Evaluation of COVID-19 Booster Vaccine Effects

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Coronaviruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 March 2024) | Viewed by 9826

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Guest Editor
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China
Interests: infectious disease epidemiology; evaluation of vaccine efficacy; vaccine development
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Three years have passed since the COVID-19 outbreak, which has claimed millions of lives. Vaccination is considered as the most effective approach for the prevention and control of COVID-19. However, the protective efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccines weakens over time after vaccination. Additionally, the effectiveness of the vaccines dramatically declines for different variants. Booster vaccination has shown a higher level of antibody production. Therefore, booster vaccines have been administered in order to improve the immunization level of various populations. The effects and durability of booster vaccination need to be evaluated and monitored frequently. This Special Issue provides a platform for communication and discussion on this important issue. This Special Issue will feature original research articles and reviews related to, but not limited to, epidemiology studies, vaccine efficacy (effectiveness) evaluation, new delivering systems for vaccines, development of new vaccines, prediction models to evaluate vaccine effects, pathogens, interactions between viruses and hosts, molecular mechanisms, molecular evolution, and so on.

Dr. Dingmei Zhang
Dr. Bingqian Qu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • vaccine
  • evaluation of vaccine efficacy

Published Papers (7 papers)

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11 pages, 635 KiB  
Article
Immunogenicity of Two Doses of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine with a ChAdOx1-S Booster Dose among Navy Personnel in Mexico
by Yanet Ventura-Enríquez, Evelyn Cortina-De la Rosa, Elizabeth Díaz-Padilla, Sandra Murrieta, Silvia Segundo-Martínez, Verónica Fernández-Sánchez and Cruz Vargas-De-León
Viruses 2024, 16(4), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16040551 - 01 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Booster doses of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine have been recommended to improve and prolong immunity, address waning immunity over time, and contribute to the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. A heterologous booster vaccine strategy may offer advantages over a homologous approach. To compare the [...] Read more.
Booster doses of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine have been recommended to improve and prolong immunity, address waning immunity over time, and contribute to the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. A heterologous booster vaccine strategy may offer advantages over a homologous approach. To compare the immunogenicity of two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine with a ChAdOx1-S booster dose, immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-spike (anti-S) and anti-nucleocapsid (anti-N) antibody titers (Ab) were compared over 1 year and post-booster vaccination. Results showed that, at 3- to 9-month assessments in vaccinated subjects, an-ti-N Ab were undetectable in participants with no history of COVID-19. In contrast, anti-S Ab measurements were lower than those with COVID-19, and a decrease was observed during the 9 months of observation. After booster vaccination, no differences were found in anti-S between participants who reported a history of COVID-19 and those who did not. Anti-S levels were higher after booster vaccination measurement vs. at 9 months in participants with COVID-19 and without COVID-19, i.e., independent of an infection history. Vaccine administration elicited a response of higher anti-S IgG levels in those infected before vaccination, although levels decreased during the first nine months. IgG anti-N titers were higher in participants with a history of declared infection and who were asymptomatic. The ChAdOx1-S booster increased anti-S Ab levels in participants regardless of whether they had been infected or not to a significantly higher value than with the first two vaccines. These findings underscore the importance of booster vaccination in eliciting a robust and sustained immune response against COVID-19, regardless of the prior infection status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of COVID-19 Booster Vaccine Effects)
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13 pages, 1345 KiB  
Article
Predicting Vaccine Effectiveness for Hospitalization and Symptomatic Disease for Novel SARS-CoV-2 Variants Using Neutralizing Antibody Titers
by Billy J. Gardner and A. Marm Kilpatrick
Viruses 2024, 16(3), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16030479 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 817
Abstract
The emergence of new virus variants, including the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) of SARS-CoV-2, can lead to reduced vaccine effectiveness (VE) and the need for new vaccines or vaccine doses if the extent of immune evasion is severe. Neutralizing antibody titers have been shown [...] Read more.
