# Exploring the Settlement Models of the Main Foreign Communities Residing in Italy (2003–2021)

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. An Overview of the Settlement Patterns of the Foreign Population in Italy

- (1)
- a metropolitan model: it regards the communities with a strong imbalance in the gender structure, mostly employed in services to families or in commercial activities;
- (2)
- a widespread model, typical of those groups that are more dispersed as a result of a greater range of employment opportunities;
- (3)
- a border model, typical of the communities that come from countries bordering Italy and which tend to settle mainly in the areas geographically closest to their areas of origin.

## 3. Approach and Measures for Detecting the Settlement Models of the Foreign Population

## 4. Data

## 5. Results

#### 5.1. Principal Component Analysis Results

#### 5.2. EM Clustering Results

## 6. Discussion and Final Remarks

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

- ${x}_{i}$ = total population of foreign group X in Italian municipality $i$;
- $X$ = total population of foreign group X in the whole country;
- ${y}_{i}$ = total population of Italian group Y in municipality $i$;
- $Y$ = total population of Italian group Y in the whole country;
- $n$ = number of Italian municipalities.

- ${x}_{i}$ = total population of foreign group X in Italian municipality $i$;
- $X$ = total population of foreign group X in the whole country;
- ${y}_{i}$ = total population of Italian group Y in municipality $i$;
- $Y$ = total population of Italian group Y in the whole country;
- ${a}_{i}$ = area of municipality $i$;
- ${t}_{i}$ = total population in municipality $i;$
- ${T}_{1}$ = total population for all municipalities from 1 to ${n}_{1}$;
- ${T}_{2}$ = total population of municipalities from ${n}_{2}$ to $n$;
- $n$ = number of Italian municipalities;
- (${n}_{1}$ and ${n}_{2}$ are the rank orders of spatial units from smallest to largest).

- ${x}_{i}$ = total population of foreign group X in Italian municipality $i$;
- ${x}_{j}$ = total population of foreign group X in Italian municipality $j$;
- $X$ = total population of foreign group X in the whole country;
- ${y}_{i}$ = total population of Italian group Y in municipality $i$;
- ${y}_{j}$ = total population of Italian group Y in municipality $j$;
- $Y$ = total population of Italian group Y in the whole country;
- ${d}_{ij}$ = distance between the centroids of municipality $i$ and municipality $j$.

- ${x}_{i}$ = total population of foreign group X in Italian municipality $i$;
- $X$ = total population of foreign group X in the whole country;
- ${a}_{i}$ = area of municipality $i;$
- $A$ = area of the whole country.

- $C$ = total population of foreign group X that resides in coastal municipalities;
- $X$ = total population of foreign group X in the whole country.

- $U$ = total population of foreign group X that resides in urban municipalities;
- $X$ = total population of foreign group X in the whole country.

- $O$ = number of municipalities in which the values of the location quotient
- $LQ=\frac{\frac{{x}_{i}}{{t}_{i}}}{\frac{X}{T}}$ of foreign group X is higher than 2;

- ${x}_{i}$ = total population of foreign group X in Italian municipality $i$;
- ${t}_{i}$ = total population in municipality $i$;
- $X$ = total population of foreign group X in the whole country;
- $T$ = total population in the whole country.

## Notes

1 | It is important to emphasise that the data regarding the residence permits contain information about the reasons for the migration. They are particularly useful because they immediately register the changes in migration flows. They do not match with the data about the residents. In fact, not all the foreigners with a residence permit are enrolled in the municipalities’ lists. At the same time, it is important to consider that the citizens of the European Union do not need a residence permit to enter and to legally stay in Italy. |

2 | Although the seminal work of Massey and Denton (1988) includes five dimensions, we do not use the indices related to “exposure” and “centralisation” because the first index is not symmetrical between groups (Wong and Shaw 2011), while for the second index, the distance from the centre to the border of the municipality is not available. Currently, these two dimensions have been left out. |

