemiologic and Genomic Evidence for Zoonotic Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among People and Animals on a Michigan Mink Farm, United States, 2020
by Ria R. Ghai, Anne Straily, Nora Wineland, Jennifer Calogero, Mary Grace Stobierski, Kimberly Signs, Melissa Blievernicht, Yaritbel Torres-Mendoza, Michelle A. Waltenburg, Jillian A. Condrey, Heather M. Blankenship, Diana Riner, Nancy Barr, Michele Schalow, Jarold Goodrich, Cheryl Collins, Ausaf Ahmad, John Michael Metz, Owen Herzegh, Kelly Straka, Dustin M. Arsnoe, Anthony G. Duffiney, Susan A. Shriner, Markus H. Kainulainen, Ann Carpenter, Florence Whitehill, Natalie M. Wendling, Robyn A. Stoddard, Adam C. Retchless, Anna Uehara, Ying Tao, Yan Li, Jing Zhang, Suxiang Tong and Casey Barton Behraveshadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Viruses 2023, 15(12), 2436; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15122436 - 15 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
Farmed mink are one of few animals in which infection with SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in sustained transmission among a population and spillback from mink to people. In September 2020, mink on a Michigan farm exhibited increased morbidity and mortality rates due to confirmed [...] Read more.
Farmed mink are one of few animals in which infection with SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in sustained transmission among a population and spillback from mink to people. In September 2020, mink on a Michigan farm exhibited increased morbidity and mortality rates due to confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We conducted an epidemiologic investigation to identify the source of initial mink exposure, assess the degree of spread within the facility’s overall mink population, and evaluate the risk of further viral spread on the farm and in surrounding wildlife habitats. Three farm employees reported symptoms consistent with COVID-19 the same day that increased mortality rates were observed among the mink herd. One of these individuals, and another asymptomatic employee, tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) 9 days later. All but one mink sampled on the farm were positive for SARS-CoV-2 based on nucleic acid detection from at least one oral, nasal, or rectal swab tested by RT-qPCR (99%). Sequence analysis showed high degrees of similarity between sequences from mink and the two positive farm employees. Epidemiologic and genomic data, including the presence of F486L and N501T mutations believed to arise through mink adaptation, support the hypothesis that the two employees with SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection contracted COVID-19 from mink. However, the specific source of virus introduction onto the farm was not identified. Three companion animals living with mink farm employees and 31 wild animals of six species sampled in the surrounding area were negative for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-qPCR. Results from this investigation support the necessity of a One Health approach to manage the zoonotic spread of SARS-CoV-2 and underscores the critical need for multifaceted public health approaches to prevent the introduction and spread of respiratory viruses on mink farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple Hosts of SARS-CoV-2: Second Volume)
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Review

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19 pages, 13997 KiB  
Review
SPIKENET: An Evidence-Based Therapy for Long COVID
by Nila Elumalai, Hussain Hussain, Natarajan Sampath, Nagarajarao Shamaladevi, Rima Hajjar, Brian Zachary Druyan, Amirah B. Rashed, Rajalakshmi Ramamoorthy, Norma S. Kenyon, Arumugam R. Jayakumar and Michael J. Paidas
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060838 - 24 May 2024
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Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has been one of the most impactful events in our lifetime, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants were reported globally, and a wide range of symptoms existed. Individuals who contract COVID-19 continue to suffer for [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has been one of the most impactful events in our lifetime, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants were reported globally, and a wide range of symptoms existed. Individuals who contract COVID-19 continue to suffer for a long time, known as long COVID or post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC). While COVID-19 vaccines were widely deployed, both unvaccinated and vaccinated individuals experienced long-term complications. To date, there are no treatments to eradicate long COVID. We recently conceived a new approach to treat COVID in which a 15-amino-acid synthetic peptide (SPIKENET, SPK) is targeted to the ACE2 receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, which prevents the virus from attaching to the host. We also found that SPK precludes the binding of spike glycoproteins with the receptor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) of a coronavirus, murine hepatitis virus-1 (MHV-1), and with all SARS-CoV-2 variants. Further, SPK reversed the development of severe inflammation, oxidative stress, tissue edema, and animal death post-MHV-1 infection in mice. SPK also protects against multiple organ damage in acute and long-term post-MHV-1 infection. Our findings collectively suggest a potential therapeutic benefit of SPK for treating COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple Hosts of SARS-CoV-2: Second Volume)
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