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Geographical Juxtaposition: A New Direction in CPTED

School of Design and the Built Environment, Faculty of Humanities, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
Design Out Crime and CPTED Centre, 14 Michael St, Beaconsfield, WA 6162, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(9), 252;
Received: 7 August 2019 / Revised: 20 August 2019 / Accepted: 24 August 2019 / Published: 3 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crime Prevention through Pro-Social Design)
This paper explores Oscar Newman’s Defensible Space (1972) concept of geographical juxtaposition (GJ) highlighting a significant lack of research within the criminological literature over the last 50 years. We argue the concept is a key foundation in understanding crime and crime prevention theories and in developing crime prevention strategies. Findings from a systematic review of the literature are presented to illustrate the paucity of research into geographical juxtaposition. We develop and extend the concept of geographical juxtaposition beyond that originally coined by Newman to include all immediate, local, distant, and remote environmental (physical) factors. Additionally, we demonstrate, by reference to practical criminological situations, the significant and extensive role of our revised concept of geographical juxtaposition. In particular, we point to the way that focusing on geographical juxtaposition identifies serious problems in many taken-for-granted assumptions in planning theory and practice. In exploring the concept of geographical juxtaposition, we highlight ten ways it can affect crime risks and six ways using geographical juxtaposition can benefit efforts to apply crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) more successfully when conducting a crime risk assessment. Finally, this paper briefly discusses four new CPTED principles, which emerge from our exploration of geographical juxtaposition. We identify new classes of CPTED methods and new ways of analyzing crime and offer the basis for new criminological theories. View Full-Text
Keywords: Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED); geographical juxtaposition; new ideas; new directions Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED); geographical juxtaposition; new ideas; new directions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cozens, P.; Love, T.; Davern, B. Geographical Juxtaposition: A New Direction in CPTED. Soc. Sci. 2019, 8, 252.

AMA Style

Cozens P, Love T, Davern B. Geographical Juxtaposition: A New Direction in CPTED. Social Sciences. 2019; 8(9):252.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cozens, Paul; Love, Terence; Davern, Brent. 2019. "Geographical Juxtaposition: A New Direction in CPTED" Soc. Sci. 8, no. 9: 252.

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