Special Issue "Social Inequality and Residential Segregation in Urban Neighborhoods and Communities"

A special issue of Social Sciences (ISSN 2076-0760). This special issue belongs to the section "Community and Urban Sociology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Amy Spring

Department of Sociology, Georgia State University, 1063 Langdale Hall, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: community and urban sociology; demography; residential mobility; spatial inequality

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The year 2018 marks the 50th anniversary of the Fair Housing Act, a civil rights legislation signed into law in April 1968 that prohibited discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin, and sex. The mission of the Fair Housing Act was to eliminate housing discrimination and disrupt the trend of residential segregation. However, 50 years later, the Fair Housing Act has failed to live up to its promises. Geographical separation by race, class, education, sexual orientation, and other social demographics, remain a defining feature of 21st-century cities. Furthermore, segregation is not a purely American problem but affects cities in all parts of the world.

This Special Issue invites authors to investigate causes and consequences of ongoing residential segregation in the U.S. and abroad. Topics could include segregation of less-explored racial or economic subpopulations, trends in less-explored dimensions of segregation beyond race and class, relationships between segregation and other forms of social inequality, and experiences of segregation, discrimination, or related inequalities from residents’ perspectives. City and/or international comparisons are also encouraged. The Special Issue editor welcomes papers from any social science discipline and methodological tradition, including qualitative, quantitative, or mixed-methods approaches. Papers should include a theoretical framework, as well as systematic evaluation of evidence.

Prof. Amy Spring
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Residential segregation
  • Racial segregation
  • Social inequality
  • Housing
  • Housing discrimination

