Stress Markers in Plants: Importance of Selection and Investigation

A special issue of Stresses (ISSN 2673-7140). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant and Photoautotrophic Stresses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 12659

Special Issue Editors

Department of Plant Physiology, Agricultural Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Eötvös Loránd Research Network, H-2462 Martonvásár, Hungary
Interests: abiotic stress; acclimation; heavy metal stress; oxidative stress; polyamines; plant stress physiology; salicylic acid; signalling
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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Plant Physiology and Metabolomics, Centre for Agricultural Research, H-2462 Martonvásár, Hungary
Interests: gas chromatography; heavy metal stress; salicylic acid derivatives; volatile organic compounds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants are continuously exposed to various stress factors. Biotic and abiotic stress-condition-induced changes and responses have been studied in plants at physiological, morphological, metabolite, and gene expression levels. However, all the investigations should start with the same question: what is the level of stress? Several stress markers have been used in plant physiology, such as photosynthesis-related parameters, biomass parameters, relative water content, level of lipid peroxidation, ROS content, induction of antioxidant system, osmolite concentration, hormone content, etc. Some of them are non-invasive, fast, and high-throughput due to phenotyping technology. Others are invasive and time-consuming, but more selective. It is very important to choose the most reliable stress marker under adequate stress conditions, which can depend not only on the applied stress factor, but also on the plant species, the plant development stage, and the organ that is the subject of the investigation. On one hand, some of these markers can be informative by themselves, as unique, early signals of a stress factor; on the other hand, the same response may appear only after a severe stress in case of another stress factor. Although the investigation of a limited set of stress markers is usually enough, their proper combination is more expedient.

Dr. Magda Pál
Dr. Orsolya Kinga Gondor
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • severity of stress
  • morphological markers
  • physiological markers
  • molecular markers