3 | Although in the Massey and Denton (1988) work, the Spatial Proximity (SP) index seems to be the preferred measure of clustering, we prefer to use RCL, as it has better performance in terms of principal component analysis (see Section 5.1). |

4 | |

5 | We use Geo-Segregation Analyzer software (Apparicio et al. 2014) to calculate the ID, RCO, RCL, and DEL indices and Microsoft Excel for CDI, UDI, and ORI indices. |

6 | For all the multivariate statistical analyses, we use STATA ver. 15.0 and R ver. 4.3.2 software. |

7 | We also tried the same model with standardised variables and a more extensive model with the percentages of each foreign community in the three Italian areas (North, Centre, and South); but the results, given the increasing complexity of the model, did not show significant improvements in the analysis. The results are available upon request. |

## References

- Apparicio, Philippe, Martori Joan Carlos, Pearson Amber, Fournier Éric, and Denis Apparicio. 2014. An Open-Source Software for Calculating Indices of Urban Residential Segregation. Social Science Computer Review 32: 117–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bailey, Nick. 2012. How spatial segregation changes over time: Sorting out the sorting processes. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space 44: 705–22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bartlett, Maurice Stevenson. 1954. A note on the multiplying factors for various chi square approximation. Journal of Royal Statistical Society 16: 296–98. [Google Scholar]
- Benassi, Federico, and Raffaele Ferrara. 2013. Modelli insediativi delle principali collettività immigrate in Italia. Rivista di Statistica e Economia del Territorio 2: 66–85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Blangiardo, Gian Carlo, Cinzia Conti, Livia Elisa Ortensi, Luciana Quattrociocchi, and Laura Terzera. 2017. Aspetti dell’Integrazione. In Rapporto sulla Popolazione: Le molte facce della presenza straniera in Italia. Edited by Salvatore Strozza and Gustavo De Santis. Bologna: Il Mulino, pp. 137–72. [Google Scholar]
- Bonifazi, Corrado, Conti Cinzia, Sanguinetti Antonio, and Srozza Salvatore. 2021. La pandemia di COVID-19 e le migrazioni internazionali in Italia. Studi Emigrazione LVIII 221/2021: 41–56. [Google Scholar]
- Casacchia, Oliviero, Cecilia Reynaud, Salvatore Strozza, and Enrico Tucci. 2022. Internal migration patterns of foreign citizens in Italy. International Migration 60: 183–97. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Casacchia, Oliviero, Paolo Diana, and Salvatore Strozza. 1999. La distribuzione territoriale di alcune collettività straniere immigrate in Italia: Caratteristiche e determinanti». In Immigrazione straniera e multicultura nell’Italia di oggi. Edited by Carlo Brusa. Milano: FrancoAngeli, vol. II, pp. 75–103. [Google Scholar]
- Cellini, Erika, and Roberto Fideli. 2002. Gli indicatori di integrazione degli immigrati in Italia. Alcune riflessioni concettuali e di metodo. Quaderni di Sociologia 28: 60–84. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cesareo, Vincenzo, and Gian Carlo Blangiardo. 2009. Indici di Integrazione. Un’Indagine Empirica sulla Realtà Migratoria Italiana. Milano: FrancoAngeli. [Google Scholar]
- Colombo, Asher Daniel, and Gianpiero Dalla Zuanna. 2019. Immigration Italian Style, 1977–2018. Population and Development Review 45: 585–615. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Conti, Cinzia, and Salvatore Strozza. 2006. Gli Immigrati Stranieri e la Capitale. Condizioni di Vita e Atteggiamenti dei Filippini, Marocchini, Peruviani e Romeni a Roma. Milano: Franco Angeli. [Google Scholar]
- Cvajner, Martina, and Giuseppe Sciortino. 2010. A Tale of Networks and Policies: Prolegomena to an Analysis of Irregular Migration Careers and their Development paths. Population, Space and Place 1: 213–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dempster, Arthur, Nab Laird, and Donald Rubin. 1977. Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B: Methodological 39: 1–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Duncan, Otis D., and Beverly Duncan. 1955. A methodological analysis of segregation indexes. American Sociological Review 20: 210–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Duncan, Otis D., Ray Cuzzort, and Beverly Duncan. 1961. Statistical Geography: Problems in Analyzing Areal Data. Glencoe: The Free Press of Glencoe. [Google Scholar]
- Gordon, Milton. 1964. Assimilation in American Life. New York: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Isard, Walter. 1960. Methods of Regional Analysis: An Introduction to Regional Science. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. [Google Scholar]
- ISTAT. 2021. Classificazioni Statistiche e Dimensione dei Comuni. Anno 2021. Available online: https://www.istat.it/it/archivio/156224 (accessed on 6 July 2023).
- ISTAT. 2022a. Cittadini non Comunitari in Italia. Anni 2021/2022. Statistiche Report. Available online: https://www.istat.it/it/archivio/276508 (accessed on 25 October 2022).
