Special Issue "One Health and Zoonoses"

A special issue of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease (ISSN 2414-6366).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. John Mackenzie

PathWest, Queen Elizabeth 2 Medical Centre, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009
Website | E-Mail
Interests: zoonoses; One Health; antimicrobial resistance; infectious diseases surveillance; emerging diseases
Guest Editor
Prof. Martyn Jeggo

Chair, AUSGEM Governing Board, 31 The Breakwater, Corlette, NSW 2315
Website | E-Mail
Interests: One Health approaches to emerging infectious diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

One Health, as a concept, recognizes that the health of humans, animals, and their ecosystems are interconnected, and to better understand and respond to zoonotic and emerging diseases requires coordinated, collaborative, multidisciplinary, and cross-sectoral approaches. The purpose of this Special Issue is to demonstrate the breadth of the One Health concept, and the need to utilize One Health approaches in developing strategies to improve the surveillance, detection, and response to zoonotic diseases, including understanding some of the drivers of antimicrobial resistance, and the need to manage the role of animals in the generation of resistance.

Prof. Dr. John Mackenzie
Prof. Martyn Jeggo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • zoonoses
  • One Health
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • infectious diseases surveillance
  • emerging diseases

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Risk Factors for Brucella Seroprevalence in Peri-Urban Dairy Farms in Five Indian Cities
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4020070
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
Brucellosis is endemic among dairy animals in India, contributing to production losses and posing a health risk to people, especially farmers and others in close contact with dairy animals or their products. Growing urban populations demand increased milk supplies, resulting in intensifying dairy [...] Read more.
Brucellosis is endemic among dairy animals in India, contributing to production losses and posing a health risk to people, especially farmers and others in close contact with dairy animals or their products. Growing urban populations demand increased milk supplies, resulting in intensifying dairy production at the peri-urban fringe. Peri-urban dairying is under-studied but has implications for disease transmission, both positive and negative. In this cross-sectional study, five Indian cities were selected to represent different geographies and urbanization extent. Around each, we randomly selected 34 peri-urban villages, and in each village three smallholder dairy farms (defined as having a maximum of 10 dairy animals) were randomly selected. The farmers were interviewed, and milk samples were taken from up to three animals. These were tested using a commercial ELISA for antibodies against Brucella abortus, and factors associated with herd seroprevalence were identified. In all, 164 out of 1163 cows (14.1%, 95% CI 12.2–16.2%) were seropositive for Brucella. In total, 91 out of 510 farms (17.8%, 95% CI 14.6–21.4%) had at least one positive animal, and out of these, just seven farmers stated that they had vaccinated against brucellosis. In four cities, the farm-level seroprevalence ranged between 1.4–5.2%, while the fifth city had a seroprevalence of 72.5%. This city had larger, zero-grazing herds, used artificial insemination to a much higher degree, replaced their animals by purchasing from their neighbors, were less likely to contact a veterinarian in case of sick animals, and were also judged to be less clean. Within the high-prevalence city, farms were at higher risk of being infected if they had a young owner and if they were judged less clean. In the low-prevalence cities, no risk factors could be identified. In conclusion, this study has identified that a city can have a high burden of infected animals in the peri-urban areas, but that seroprevalence is strongly influenced by the husbandry system. Increased intensification can be associated with increased risk, and thus the practices associated with this, such as artificial insemination, are also associated with increased risk. These results may be important to identify high-risk areas for prioritizing interventions and for policy decisions influencing the structure and development of the dairy industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health and Zoonoses)
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Open AccessArticle
Clinical and Epidemiological Patterns of Scrub Typhus, an Emerging Disease in Bhutan
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4020056
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 16 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
Scrub typhus (ST) is a vector-borne rickettsial infection causing acute febrile illness. The re-emergence of ST in the Asia-Pacific region represents a serious public health threat. ST was first detected in Bhutan in 2008. However, the disease is likely to be under-diagnosed and [...] Read more.