The emergence of new virus variants, including the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) of SARS-CoV-2, can lead to reduced vaccine effectiveness (VE) and the need for new vaccines or vaccine doses if the extent of immune evasion is severe. Neutralizing antibody titers have been shown to be a correlate of protection for SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens, and could be used to quickly estimate vaccine effectiveness for new variants. However, no model currently exists to provide precise VE estimates for a new variant against severe disease for SARS-CoV-2 using robust datasets from several populations. We developed predictive models for VE against COVID-19 symptomatic disease and hospitalization across a 54-fold range of mean neutralizing antibody titers. For two mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273, BNT162b2), models fit without Omicron data predicted that infection with the BA.1 Omicron variant increased the risk of hospitalization 2.8–4.4-fold and increased the risk of symptomatic disease 1.7–4.2-fold compared to the Delta variant. Out-of-sample validation showed that model predictions were accurate; all predictions were within 10% of observed VE estimates and fell within the model prediction intervals. Predictive models using neutralizing antibody titers can provide rapid VE estimates, which can inform vaccine booster timing, vaccine design, and vaccine selection for new virus variants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of COVID-19 Booster Vaccine Effects)
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16 pages, 1219 KiB  
Article
Initial Efficacy of the COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine Booster and Subsequent Breakthrough Omicron Variant Infection in Patients with B-Cell Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: A Single-Center Cohort Study
by Makoto Saito, Akio Mori, Takashi Ishio, Mirei Kobayashi, Shihori Tsukamoto, Sayaka Kajikawa, Emi Yokoyama, Minoru Kanaya, Koh Izumiyama, Haruna Muraki, Masanobu Morioka and Takeshi Kondo
Viruses 2024, 16(3), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16030328 - 21 Feb 2024
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Abstract
It has been suggested that the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) booster vaccination in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL) is inferior to that in healthy individuals. However, differences according to histological subtype or treatment status are unclear. In addition, there has [...] Read more.
It has been suggested that the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) booster vaccination in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL) is inferior to that in healthy individuals. However, differences according to histological subtype or treatment status are unclear. In addition, there has been less research on patients who subsequently develop breakthrough infections. We investigated the effects of the first COVID-19 booster vaccination for patients with B-NHL and the clinical features of breakthrough infections in the Omicron variant era. In this study, B-NHL was classified into two histological subtypes: aggressive lymphoma and indolent lymphoma. Next, patients were subdivided according to treatment with anticancer drugs at the start of the first vaccination. We also examined the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients who had breakthrough infections after a booster vaccination. The booster effect of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in patients with B-NHL varied considerably depending on treatment status at the initial vaccination. In the patient group at more than 1 year after the last anticancer drug treatment, regardless of the histological subtype, the booster effect was comparable to that in the healthy control group. In contrast, the booster effect was significantly poorer in the other patient groups. However, of the 213 patients who received the booster vaccine, 22 patients (10.3%) were infected with COVID-19, and 18 patients (81.8%) had mild disease; these cases included the patients who remained seronegative. Thus, we believe that booster vaccinations may help in reducing the severity of Omicron variant COVID-19 infection in patients with B-NHL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of COVID-19 Booster Vaccine Effects)
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14 pages, 1382 KiB  
Article
Risks of Adverse Outcomes for Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients during the Four Waves in Brazil According to SARS-CoV-2 Variants, Age Group, and Vaccine Status
by Natália Satchiko Hojo-Souza, Waasila Jassat, Daniel Ludovico Guidoni and Fernanda Sumika Hojo de Souza
Viruses 2023, 15(10), 1997; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15101997 - 26 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
Brazil was hit with four consecutive waves of COVID-19 until 2022 due to the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 (B.1 lineage), followed by the emergence of variants/subvariants. Relative risks of adverse outcomes for COVID-19 patients hospitalized during the four waves were evaluated. Data were extracted from [...] Read more.