- ISTAT. 2022b. Rapporto Annuale 2022-La Situazione del Paese. Available online: https://www.istat.it/storage/rapporto-annuale/2022/Rapporto_Annuale_2022.pdf (accessed on 8 July 2022).
- ISTAT. 2023. Stranieri Residenti e Nuovi Cittadini: Caratteristiche Demografiche e Distribuzione Territoriale. Anno 2021. Statistiche Report. Available online: https://www.istat.it/it/archivio/282108 (accessed on 15 March 2023).
- Kaiser, Henry. 1960. The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement 20: 141–51. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kaiser, Henry. 1970. A second generation Little Jiffy. Psychometrika 35: 401–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kreichauf, René. 2015. Ghettos in Small Towns? The Research on Ethnic Segregation and Stigmatisation Processes in Small Town Germany. Sociologica, Italian Journal of Sociology on Line 2: 1–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lavit, Cristine, Yves Escoufier, Rober Sabatier, and Pierre Traissac. 1994. «The act (Statis Method)». Computational Statistics and Data Analysis 18: 97–119. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Libório, Matheus Pereira, Oseias da Silva Martinuci, Alexei Manso Correa Machado, Renata de Mello Lyrio, and Patrícia Bernardes. 2022. Time–Space Analysis of Multidimensional Phenomena: A Composite Indicator of Social Exclusion Through k-Means. Social Indicators Research 159: 569–91. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lichter, Daniel T., Domenico Parisi, and Shrinidhi Ambinakudige. 2020. The Spatial Integration of Immigrants in Europe: A Cross-National Study. Population Research and Policy Review 39: 465–91. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Liebig, Thomas, and Gilles Spielvogel. 2021. Residential segregation of immigrants: Patterns, drivers, effects and policy responses. In International Migration Outlook 2021. Paris: OECD Publishing. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Massey, Douglas S., and Nancy A. Denton. 1988. The dimensions of residential segregation. Social Forces 67: 281–315. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mottura, Giovanni, ed. 1992. L’arcipelago immigrazione. Caratteristiche e modelli migratori dei lavoratori stranieri in Italia. Roma: Ediesse. [Google Scholar]
- Mucciardi, Massimo, and Federico Benassi. 2023. Measuring the spatial concentration of population: A new approach based on the graphical representation of the Gini index. Quality and Quantity. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Park, Robert E., Ernest W. Burgess, and Roderck. D. McKenzie. 1925. The City. Suggestions for Investigation of Human Behavior in the Urban Environment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [Google Scholar]
- Piguet, Etienne. 2021. The ‘refugee crisis’ in Europe: Shortening Distances, Containment and Asymmetry of Rights—A Tentative Interpretation of the 2015–16 Events. Journal of Refugee Studies 34: 1577–94. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sleutjes, Bart, Jeroen Ooijevaar, and Helga A. G. de Valk. 2019. Residential Segregation in the Amsterdam Metropolitan Region: A Longitudinal Analysis Using Scalable Individualised Neighbourhoods. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 110: 359–77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tintori, Guido, Alfredo Alessandrini, and Fabrizio Natale. 2018. Diversity, residential segregation, concentration of migrants: A comparison across EU cities. In Findings from the Data Challenge on Integration of Migrants in Cities (D4I). EUR 29611 EN. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. ISBN 978-92-79-98732-8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tosi, Antonio. 1994. Abitare/coabitare. Gli immigrati extracomunitari e le politiche abitative in Italia. In Abitanti: Le Nuove Strategie Dell’azione Abitativa. Edited by Antonio Tosi. Bologna: Il Mulino, pp. 29–40. [Google Scholar]
- Wacquant, Loic. 2008. Urban Outcasts: A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press. [Google Scholar]
- White, Michael J. 1986. Segregation and diversity: Measures in population distribution. Population index 52: 198–221. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Witten, Ian H., and Eibe Frank. 2011. Data Mining. München and Wien: Carl Hanser. [Google Scholar]
- Wong, David W., and Shih-Lung Shaw. 2011. Measuring segregation: An activity space approach. Journal of Geographical Systems 13: 127–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yao, Jing D. W., David W. S. Wong, Nick Bailey, and Jonathan Minton. 2019. Spatial segregation measures: A methodological review. Tijdschrift voor Ecomische en Sociale Geografie 110: 235–50. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zorbaugh, Harvey W. 1929. The Gold Coast and the Slum: A Sociological Study of Chicago’s near North Side. Chicago: University of Chicago. [Google Scholar]

