Immigration, Ethnic Residential Segregation or (vs.) Socioeconomic Integration in Urban Areas

A special issue of Social Sciences (ISSN 2076-0760). This special issue belongs to the section "Community and Urban Sociology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2024 | Viewed by 7529

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Italian National Institute of Statistics, 00144 Rome, Italy
Interests: applied demography; human ecology; internal migration; international migration; spatial analysis (and geographic information); state and local demography; urbanization

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Guest Editor
Department of Geography, History and Philosophy, Pablo de Olavide University, 41013 Seville, Spain
Interests: metropolitan area; residential segregation; residential mobility; immigration; Xenophobia

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Guest Editor
Department of Political Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80138 Napoli, NA, Italy
Interests: international migration and foreign immigration in Italy; migration and integration in Europe; quantitative research

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the end of the 20th century, the management of the economic markets has been rigorously and uncritically governed by the guidelines of the neo-liberal socio-economic model. This has resulted in a series of cyclical crises, loss of importance of the state as a regulator of social imbalances and, therefore, an accentuation of social polarisation processes (e.g., Harvey 2005; Piketty 2020; Talen and Anselin 2021). A key issue that has characterised this process is the increasing speculation in housing and its deregulation (Rodríguez-Pose and Storper 2020). The result of both aspects is the emergence of important processes in residential segregation (Monkkonen et al. 2018; van Ham et al. 2021). Clearly, residential segregation has hit the most socially vulnerable groups the hardest. In this sense, one of the groups characterised by the highest degree of socio-economic vulnerability is the population of foreign and migrant origin, especially those of non-Western origin (Benassi and Iglesias-Pascual 2022). Their weak status in the housing market usually leads them to live in poorer neighbourhoods, thus, determining their social and territorial integration process (Imeraj et al. 2020; Leclerc 2021). Starting from the premise that the notions of segregation and integration are highly dependent on the particular social group under investigation (Krysan et al. 2017), recent studies have focused on how to measure segregation in a context of increasing multi-ethnicity and its relationship with income differences (e.g., Benassi et al 2022), the relationship between segregation, education and integration of migrants (e.g., Bayona and Domingo 2021; Kauppinen et al. 2022), the dimension of environmental quality in migrant segregation (e.g., Ard et al. 2021; Martori et al. 2022) and the role of scale for analysing segregation (e.g., Marcińczak et al. 2021).

Following the recent trend in the scientific literature and adding new focuses of interest, this monographic Issue in Social Sciences proposes at least the following issues of research on the segregation and integration of the migrant population:

  1. Measuring residential segregation: new approaches and challenges.
  2. Residential segregation, migration and access to real estate market and social infrastructure as an indicator of social integration.
  3. Immigration, residential segregation and school failure.
  4. Ethnic residential segregation and environmental quality.
  5. Cities, touristification and residential segregation of the migrant population. The social invisibility of the labour force. 

References

Ard, Kerry, Dax Fisher-Garibay, and Daphney Bonner. 2021. Particulate Matter Exposure across Latino Ethnicities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18(10): 5186. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105186

Bayona‐i‐Carrasco, Jordi, and Andreu Domingo. 2021. School segregation of migrants and their descendants in a dual school system: The case of Barcelona. Population, Space and Place 27(8): e2446.

Benassi, Federico, and Ricardo Iglesias-Pascual. 2022. Local-scale residential concentration and income inequalities of the main foreign-born population groups in the Spanish urban space. Reaffirming the model of a divided city. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies: 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2022.2067137

Benassi, Federico, Alessia Naccarato, Ricardo Iglesias-Pascual, and Luca Salvati, Salvatore Strozza. 2022. Measuring residential segregation in multi‐ethnic and unequal European cities. International Migration. https://doi.org/10.1111/imig.13018

Harvey, David. (2005). From globalization to the new imperialism. Critical globalization studies 91: 100.

Imeraj, Lena, Nissa Finney, and Sylvie Gadeyne. 2020. Demographic dynamics across urban settings and implications for ethnic geographies. Population Space and Place 27(3): e2391. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.2391

Kauppinen, Timo M., Maarten van Ham, and Venla Bernelius. 2022. Understanding the effects of school catchment areas and households with children in ethnic residential segregation. Housing Studies 37(9): 1625-1649, DOI: 10.1080/02673037.2020.1857707

Krysan, Maria, Courtney Carter, and Marieke Van Londen. 2017. The Diversity of Integration in a Multiethnic Metropolis: Exploring What Whites, African Americans, and Latinos Imagine. Du Bois Review 14(1): 35–71.