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 2984 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Wheat Growth and Yield through Salicylic Acid-Mediated Regulation of Gas Exchange, Antioxidant Defense, and Osmoprotection under Salt Stress
by Muhammad Faisal Maqsood, Muhammad Shahbaz, Usman Zulfiqar, Rafia Urooj Saman, Abdul Rehman, Nargis Naz, Muhammad Akram and Fasih Ullah Haider
Stresses 2023, 3(1), 372-386; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3010027 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2535
Abstract
Salinity is a major challenge for agricultural productivity, adversely affecting crop growth and yield. In recent years, various techniques have been developed to increase crop tolerance to salinity, including seed priming. This study was carried out to assess the effects of salicylic acid [...] Read more.
Salinity is a major challenge for agricultural productivity, adversely affecting crop growth and yield. In recent years, various techniques have been developed to increase crop tolerance to salinity, including seed priming. This study was carried out to assess the effects of salicylic acid (SA) priming (0-, 10- and 20-mM) in comparison with hydropriming on growth, physio-biochemical activities, and yield of two wheat varieties (AARI-11 and Ujala-15) under 0- and 170-mM sodium chloride (NaCl) toxicity. The exposure of wheat plants to NaCl led to a significant reduction in various growth factors, including fresh weight (40%), total chlorophyll (39%), stomatal conductance (42%), shoot Ca2+ (39%), and 1000-grain weight (34%). In contrast, salt stress triggered the activities of POD, SOD, CAT, glycine-betaine, phenolics, and proline. The application of 20 mM SA through seed priming was found to greatly improve the fresh root weight, chlorophyll b, POD activities, shoot Ca2+, and overall yield (up to 71, 66, 35, 57, and 44%, respectively) under salt stress. While hydropriming also enhanced wheat tolerance to salinity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Markers in Plants: Importance of Selection and Investigation)
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21 pages, 3483 KiB  
Article
Dopamine Inhibits Arabidopsis Growth through Increased Oxidative Stress and Auxin Activity
by Timothy E. Shull, Jasmina Kurepa and Jan A. Smalle
Stresses 2023, 3(1), 351-371; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3010026 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1897
Abstract
Like some bacterial species and all animals, plants synthesize dopamine and react to its exogenous applications. Despite dopamine’s widespread presence and activity in plants, its role in plant physiology is still poorly understood. Using targeted experimentation informed by the transcriptomic response to dopamine [...] Read more.
Like some bacterial species and all animals, plants synthesize dopamine and react to its exogenous applications. Despite dopamine’s widespread presence and activity in plants, its role in plant physiology is still poorly understood. Using targeted experimentation informed by the transcriptomic response to dopamine exposure, we identify three major effects of dopamine. First, we show that dopamine causes hypersensitivity to auxin indole-3-acetic acid by enhancing auxin activity. Second, we show that dopamine increases oxidative stress, which can be mitigated with glutathione. Third, we find that dopamine downregulates iron uptake mechanisms, leading to a decreased iron content—a response possibly aimed at reducing DA-induced oxidative stress. Finally, we show that dopamine-induced auxin sensitivity is downstream of glutathione biosynthesis, indicating that the auxin response is likely a consequence of DA-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, our results show that exogenous dopamine increases oxidative stress, which inhibits growth both directly and indirectly by promoting glutathione-biosynthesis-dependent auxin hypersensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Markers in Plants: Importance of Selection and Investigation)
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20 pages, 2621 KiB  
Article
Use of Plant Regulators for Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes in Basil Plants under Water Deficit Conditions
by Beatriz Lívero Carvalho, Eduardo Santana Aires, João Domingos Rodrigues and Elizabeth Orika Ono
Stresses 2023, 3(1), 282-301; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3010021 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1812
Abstract
Basil is susceptible to biotic or abiotic stress, negatively interfering with growth and production. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological effects of the application of plant regulators in basil plants that suffer from water deficit. The experiment was [...] Read more.
Basil is susceptible to biotic or abiotic stress, negatively interfering with growth and production. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological effects of the application of plant regulators in basil plants that suffer from water deficit. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design (RBD) in a 2 × 4 factorial scheme, including plants that were subjected to water stress and those that were not. In addition, plants also received five doses of Stimulate® composed of indolylbutyric acid (IBA) + gibberellic acid (GA3) + kinetin (Kt) with four repetitions each. The experiment was evaluated through the biochemical analyses of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and lipid peroxidation performed 20, 35, and 50 days after transplanting (DAT). The mixture of plant regulators attenuateds the effects through the increasing activities of these enzymes. The plants that received the highest dosages (9 and 12 mL L−1) offered the best protetion. Parameters of growth measures such as number of leaves and leaf area also showed significant responses regarding the application of the plant growth regulators. The use of a mixture of plant regulators, despite satisfactory results, does not make basil economically viable because it presents inaccurate results regarding its use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Markers in Plants: Importance of Selection and Investigation)
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16 pages, 3272 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Metabolic Changes in Arabidopsis Seedlings under Hypoxia Stress and Subsequent Reoxygenation Recovery