**Figure 1.**New residence permits issued during the reference year by motivation, Italy. Years 2011–2021, absolute values (source: ISTAT, elaborations on data of Ministry of Interior).

**Figure 2.**Statistical units projected on the factorial plane of the first two extracted components. (Legend: ROM = Romania; MOR = Morocco; ALB = Albania; CHI = China; UKR = Ukraine; IND = India; PHI = Philippines; EGY = Egypt; PAK = Pakistan; 03 = 2003; 11 = 2011; 21 = 2021; M = Male; F = Female).

**Figure 3.**Cluster memberships of the statistical units projected on the factorial plane of the first two extracted components. (Legend: ROM = Romania; MOR = Morocco; ALB = Albania; CHI = China; UKR = Ukraine; IND = India; PHI = Philippines; EGY = Egypt; PAK = Pakistan; 03 = 2003; 11 = 2011; 21 = 2021; M = Male; F = Female).

**Figure 4.**Cluster means for ID, RCO, RCL, and DEL. The total mean (Total) of the index is in parentheses.

Index * | Label | Type | Dimension | Range | Reference |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Index of dissimilarity | ID | Two-group (ref. Italians) | Evenness | [0, 1] | Duncan and Duncan (1955) |

Relative concentration index | RCO | Two-group (ref. Italians) | Concentration | [−1, 1] | Massey and Denton (1988) |

Relative clustering index | RCL | Two-group (ref. Italians) | Clustering | [−∞, ∞] | White (1986) |

Delta index | DEL | One-group | Concentration | [0, 1] | Duncan et al. (1961) |

Coastal diffusion index | CDI | One-group | Diffusion | [0, 1] | Ad hoc |

Urban diffusion index | UDI | One-group | Diffusion | [0, 1] | Ad hoc |

Over-representation index | ORI | Two-group (ref. Italians) | Over-representation | [0, 1] | Isard (1960)/ad hoc |

**Table 2.**Foreign resident population and citizenships of foreigners (from first 10 countries) residing in Italy. Years 2003, 2011, and 2021, absolute values and percentages.