Brazil was hit with four consecutive waves of COVID-19 until 2022 due to the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 (B.1 lineage), followed by the emergence of variants/subvariants. Relative risks of adverse outcomes for COVID-19 patients hospitalized during the four waves were evaluated. Data were extracted from the largest Brazilian database (SIVEP-Gripe), and COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized during the peak of each of the four waves (15-week intervals) were included in this study. The outcomes of in-hospital death, invasive (IMV) and non-invasive (NIV) ventilation requirements, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were analyzed to estimate the relative risks. A higher risk of in-hospital death was found during the second wave for all age groups, but a significant reduction was observed in the risk of death for the elderly during the third and fourth waves compared to patients in the first wave. There was an increased risk of IMV requirement and ICU admissions during the second wave for patients aged 18–59 years old compared to the first wave. Relative risk analysis showed that booster-vaccinated individuals have lower risks of in-hospital death and IMV requirement in all age groups compared to unvaccinated/partially vaccinated patients, demonstrating the relevance of full/booster vaccination in reducing adverse outcomes for patients who were hospitalized during the variant prevalence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of COVID-19 Booster Vaccine Effects)
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16 pages, 2307 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Responses up to 9 Months Post-Vaccination in Individuals with Previous SARS-CoV-2 Infection Receiving Inactivated Vaccines
by Jing Wang, Lei Huang, Nan Guo, Ya-Ping Yao, Chao Zhang, Ruonan Xu, Yan-Mei Jiao, Ya-Qun Li, Yao-Ru Song, Fu-Sheng Wang and Xing Fan
Viruses 2023, 15(4), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15040917 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2055
Abstract
Humoral immunity confers protection against COVID-19. The longevity of antibody responses after receiving an inactivated vaccine in individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection is unclear. Plasma samples were collected from 58 individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and 25 healthy donors (HDs) who had been [...] Read more.
Humoral immunity confers protection against COVID-19. The longevity of antibody responses after receiving an inactivated vaccine in individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection is unclear. Plasma samples were collected from 58 individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and 25 healthy donors (HDs) who had been vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine. The neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and S1 domain-specific antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and Omicron strains and nucleoside protein (NP)-specific antibodies were measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed using clinical variables and antibodies at different timepoints after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. NAbs targeting the wild-type or Omicron strain were detected in individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection at 12 months after infection (wild-type: 81%, geometric mean (GM): 20.3 AU/mL; Omicron: 44%, GM: 9.4 AU/mL), and vaccination provided further enhancement of these antibody levels (wild-type: 98%, GM: 53.3 AU/mL; Omicron: 75%, GM: 27.8 AU/mL, at 3 months after vaccination), which were significantly higher than those in HDs receiving a third dose of inactivated vaccine (wild-type: 85%, GM: 33.6 AU/mL; Omicron: 45%, GM: 11.5 AU/mL). The level of NAbs in individuals with previous infection plateaued 6 months after vaccination, but the NAb levels in HDs declined continuously. NAb levels in individuals with previous infection at 3 months post-vaccination were strongly correlated with those at 6 months post-vaccination, and weakly correlated with those before vaccination. NAb levels declined substantially in most individuals, and the rate of antibody decay was negatively correlated with the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in the blood at discharge. These results suggest that the inactivated vaccine induced robust and durable NAb responses in individuals with previous infection up to 9 months after vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of COVID-19 Booster Vaccine Effects)
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9 pages, 978 KiB  
Communication
SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Response and Sustainability after a Third Dose of BNT162b2 in Healthcare Workers at Health Promotion Centers
by Eun-Hee Nah, Seon Cho, Hyeran Park, Suyoung Kim, Dongwon Noh, Eunjoo Kwon and Han-Ik Cho