Scrub typhus (ST) is a vector-borne rickettsial infection causing acute febrile illness. The re-emergence of ST in the Asia-Pacific region represents a serious public health threat. ST was first detected in Bhutan in 2008. However, the disease is likely to be under-diagnosed and under-reported, and the true impact is difficult to estimate. At the end of 2014, the SD Bioline Tsutsugamushi TestTM rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kits became available in all hospitals to assist clinicians in diagnosing ST. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study, reviewing records from all hospitals of Bhutan to identify all RDT-positive clinical cases of ST in Bhutan in 2015. The aim was to evaluate the burden of ST in Bhutan, describe the demographic, spatial and temporal patterns of disease, and identify the typical clinical presentations. The annual incidence of RDT-positive cases of ST reporting to Bhutanese hospitals in 2015 was estimated to be 62 per 100,000 population at risk. The incidence of disease was highest in the southern districts with a subtropical climate and a high level of agricultural production. The highest proportion of cases (87%) was rural residents, with farmers being the main occupational category. The disease was strongly seasonal, with 97% of cases occurring between June and November, coinciding with the monsoon and agricultural production seasons. Common ST symptoms were not specific, and an eschar was noted by clinicians in only 7.4% of cases, which is likely to contribute to an under-diagnosis of ST. ST represents an important and neglected burden, especially in rural communities in Bhutan. The outcomes of this study will inform public health measures such as timely-awareness programmes for clinicians and the public in high-risk areas, to improve the diagnosis, treatment and clinical outcomes of this disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health and Zoonoses)
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Open AccessArticle
Insights into Australian Bat Lyssavirus in Insectivorous Bats of Western Australia
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4010046
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a known causative agent of neurological disease in bats, humans and horses. It has been isolated from four species of pteropid bats and a single microbat species (Saccolaimus flaviventris). To date, ABLV surveillance has primarily been [...] Read more.
Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a known causative agent of neurological disease in bats, humans and horses. It has been isolated from four species of pteropid bats and a single microbat species (Saccolaimus flaviventris). To date, ABLV surveillance has primarily been passive, with active surveillance concentrating on eastern and northern Australian bat populations. As a result, there is scant regional ABLV information for large areas of the country. To better inform the local public health risks associated with human-bat interactions, this study describes the lyssavirus prevalence in microbat communities in the South West Botanical Province of Western Australia. We used targeted real-time PCR assays to detect viral RNA shedding in 839 oral swabs representing 12 species of microbats, which were sampled over two consecutive summers spanning 2016–2018. Additionally, we tested 649 serum samples via Luminex® assay for reactivity to lyssavirus antigens. Active lyssavirus infection was not detected in any of the samples. Lyssavirus antibodies were detected in 19 individuals across six species, with a crude prevalence of 2.9% (95% CI: 1.8–4.5%) over the two years. In addition, we present the first records of lyssavirus exposure in two Nyctophilus species, and Falsistrellus mackenziei. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health and Zoonoses)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Policy and Science for Global Health Security: Shaping the Course of International Health
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4020060
Received: 17 February 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
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Abstract
The global burden of infectious diseases and the increased attention to natural, accidental, and deliberate biological threats has resulted in significant investment in infectious disease research. Translating the results of these studies to inform prevention, detection, and response efforts often can be challenging, [...] Read more.
The global burden of infectious diseases and the increased attention to natural, accidental, and deliberate biological threats has resulted in significant investment in infectious disease research. Translating the results of these studies to inform prevention, detection, and response efforts often can be challenging, especially if prior relationships and communications have not been established with decision-makers. Whatever scientific information is shared with decision-makers before, during, and after public health emergencies is highly dependent on the individuals or organizations who are communicating with policy-makers. This article briefly describes the landscape of stakeholders involved in information-sharing before and during emergencies. We identify critical gaps in translation of scientific expertise and results, and biosafety and biosecurity measures to public health policy and practice with a focus on One Health and zoonotic diseases. Finally, we conclude by exploring ways of improving communication and funding, both of which help to address the identified gaps. By leveraging existing scientific information (from both the natural and social sciences) in the public health decision-making process, large-scale outbreaks may be averted even in low-income countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health and Zoonoses)
Open AccessReview
Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Australia: From Known Known to Known Unknown
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4010038
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
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Abstract
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a major cause of neurological disease in Asia. It is a zoonotic flavivirus transmitted between water birds and/or pigs by Culex mosquitoes; humans are dead-end hosts. In 1995, JEV emerged for the first time in northern Australia causing [...] Read more.