Leclerc, Christophe. 2021. Immigrants’ earnings and neighbourhood economic wealth: the conditioning role of citizenship. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 48(7): 1591-1609. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2021.1971958

Marcińczak, Szymon, Veronika Mooses, Magnus Strömgren, and Tiit Tammaru. 2021. A comparative study of immigrant-native segregation at multiple spatial scales in urban Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies: 1-23. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2021.2008887

Martori, Joan Carles, Raymond Lagonigro, and Ricardo Iglesias-Pascual. 2022. Social status and air quality in Barcelona: A socio-ecological approach. Sustainable Cities and Society: 104210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2022.104210

Monkkonen, Paavo, Andre Comandon, Jorge Alberto Montejano Escamilla, Erick Guerra. 2018. Urban Sprawl and the Growing Geographic Scale of Segregation in Mexico, 1990–2010. Habitat International 73: 89–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2017.12.003

Piketty, Thomas. 2020. Capital and ideology. Boston: Harvard University Press.

Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés, and Michael Storper. 2020. Housing, urban growth and inequalities: The limits to deregulation and upzoning in reducing economic and spatial inequality. Urban Studies 57(2): 223–248. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098019859458

Talen, Emily, and Luc Anselin. 2021. City cents: Tracking the spatial imprint of urban public expenditures. Cities 108: 102962. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2020.102962.

Van Ham, Maarten, Tiit Tammaru, Rūta Ubarevičienė, and Heleen Janssen. 2021. Urban socio-economic segregation and income inequality: A global perspective. Berlin: Springer Nature.