by Xinyu Fu and Yuan Xu
Stresses 2023, 3(1), 86-101; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3010008 - 2 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1914
Abstract
Hypoxic stress, caused by the low cellular oxygen in the events of flooding or waterlogging, limits crop productivity in many regions of the world. Hypoxic stress in plants is often dynamic and followed by a reoxygenation process that returns the oxygen level to [...] Read more.
Hypoxic stress, caused by the low cellular oxygen in the events of flooding or waterlogging, limits crop productivity in many regions of the world. Hypoxic stress in plants is often dynamic and followed by a reoxygenation process that returns the oxygen level to normal. Although metabolic responses to hypoxia have been studied in many plants, less is known about the recovery processes following stress removal. To better understand the dynamic metabolic shift from a low-oxygen environment to a reoxygenated environment, we performed time-course measurements of metabolites in Arabidopsis seedlings at 0, 6, 12, and 24 h of reoxygenation recovery after 24 h of hypoxia stress (100% N2 environment). Among the 80 metabolic features characterized using GC-MS, 60% of them were significantly changed under hypoxia. The reoxygenation phase was accompanied by progressively fewer metabolic changes. Only 26% significantly changed metabolic features by the 24 h reoxygenation. Hypoxia-induced metabolic changes returned to normal levels at different speeds. For example, hypoxia-induced accumulation of lactate decreased to a basal level after 6 h of reoxygenation, whereas hypoxia-induced accumulation of alanine and GABA showed partial recovery after 24 h of reoxygenation. Some metabolites, such as gluconate, xylose, guanine, and adenosine, constantly increased during hypoxia reoxygenation. These dynamic metabolic changes demonstrate the flexibility and complexity of plant metabolism during hypoxia stress and subsequent reoxygenation recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Markers in Plants: Importance of Selection and Investigation)
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11 pages, 1577 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Enzyme and Cytochrome P450 Activities Are Involved in Horseweed (Conyza Sumatrensis) Resistance to Glyphosate
by Gabrielly Cristina Kubis, Raizza Zorman Marques, Rafael Shinji Akiyama Kitamura, Arthur Arrobas Martins Barroso, Philippe Juneau and Marcelo Pedrosa Gomes
Stresses 2023, 3(1), 47-57; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3010005 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1896
Abstract
The intensive global use of glyphosate has led to the evolution of glyphosate resistant (GR) weed species, including the economically damaging horseweed (Conyza sumatrensis). We evaluated the glyphosate resistance mechanisms of C. sumatrensis. While 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase activity was similar between [...] Read more.
The intensive global use of glyphosate has led to the evolution of glyphosate resistant (GR) weed species, including the economically damaging horseweed (Conyza sumatrensis). We evaluated the glyphosate resistance mechanisms of C. sumatrensis. While 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase activity was similar between the glyphosate resistant (GR) and nonresistant biotypes, plants from the GR population accumulated lower shikimate levels than susceptible ones, suggesting the absence of target-site resistance mechanisms. Decreases over time in glyphosate concentrations in GR leaves were not accompanied by increases in glyphosate concentrations in their stem and roots, indicating lower glyphosate distribution rates in GR plants. The early appearance of aminomethylphosphonic acid (the main glyphosate metabolite) in leaves, as well as its presence only in the stems and roots of GR plants, suggests faster glyphosate metabolism in GR plants than in susceptible ones. GR plants treated with glyphosate also showed greater antioxidant (ascorbate peroxidase [APX] and catalase [CAT]) and cytochrome P450-enzyme activities, indicating their great capacity to avoid glyphosate-induced oxidative stress. Three non-target mechanisms (reduced glyphosate translocation, increased metabolism, and increased antioxidant activity) therefore confer glyphosate resistance in C. sumatrensis plants. This is the first time that APX, CAT and P450-enzyme activities are related to GR in C. sumatrensis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Markers in Plants: Importance of Selection and Investigation)
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Review

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11 pages, 742 KiB  
Review
Abscisic Acid Perception and Signaling in Chenopodium quinoa
by Gastón Alfredo Pizzio
Stresses 2023, 3(1), 22-32; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3010003 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1654
Abstract
Food production and global economic stability are being threatened by climate change. The increment of drought episodes and the increase of soil salinization are major problems for agriculture worldwide. Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), as a resilient crop, is capable of growth in harsh environments [...] Read more.
Food production and global economic stability are being threatened by climate change. The increment of drought episodes and the increase of soil salinization are major problems for agriculture worldwide. Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), as a resilient crop, is capable of growth in harsh environments due to its versatility and adaptive capacity. Quinoa is classified as an extremophile crop, tolerant to salinity, drought and low temperature. Furthermore, quinoa is recognized as a pseudo-cereal with outstanding nutritional properties. The phytohormone ABA is a key regulator of physiological responses to salinity and drought, among others stressful conditions. In this article we want to revise recent discoveries regarding ABA perception and signaling in quinoa, and evaluate its implications on stress-tolerance breeding of this pseudocereal and other crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Markers in Plants: Importance of Selection and Investigation)
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