Viruses 2023, 15(3), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15030751 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the antibody response and the sustainability of immunogenicity after a third dose of BNT162b2 (BNT) in homologous [ChAdOx1 (ChAd)/ChAd, BNT/BNT, and mRNA-1273 (Moderna)/Moderna] and heterologous (ChAd/BNT) vaccinations of two primary doses with different schemes. This [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the antibody response and the sustainability of immunogenicity after a third dose of BNT162b2 (BNT) in homologous [ChAdOx1 (ChAd)/ChAd, BNT/BNT, and mRNA-1273 (Moderna)/Moderna] and heterologous (ChAd/BNT) vaccinations of two primary doses with different schemes. This prospective observational study recruited consenting healthcare workers from 16 health checkup centers in 13 Korean cities. Three-point blood tests were analyzed as the antibody response after the third vaccination: T3-1 (1 month after the third dose), T3-3 (3 months after the third dose), and T3-4–10 (4–10 months after the third dose). SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were measured using a chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay with SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant in the ARCHITECT system (Abbott Diagnostics). The antibody levels were significantly higher in the Moderna /Moderna and BNT/BNT groups than in the ChAd/ ChAd and ChAd/BNT groups (p < 0.05) at T3-1. At T3-3, antibody levels had decreased by 29.1% in the BNT/BNT group and by 45.3% in the ChAd/ChAd group compared with the antibody levels at T3-1. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG levels at T3-1 were significantly associated with having received mRNA vaccines as the two primary doses (p < 0.001). The third dose of BNT induced an increased humoral immune response in various vaccination schemes, which was more prominent for the two primary doses of homologous mRNA vaccines. However, this immunogenicity decreased within 3–10 months after the third dose. These results suggest that another booster dose (a fourth dose), which would be able to counteract SARS-CoV-2 variants, is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of COVID-19 Booster Vaccine Effects)
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16 pages, 2343 KiB  
Brief Report
Booster Dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine in Kidney Transplanted Patients Induces Wuhan-Hu-1 Specific Neutralizing Antibodies and T Cell Activation but Lower Response against Omicron Variant
by Andrea Del Mastro, Stefania Picascia, Luciana D’Apice, Maria Trovato, Pasquale Barba, Immacolata Di Biase, Sebastiano Di Biase, Marco Laccetti, Antonello Belli, Gerardino Amato, Potito Di Muro, Olga Credendino, Alessandra Picardi, Piergiuseppe De Berardinis, Giovanna Del Pozzo and Carmen Gianfrani
Viruses 2023, 15(5), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15051132 - 09 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2109
Abstract
Kidney transplanted recipients (KTR) are at high risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection due to immunosuppressive therapy. Although several studies reported antibody production in KTR after vaccination, data related to immunity to the Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant are sparse. Herein, we analyzed anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response [...] Read more.
Kidney transplanted recipients (KTR) are at high risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection due to immunosuppressive therapy. Although several studies reported antibody production in KTR after vaccination, data related to immunity to the Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant are sparse. Herein, we analyzed anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response in seven KTR and eight healthy controls after the second and third dose of the mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2). A significant increase in neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers were detected against pseudoviruses expressing the Wuhan-Hu-1 spike (S) protein after the third dose in both groups, although nAbs in KTR were lower than controls. nAbs against pseudoviruses expressing the Omicron S protein were low in both groups, with no increase after the 3rd dose in KTR. Reactivity of CD4+ T cells after boosting was observed when cells were challenged with Wuhan-Hu-1 S peptides, while Omicron S peptides were less effective in both groups. IFN-γ production was detected in KTR in response to ancestral S peptides, confirming antigen-specific T cell activation. Our study demonstrates that the 3rd mRNA dose induces T cell response against Wuhan-Hu-1 spike peptides in KTR, and an increment in the humoral immunity. Instead, humoral and cellular immunity to Omicron variant immunogenic peptides were low in both KTR and healthy vaccinated subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of COVID-19 Booster Vaccine Effects)
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