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Interdependence Evaluation between the Home Neighborhood and the City: How Socio-Spatial Categorization Impacts upon Residential Segregation
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100178
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes a socio-cognitive approach to how people assess the different neighborhoods of a city. The main objective is to show that beyond the meanings associated with each neighborhood, the way in which residents relate to and evaluate their own neighborhood and [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a socio-cognitive approach to how people assess the different neighborhoods of a city. The main objective is to show that beyond the meanings associated with each neighborhood, the way in which residents relate to and evaluate their own neighborhood and the city center influence how residents perceive and assess the other remaining neighborhoods of the city. The assessment of one neighborhood cannot be analyzed separately from the other neighborhoods. Cognitive processes of assimilation, contrast, contagion, and non-contagion contribute to the conceptualization of a city’s neighborhoods from the two main emotional and symbolic anchorages of residents. However, the implementation of these processes is conditioned by the socio-spatial situation of the interviewees. In this regard, a field survey of 320 residents was conducted in different neighborhoods of Besançon (in France), and allows us to show that the geographical anchorages of a resident’s own neighborhood and the city center are systematically more positively assessed than the other neighborhoods. The more these geographical anchorages are appreciated, the more the other neighborhoods are also positively assessed. The fact that it is impossible for a city’s neighborhoods to be autonomous is discussed in this paper in terms of socio-cognitive constructions of urban segregations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Consequences of Spatial Inequality for Adolescent Residential Mobility
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090164
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
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Abstract
A large body of literature suggests that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is positively associated with out-mobility. However, prior research has been limited by (1) the inability to account for endogenous factors that both funnel families into deprived neighborhoods and increase their likelihood of moving [...] Read more.
A large body of literature suggests that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is positively associated with out-mobility. However, prior research has been limited by (1) the inability to account for endogenous factors that both funnel families into deprived neighborhoods and increase their likelihood of moving out, and (2) the failure to consider how the spatial distribution of socioeconomic deprivation in the broader community conditions the effect of local deprivation on mobility. This paper attends to this gap in the literature by examining how changes in socioeconomic disadvantage between sending and receiving neighborhoods and the spatial patterning of deprivation in the areas surrounding destination neighborhoods influence future mobility among a representative sample of American adolescents. We employ a modeling strategy that allows us to examine the unique and separable effects of local and extralocal neighborhood disadvantage while simultaneously holding constant time-invariant factors that place some youth at a greater likelihood of experiencing a residential move. We find that moves to more impoverished neighborhoods decrease the likelihood of subsequent mobility and that this effect is most pronounced among respondents who move to neighborhoods surrounded by other similarly deprived neighborhoods. In this sense, geographical pockets of disadvantage strengthen the mobility-hampering effect of neighborhood deprivation on future mobility. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Role of Family Structure in Racial/Ethnic Residential Isolation
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090160
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Fifty years after the passage of the Fair Housing Act, racial/ethnic residential segregation and discrimination persist in the housing market. In 2018, the National Fair Housing Alliance reported that the third and fifth largest discrimination complaints are made on the bases of familial [...] Read more.
Fifty years after the passage of the Fair Housing Act, racial/ethnic residential segregation and discrimination persist in the housing market. In 2018, the National Fair Housing Alliance reported that the third and fifth largest discrimination complaints are made on the bases of familial status and sex, respectively. However, housing research has largely ignored how family structure may shape patterns of racial/ethnic residential segregation. By assessing residential isolation, our analyses add to the small body of literature exploring racial/ethnic segregation by family structure using data from the 1990–2010 decennial censuses and the 2006–2010 American Community Survey (ACS) drawn from the Neighborhood Change Database (NCDB) and the National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS). Our results reveal that white, married-couple families experience the greatest levels of residential isolation, net of controls for relevant socioeconomic and demographic factors. In addition, our within racial/ethnic group analyses indicate that black, female-headed families experience significantly more isolation than their married-couple counterparts, while the reverse is true for Hispanic and white families. Our results provide support for the tenets of the place stratification model and suggest researchers should consider family structure when assessing racial/ethnic residential segregation as race/ethnicity and family structure interact to shape housing outcomes in metropolitan America. Full article
Open AccessArticle Segregation in Housing and Urban Forms: An Issue of Private and Public Concern
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090145
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
The Mapping Public Housing investigation project (MdH), based at the University of Porto, Faculty of Architecture, Centre for Studies in Architecture and Urbanism, is building a database of State-subsidized residential architecture in Portugal designed between 1910 and 1974. An ongoing survey of laws [...] Read more.
The Mapping Public Housing investigation project (MdH), based at the University of Porto, Faculty of Architecture, Centre for Studies in Architecture and Urbanism, is building a database of State-subsidized residential architecture in Portugal designed between 1910 and 1974. An ongoing survey of laws directly or indirectly influencing housing construction, and of their concretization, allows for a reading of the influence of the State in housing architecture. This paper will focus on two scopes of segregation through housing design in the Portuguese 20th century, both in private initiatives—the “Ilhas”, low rent housing built in the backyards of Porto in the first half of the century—and in public investments—using the example of the “Affordable Houses”, a housing programme created by the Portuguese dictatorial regime in 1933 in which the buyers of the houses were subjected to surveillance by the State. An ongoing context of market pressure caused by speculative real estate investing and mass tourism, suggests an evolution of the original processes of segregation into systems of gentrification, transforming the cultural and social fabric. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Disability Status, Housing Tenure, and Residential Attainment in Metropolitan America
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090144
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
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Abstract
In 2010, 18.7 percent of the U.S. non-institutionalized population had a disability. Despite the existence of the Fair Housing Amendments Act (FHAA), which prohibits housing discrimination on the basis of disability, recent research has found that individuals and/or families with disabilities live in [...] Read more.
In 2010, 18.7 percent of the U.S. non-institutionalized population had a disability. Despite the existence of the Fair Housing Amendments Act (FHAA), which prohibits housing discrimination on the basis of disability, recent research has found that individuals and/or families with disabilities live in poorer quality housing and neighborhoods than those without disabilities. However, no research has examined such disparities in residential attainment separately by housing tenure; our research seeks to fill this gap. The findings suggest that residential disadvantage among households with people with disabilities is worse in the sales market compared to the rental market. These findings are discussed as they relate to theories on residential attainment. The implications of our study suggest that more attention should be given to people with disabilities as they navigate the housing market, particularly in the sales market, and that greater enforcement of the FHAA is warranted in the sales market. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Geography of Economic Segregation
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080123
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
This study examines the key factors that are associated with the geography of economic segregation across US metros. It connects the sociological literature on the extent and variation of economic segregation to the urban economics literature on the factors associated with urban and [...] Read more.
This study examines the key factors that are associated with the geography of economic segregation across US metros. It connects the sociological literature on the extent and variation of economic segregation to the urban economics literature on the factors associated with urban and regional performance. It advances the hypothesis that economic segregation will be greater in larger, denser, more knowledge-based regions as well as in light of racial factors and income inequality. It utilizes measures of Income, Educational, and Occupational Segregation along with a combined measure of Overall Economic Segregation. Our findings are in line with the hypothesis and indicate that economic segregation is associated with larger, denser, more highly educated metros. Economic segregation is also to a certain extent related with race and ethnicity, commuting style, and income inequality. Full article
Open AccessArticle Racial/Ethnic Residential Segregation, the Distribution of Physician’s Offices and Access to Health Care: The Case of Houston, Texas
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080119
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Abstract
Previous research has demonstrated the impacts of racial/ethnic residential segregation on access to health care, but little work has been conducted to tease out the mechanisms at play. I posit that the distribution of health care facilities may contribute to poor access to [...] Read more.
Previous research has demonstrated the impacts of racial/ethnic residential segregation on access to health care, but little work has been conducted to tease out the mechanisms at play. I posit that the distribution of health care facilities may contribute to poor access to health care. In a study of the Houston area, I examine the association between residential segregation, the distribution of physician’s offices, and two health care access outcomes of having a personal physician, as well as the travel time to their office location. Using the 2010 Health of Houston Survey combined with several census products, I test these relationships in a series of spatial and multilevel models. I find that Black segregation is related to a lower density of physician’s offices. However, I find that this distribution is not related to having a personal physician, but is related to travel times, with a greater number of facilities leading to shorter travel times to the doctor. I also find that Black segregation is positively associated with travel times, and that the distribution of physician’s offices partially mediates this relationship. In sum, these findings suggest that a more equitable provision of health care resources across urban neighborhoods would mitigate some of the negative effects of segregation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Accounting for Demography and Preferences: New Estimates of Residential Segregation with Minimum Segregation Measures
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(6), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7060093
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
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Abstract
The index of dissimilarity (D) has historically been and continues to be a widely used quantitative measure of residential segregation. Conventional interpretations of D imply that normatively desirable residential patterns occur when ethnoracial compositions of lower-order geographic units (such as neighborhoods) [...] Read more.
The index of dissimilarity (D) has historically been and continues to be a widely used quantitative measure of residential segregation. Conventional interpretations of D imply that normatively desirable residential patterns occur when ethnoracial compositions of lower-order geographic units (such as neighborhoods) match those of higher-order units (such as metropolitan areas). However, it is likely that average preferences for same-group contact in neighborhoods sometimes exceed group population shares in metropolitan areas. In such situations, there is mathematical tension between the capacity for group preferences for co-ethnic neighbors to be satisfied and the degree of residential segregation. In this article, I quantify this tension by calculating , or the difference between D and the minimum segregation measure D*, which returns the lower bound on segregation for a given average in-group preference level and ethnoracial share. Positive scores on indicate that a metropolitan area is more segregated than necessary to satisfy average group preferences, while negative scores indicate that observed residential patterns do not satisfy such preferences. I use data from the 2010 decennial census and 2006–2010 American Community Survey to analyze the associations between predictors of residential segregation and . Full article
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