Special Issue "Upgrades in High Energy Physics Experiments"

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Physics and Symmetry/Asymmetry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2022 | Viewed by 3003

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Davide Pinci
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - INFN, 00118 Rome, Italy
Interests: high energy physics
Dr. Emanuele Di Marco
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, 00185 Rome, Italy
Interests: HEP-Ex

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

 The most recent discoveries in high energy physics (HEP), both in the Higgs and in the flavor sector, which reached unprecedented precision, led to a solid confirmation of the standard model (SM) of the particle physics. To broaden our horizons and explore regions where physics beyond the SM could be hidden, all major (HEP) experiments are studying and realizing substantial upgrades to increase their performance and sensitivities. This will, in particular, allow to better understand subatomic particles properties as the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the violation of discrete CP symmetry by the weak interactions. If this technological effort provides new and sophisticated apparatuses, the huge amount of data that will be produced requires the development of complex and elaborate analysis techniques.
This Special Issue collected papers describing several examples of the extensive upgrade program on some of the largest experiments in high energy physics with a particular focus on their expected performance and the benefits for scientific research.

Dr. Davide Pinci
Dr. Emanuele Di Marco
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • standard model
  • particle detector
  • data analysis
  • upgrade
  • high luminosity
  • spontaneous symmetry breaking
  • CP symmetry

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
A Method Based on Muon System to Monitor LHCb Luminosity
Symmetry 2022, 14(5), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14050860 - 22 Apr 2022
Viewed by 341
Abstract
LHCb is one of the four main experiments running at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Since 2010, it has been collecting data to study the Physics of b and c quarks. For the past three years, [...] Read more.
LHCb is one of the four main experiments running at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Since 2010, it has been collecting data to study the Physics of b and c quarks. For the past three years, the experimental apparatus underwent significant upgrades to be ready for a new round of data collection, expected to start in June 2022. The new apparatus is designed to be able to run at an instantaneous luminosity five times larger than the previous one, which was 2.0×1032 cm2s1, and the whole detector readout will be at a 40 MHz rate. It is worth noticing that the luminosity at the LHCb interaction point, for the characteristics of the detector, needs to be reduced with respect to the luminosity provided by LHC. Major changes in the different subdetectors were required, along with complete modifications of the trigger schemes. The LHCb collaboration is developing and studying different methods for the on-line measurement of luminosity at the LHCb impact point, crucial for the monitoring of correct machine operation and for most experimental physics studies. The present work describes a procedure based on hit counting in the muon detector for an on-line luminosity monitor. The performance and the precision achieved with this method in tests carried out on past data collected are presented, together with proposals for future upgrades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Upgrades in High Energy Physics Experiments)
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Article
The Search for μ+ → e+γ with 10–14 Sensitivity: The Upgrade of the MEG Experiment
Symmetry 2021, 13(9), 1591; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13091591 - 29 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1579
Abstract
The MEG experiment took data at the Paul Scherrer Institute in the years 2009–2013 to test the violation of the lepton flavor conservation law, which originates from an accidental symmetry that the Standard Model of elementary particle physics has, and published the most [...] Read more.
The MEG experiment took data at the Paul Scherrer Institute in the years 2009–2013 to test the violation of the lepton flavor conservation law, which originates from an accidental symmetry that the Standard Model of elementary particle physics has, and published the most stringent limit on the charged lepton flavor violating decay μ+e+γ: BR(μ+e+γ) <4.2×1013 at 90% confidence level. The MEG detector has been upgraded in order to reach a sensitivity of 6×1014. The basic principle of MEG II is to achieve the highest possible sensitivity using the full muon beam intensity at the Paul Scherrer Institute (7×107 muons/s) with an upgraded detector. The main improvements are better rate capability of all sub-detectors and improved resolutions while keeping the same detector concept. In this paper, we present the current status of the preparation, integration and commissioning of the MEG II detector in the recent engineering runs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Upgrades in High Energy Physics Experiments)
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Review

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Review
The CGEM-IT: An Upgrade for the BESIII Experiment
Symmetry 2022, 14(5), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14050905 - 28 Apr 2022
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Abstract
The BESIII experiment has been collecting data since 2009 at the e+e collider BEPCII in Beijing, a charm-τ factory characterized by high statistics and high precision. The discovery of exotic charmonium-like states and the still open questions in low-energy [...] Read more.
The BESIII experiment has been collecting data since 2009 at the e+e collider BEPCII in Beijing, a charm-τ factory characterized by high statistics and high precision. The discovery of exotic charmonium-like states and the still open questions in low-energy QCD led to an extension of the experimental program, with several upgrades. This review focuses on the CGEM-IT, the innovative solution proposed to replace the current inner tracker, which is aging. It consists of three, co-axial, cylindrical triple-GEM detectors and will be the first cylindrical GEM operating inside a 1 T magnetic field with analogue readout. For this purpose, a dedicated mixed-signal ASIC for the readout of CGEM-IT signals and FPGA-based electronics for data processing have been developed. The simultaneous measurement of both ionization charge and time distribution enables three reconstruction algorithms, to cope with the asymmetry of the electron avalanche in the magnetic field and with non-orthogonal incident tracks. The CGEM-IT will not only restore the design efficiency but also improve the secondary vertex reconstruction and the radiation tolerance. The gas mixture and gain settings were chosen to optimize the position resolution to ∼130 µm in the transverse plane and better than 350 µm along the beam direction. This paper addresses the innovative aspects in terms of construction, readout, and software, employed to achieve the design goals as well as the experimental measurements performed during the development and commissioning of the CGEM-IT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Upgrades in High Energy Physics Experiments)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: The Phase-II upgrades of the CMS calorimetry and timing detectors
Authors: Emanuele di Marco; Francesca Cavallari; Arabella Martelli; Chiara Rovelli
Affiliation: INFN
Abstract: TBD

Title: The Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer AUTHORS
Authors: Davide Boscherini; Massimo Corradi; Oliver Kortner
Affiliation: INFN

Abstract: For its High-Luminosity (HL) phase, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be upgraded to deliver a luminosity of 7.5x10^34 cm^-2 s^-1 and an ultimate integrated luminosity of 4 ab^-1 , a factor 7.5 and 4, respectively, higher than the original LHC design. To face these new challenging operating conditions, the ATLAS experiment will undergo a major upgrade programme.

Specifically, the Muon Spectrometer will replace its trigger and readout electronics to make it compliant with the new ATLAS trigger architecture. All the muon detectors, including precision drift tube that were not used for triggering before, will participate to the new level-0 muon trigger that will provide muon candidates already close to offline reconstruction. The detectors in the innermost layer of the spectrometer will be upgraded to reduce the trigger rate and to improve the system redundancy. The endcap innermost layer will be already upgraded in 2022 with the New Small Wheels (NSW). In the innermost layer of the barrel spectrometer an additional triplet of new generation Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) will be installed, together with the replacement of part of the drift tubes with new small-Monitored Drift Tube chambers (sMDT). The inner layer upgrade will be completed with new triple-layer thin-gap chambers (TGC) in the barrel-endcap transition region.

The solutions adopted in the design of the electronics and of the different types of detectors are reported, as well as the expected performance. Results from first prototypes are also presented.

 

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