Population | Absolute Values | Percentages | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

2003 | 2011 | 2021 | Delta 2021–2003 | 2003 | 2011 | 2021 | Delta 2021–2003 | |

Total foreign population | 1,893,927 | 4,319,201 | 5,030,716 | 3,136,789 | 100.0 | 100.0 | 100.0 | - |

Romania | 169,214 | 889,474 | 1,083,771 | 914,557 | 8.9 | 20.6 | 21.5 | 12.6 |

Morocco | 241,111 | 435,607 | 420,172 | 179,061 | 12.7 | 10.1 | 8.4 | −4.4 |

Albania | 257,309 | 480,633 | 419,987 | 162,678 | 13.6 | 11.1 | 8.3 | −5.2 |

China | 82,544 | 210,055 | 300,216 | 217,672 | 4.4 | 4.9 | 6.0 | 1.6 |

Ukraine | 55,168 | 191,995 | 225,307 | 170,139 | 2.9 | 4.4 | 4.5 | 1.6 |

India | 42,625 | 126,215 | 162,492 | 119,867 | 2.3 | 2.9 | 3.2 | 1.0 |

Bangladesh | 26,033 | 87,068 | 159,003 | 132,970 | 1.4 | 2.0 | 3.2 | 1.8 |

Philippines | 68,873 | 137,704 | 158,997 | 90,124 | 3.6 | 3.2 | 3.2 | −0.5 |

Egypt | 38,621 | 71,344 | 140,322 | 101,701 | 2.0 | 1.7 | 2.8 | 0.8 |

Pakistan | 26,454 | 75,713 | 134,182 | 107,728 | 1.4 | 1.8 | 2.7 | 1.3 |

Other foreigners | 885,976 | 1,613,393 | 1,826,267 | 940,291 | 46.8 | 37.4 | 36.3 | −10.5 |

Component | ||
---|---|---|

1 | 2 | |

ID | 0.828 | −0.322 |

RCO | 0.181 | 0.574 |

RCL | 0.429 | −0.813 |

DEL | 0.963 | −0.169 |

CDI | 0.424 | 0.798 |

UDI | 0.860 | 0.227 |

ORI | −0.905 | −0.157 |

^{2}= 435; d.f. = 21 (p-value < 0.001).

#Cluster | Foreign Communities |
---|---|

C1 | ALB03_F, ALB03_M, ALB11_F, ALB11_M, ALB21_F, ALB21_M, MOR03_F, MOR03_M, MOR11_F, MOR11_M, MOR21_F, MOR21_M, ROM03_F, ROM03_M, ROM11_F, ROM11_M, ROM21_F, ROM21_M, UKR03_F |

C2 | CHI03_F, CHI03_M, CHI11_F, CHI11_M, CHI21_F, CHI21_M, UKR03_M, UKR11_F, UKR11_M, UKR21_F, UKR21_M, PAK21_M |

C3 | EGY03_F, EGY03_M, EGY11_F, EGY11_M, EGY21_F, EGY21_M, PAK03_F, PAK03_M, PAK11_F, PAK11_M, PAK21_F, BAN03_M |

C4 | BAN03_F, BAN11_F, BAN11_M, BAN21_F, BAN21_M, PHI03_F, PHI03_M, PHI11_F, PHI11_M, PHI21_F, PHI21_M |

C5 | IND03_F, IND03_M, IND11_F, IND11_M, IND21_F, IND21_M |

Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content. |

© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Conti, C.; Mucciardi, M.; Simone, M.
Exploring the Settlement Models of the Main Foreign Communities Residing in Italy (2003–2021). *Soc. Sci.* **2023**, *12*, 524.
https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12090524

**AMA Style**

Conti C, Mucciardi M, Simone M.
Exploring the Settlement Models of the Main Foreign Communities Residing in Italy (2003–2021). *Social Sciences*. 2023; 12(9):524.
https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12090524

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Conti, Cinzia, Massimo Mucciardi, and Maura Simone.
2023. "Exploring the Settlement Models of the Main Foreign Communities Residing in Italy (2003–2021)" *Social Sciences* 12, no. 9: 524.
https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12090524