Dr. Federico Benassi
Dr. Ricardo Iglesias-Pascual
Prof. Dr. Salvatore Strozza
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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16 pages, 1039 KiB  
Article
Exploring Neighbourhood Integration Dynamics of Sri Lankan Entrepreneurs in Rione Sanità, Naples
by Maria Camilla Fraudatario
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13020087 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 978
Abstract
Integration is always at the core of migration studies and is examined from various theoretical perspectives. While integration models are valuable for understanding how national political systems influence the integration of foreigners into society, the real challenge of integration manifests at the local [...] Read more.
Integration is always at the core of migration studies and is examined from various theoretical perspectives. While integration models are valuable for understanding how national political systems influence the integration of foreigners into society, the real challenge of integration manifests at the local level. From a neighbourhood-based approach, this article addresses the integration trajectories of Sri Lankan entrepreneurs in Rione Sanità, Naples, which is a socio-economically deprived neighbourhood hosting a substantial segment of foreign populations and has been the target of significant urban regeneration initiatives over the past decade. Sri Lankans established travel agencies, fiscal assistance centres, restaurants, takeaways, and retailers in a transformative context. This article highlights how entrepreneurial initiatives are shaped by the mutual connection linking immigrants with the place where they found economic and relational opportunities. The results serve as a crucial starting point for better understanding the long-term outcomes of the socio-economic integration at the neighbourhood level. Full article
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15 pages, 1400 KiB  
Article
Analyzing the Impact of Public Housing Privatization on Immigrant Micro-Segregation in Milan
by Igor Costarelli
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(10), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12100565 - 10 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1239
Abstract
In several Western European countries, a significant share of social rental housing stock has been sold since the 1980s as part of government policies aimed at promoting homeownership societies. Research has shown that tenure conversion has contributed to increasing socio-spatial segregation of lower-income [...] Read more.
In several Western European countries, a significant share of social rental housing stock has been sold since the 1980s as part of government policies aimed at promoting homeownership societies. Research has shown that tenure conversion has contributed to increasing socio-spatial segregation of lower-income groups, with diverging spatial patterns of homeownership among immigrants. This paper examines the impact of recent public housing privatization schemes in Milan in relation to micro-segregation and peripheralization processes of foreign populations, which represent distinctive features of immigrant residential distribution in this city. By employing name analysis, an unconventional approach in segregation studies, I inferred the geographical origins of homebuyers and mapped their distribution across the city. The findings reveal divergent purchasing behaviors, whereby Italians predominantly acquire properties in semi-central areas currently undergoing urban regeneration. In contrast, immigrants tend to concentrate their acquisitions in peripheral post-war public housing neighborhoods or in areas predominantly inhabited by residents with similar geographical origins. This paper contributes to the existing literature on ethnic residential segregation in Southern European cities by shedding light on the underexplored role of public housing privatization policies in shaping specific residential patterns and housing outcomes among different groups. Full article
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16 pages, 1979 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Settlement Models of the Main Foreign Communities Residing in Italy (2003–2021)
by Cinzia Conti, Massimo Mucciardi and Maura Simone
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(9), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12090524 - 19 Sep 2023
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Abstract
In the last few decades, the foreign resident population in Italy has grown considerably, showing a tendency towards a stable settlement. The spatial distribution of this population is an important key to better understanding the integration process in the host society. This paper [...] Read more.
In the last few decades, the foreign resident population in Italy has grown considerably, showing a tendency towards a stable settlement. The spatial distribution of this population is an important key to better understanding the integration process in the host society. This paper aims to explore the diachronic evolution of the settlement models of the foreign population and the main ethnic groups usually classified as residents in Italy in the period 2003–2021. Towards this aim, we computed statistical global indices referring to evenness, concentration, and clustering dimension of residential segregation and ad hoc indices that regard territorial dimensions. One of the major novelties of the contribution lies in the attempt to compute these indices not only in reference to the major population group—i.e., the Italians—but also between foreign communities and considering the gender structure. The indices are then synthesised by a multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and cluster analysis). The results of this study show that (a) higher differences in terms of settlement models are found by comparing different minority groups rather than by comparing minorities to Italians; (b) the settlement models of each foreign citizenship remain almost stable over time despite their growth in both absolute and relative terms. Full article
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29 pages, 7290 KiB  
Article
Framing the Residential Patterns of Asian Communities in Three Italian Cities: Evidence from Milan, Rome, and Naples
by Francesca Bitonti, Federico Benassi, Angelo Mazza and Salvatore Strozza
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(9), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12090480 - 29 Aug 2023
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Abstract
Today, the interplay between economic inequality, international migration, and urban transformation has raised awareness about segregation and its social implications on a global and European scale. As cities become home to diverse populations with various backgrounds including social, racial, ethnic, and cultural, the [...] Read more.
Today, the interplay between economic inequality, international migration, and urban transformation has raised awareness about segregation and its social implications on a global and European scale. As cities become home to diverse populations with various backgrounds including social, racial, ethnic, and cultural, the proximity of these groups becomes more pronounced. This article explores the residential segregation of four Asian immigrant groups in three major Italian cities: Milan, Rome, and Naples. Using data from the 2011 Italian General Population Census and employing an areal weighted interpolation procedure, the study measures segregation using both traditional two-group indices and multi-group indices that account for the complexities of contemporary societies. The results indicate a north–south disparity, with Naples exhibiting the highest levels of residential segregation. Among the analysed immigrant groups, Bangladeshis and Chinese tended to be more self-segregated, while Filipinos and Sri Lankans were relatively more dispersed. This research underscores the necessity for a nuanced understanding of segregation dynamics and the adoption of appropriate approaches to address the challenges and opportunities presented by the coexistence of diverse groups in urban areas. By contributing to the existing literature on residential segregation in Southern Europe, this study sheds light on the spatial patterns and social dynamics of different ethnic groups in Italian cities. Full article
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22 pages, 2168 KiB  
Case Report
Toward a ‘Migrant Trap’? Local Development, Urban Sustainability, Sociodemographic Inequalities, and the Economic Decline in a Mediterranean Metropolis
by Mariateresa Ciommi, Gianluca Egidi, Ioannis Vardopoulos, Francesco Maria Chelli and Luca Salvati
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010026 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2408
Abstract
After years following the breakdown of the Great Recession in Europe, crisis-driven urban shrinkage can be adequately investigated considering changes over time in selected demographic indicators, with a specific focus on migration. Using official statistics and a literature review, the present study documents [...] Read more.
After years following the breakdown of the Great Recession in Europe, crisis-driven urban shrinkage can be adequately investigated considering changes over time in selected demographic indicators, with a specific focus on migration. Using official statistics and a literature review, the present study documents the inherent demographic decline in metropolitan Athens (Greece) as a response to economic stagnation after a long-lasting expansion. The empirical results of our study delineate metropolitan shrinkage in Southern Europe as a process associated with complex socioeconomic conditions leading to (possibly counterintuitive) demographic outcomes as far as migration trends are concerned. Recession has determined unsustainable economic conditions especially for non-native population segments, promoting both class and ethnic segregation. The negative migration balance in the 2010s led to an intense population decline hitting settlements made already demographically fragile because of low fertility and aging. Athens became a sort of ‘migrant trap’, being progressively unattractive for incoming migration flows—both internal and international—and losing an increasingly high number of non-native residents settling in the area, especially during the ‘gold’ decade of the 2004 Olympics. A sudden reduction in immigration rates reflected both economic (recession) and non-economic (population aging, fertility reduction, and childbearing postponement) factors, causing an incipient shrinkage after secular urban growth. The empirical results of our study add to the traditional literature on ‘industrial cities shrinkage’ in Europe and contribute to (re)formulate short- and medium-term development scenarios in large agglomerations, shedding further light on the role of migration in crisis-driven processes of urban decline in Mediterranean Europe. Full article
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