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a major cause of neurological disease in Asia. It is a zoonotic flavivirus transmitted between water birds and/or pigs by Culex mosquitoes; humans are dead-end hosts. In 1995, JEV emerged for the first time in northern Australia causing an unprecedented outbreak in the Torres Strait. In this article, we revisit the history of JEV in Australia and describe investigations of JEV transmission cycles in the Australian context. Public health responses to the incipient outbreak included vaccination and sentinel pig surveillance programs. Virus isolation and vector competence experiments incriminated Culex annulirostris as the likely regional vector. The role this species plays in transmission cycles depends on the availability of domestic pigs as a blood source. Experimental evidence suggests that native animals are relatively poor amplifying hosts of JEV. The persistence and predominantly annual virus activity between 1995 and 2005 suggested that JEV had become endemic in the Torres Strait. However, active surveillance was discontinued at the end of 2005, so the status of JEV in northern Australia is unknown. Novel mosquito-based surveillance systems provide a means to investigate whether JEV still occurs in the Torres Strait or is no longer a risk to Australia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health and Zoonoses)
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Open AccessReview
One Health—Its Importance in Helping to Better Control Antimicrobial Resistance
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4010022
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract
Approaching any issue from a One Health perspective necessitates looking at the interactions of people, domestic animals, wildlife, plants, and our environment. For antimicrobial resistance this includes antimicrobial use (and abuse) in the human, animal and environmental sectors. More importantly, the spread of [...] Read more.
Approaching any issue from a One Health perspective necessitates looking at the interactions of people, domestic animals, wildlife, plants, and our environment. For antimicrobial resistance this includes antimicrobial use (and abuse) in the human, animal and environmental sectors. More importantly, the spread of resistant bacteria and resistance determinants within and between these sectors and globally must be addressed. Better managing this problem includes taking steps to preserve the continued effectiveness of existing antimicrobials such as trying to eliminate their inappropriate use, particularly where they are used in high volumes. Examples are the mass medication of animals with critically important antimicrobials for humans, such as third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and the long term, in-feed use of antimicrobials, such colistin, tetracyclines and macrolides, for growth promotion. In people it is essential to better prevent infections, reduce over-prescribing and over-use of antimicrobials and stop resistant bacteria from spreading by improving hygiene and infection control, drinking water and sanitation. Pollution from inadequate treatment of industrial, residential and farm waste is expanding the resistome in the environment. Numerous countries and several international agencies have now included a One Health Approach within their action plans to address antimicrobial resistance. Necessary actions include improvements in antimicrobial use, better regulation and policy, as well as improved surveillance, stewardship, infection control, sanitation, animal husbandry, and finding alternatives to antimicrobials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health and Zoonoses)
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Open AccessReview
Clostridium difficile in Asia: Opportunities for One Health Management
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4010007
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 22 December 2018 / Accepted: 23 December 2018 / Published: 28 December 2018
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Abstract
Clostridium difficile is a ubiquitous spore-forming bacterium which causes toxin-mediated diarrhoea and colitis in people whose gut microflora has been depleted by antimicrobial use, so it is a predominantly healthcare-associated disease. However, there are many One Health implications to C. difficile, given [...] Read more.
Clostridium difficile is a ubiquitous spore-forming bacterium which causes toxin-mediated diarrhoea and colitis in people whose gut microflora has been depleted by antimicrobial use, so it is a predominantly healthcare-associated disease. However, there are many One Health implications to C. difficile, given high colonisation rates in food production animals, contamination of outdoor environments by use of contaminated animal manure, increasing incidence of community-associated C. difficile infection (CDI), and demonstration of clonal groups of C. difficile shared between human clinical cases and food animals. In Asia, the epidemiology of CDI is not well understood given poor testing practices in many countries. The growing middle-class populations of Asia are presenting increasing demands for meat, thus production farming, particularly of pigs, chicken and cattle, is rapidly expanding in Asian countries. Few reports on C. difficile colonisation among production animals in Asia exist, but those that do show high prevalence rates, and possible importation of European strains of C. difficile like ribotype 078. This review summarises our current understanding of the One Health aspects of the epidemiology of CDI in Asia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health and Zoonoses)

