Next Article in Journal
The As and Bs of HIV and Hepatitis Co-Infection
Next Article in Special Issue
Clinical and Epidemiological Patterns of Scrub Typhus, an Emerging Disease in Bhutan
Previous Article in Journal
WIPO Re:Search: Catalyzing Public-Private Partnerships to Accelerate Tropical Disease Drug Discovery and Development
Previous Article in Special Issue
Insights into Australian Bat Lyssavirus in Insectivorous Bats of Western Australia
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessCommentary

Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) in the Food Chain: Trade, One Health and Codex

Centre on Global Health Security, Chatham House, London SW1Y 4LE, UK
Public Policy and International Affairs, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(1), 54;
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health and Zoonoses)
PDF [215 KB, uploaded 26 March 2019]


Strategies that take on a One Health approach to addressing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) focused on reducing human use of antimicrobials, but policy-makers now have to grapple with a different set of political, economic, and highly sensitive trade interests less amenable to government direction, to tackle AMR in the food chain. Understanding the importance and influence of the intergovernmental Codex negotiations underway on AMR in the Food Chain is very weak but essential for AMR public policy experts. National and global food producing industries are already under pressure as consumers learn about the use of antimicrobials in food production and more so when the full impact of AMR microorganisms in the food chain and on the human microbiome is better understood. Governments will be expected to respond. Trade-related negotiations on access and use made of antimicrobials is political: the relevance of AMR ‘evidence’ is already contested and not all food producers or users of antimicrobials in the food chain are prepared to, or capable of, moving at the same pace. In trade negotiations governments defend their interpretation of national interest. Given AMR in the global food chain threatens national interest, both AMR One Health and zoonotic disease experts should understand and participate in all trade-related AMR negotiations to protect One Health priorities. To help facilitate this an overview and analysis of Codex negotiations is provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: AMR; One Health; food chain; trade; Codex; WHO; World Trade Organization (WTO) AMR; One Health; food chain; trade; Codex; WHO; World Trade Organization (WTO)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

George, A. Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) in the Food Chain: Trade, One Health and Codex. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4, 54.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. EISSN 2414-6366 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top