Other

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Open AccessCommentary
Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) in the Food Chain: Trade, One Health and Codex
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4010054
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
Strategies that take on a One Health approach to addressing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) focused on reducing human use of antimicrobials, but policy-makers now have to grapple with a different set of political, economic, and highly sensitive trade interests less amenable to government direction, [...] Read more.
Strategies that take on a One Health approach to addressing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) focused on reducing human use of antimicrobials, but policy-makers now have to grapple with a different set of political, economic, and highly sensitive trade interests less amenable to government direction, to tackle AMR in the food chain. Understanding the importance and influence of the intergovernmental Codex negotiations underway on AMR in the Food Chain is very weak but essential for AMR public policy experts. National and global food producing industries are already under pressure as consumers learn about the use of antimicrobials in food production and more so when the full impact of AMR microorganisms in the food chain and on the human microbiome is better understood. Governments will be expected to respond. Trade-related negotiations on access and use made of antimicrobials is political: the relevance of AMR ‘evidence’ is already contested and not all food producers or users of antimicrobials in the food chain are prepared to, or capable of, moving at the same pace. In trade negotiations governments defend their interpretation of national interest. Given AMR in the global food chain threatens national interest, both AMR One Health and zoonotic disease experts should understand and participate in all trade-related AMR negotiations to protect One Health priorities. To help facilitate this an overview and analysis of Codex negotiations is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health and Zoonoses)
Open AccessOpinion
The Importance of Wildlife Disease Monitoring as Part of Global Surveillance for Zoonotic Diseases: The Role of Australia
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4010029
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
Australia has a comprehensive system of capabilities and functions to prepare, detect and respond to health security threats. Strong cooperative links and coordination mechanisms exist between the human (public health) and animal arms of the health system in Australia. Wildlife is included in [...] Read more.
Australia has a comprehensive system of capabilities and functions to prepare, detect and respond to health security threats. Strong cooperative links and coordination mechanisms exist between the human (public health) and animal arms of the health system in Australia. Wildlife is included in this system. Recent reviews of both the animal and human health sectors have highlighted Australia’s relative strengths in the detection and management of emerging zoonotic diseases. However, the risks to Australia posed by diseases with wildlife as part of their epidemiology will almost certainly become greater with changing land use and climate change and as societal attitudes bring wildlife, livestock and people into closer contact. These risks are not isolated to Australia but are global. A greater emphasis on wildlife disease surveillance to assist in the detection of emerging infectious diseases and integration of wildlife health into One Health policy will be critical in better preparing Australia and other countries in their efforts to recognize and manage the adverse impacts of zoonotic diseases on human health. Animal and human health practitioners are encouraged to consider wildlife in their day to day activities and to learn more about Australia’s system and how they can become more involved by visiting www.wildlifeheathaustralia.com.au. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health and Zoonoses)
Open AccessBrief Report
A Short Report on the Lack of a Pyrogenic Response of Australian Genomic Group IV Isolates of Coxiella burnetii in Guinea Pigs
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4010018
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 25 January 2019
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Abstract
This small study reports on a non-pyrogenic response of five different Australian isolates of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii). They were all members of Genomic Group IV and obtained from three cases of acute human infection, one case of chronic human infection [...] Read more.
This small study reports on a non-pyrogenic response of five different Australian isolates of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii). They were all members of Genomic Group IV and obtained from three cases of acute human infection, one case of chronic human infection and one case of goat abortion. The guinea pigs infected with these isolates did not develop fever (temperature ≥ 40.0 °C), which is consistent with other members of this genomic group that were isolated from elsewhere in the world. In contrast, guinea pigs infected with the classical USA tick isolate, Nine Mile phase 1 (RSA 493) of Genomic Group I, experienced a four-day febrile period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health and Zoonoses)
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