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Special Issue "Smart Systems for Wireless Communications and Networks"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2023 | Viewed by 4397

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ali Mansour
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
École Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées de Bretagne, 29806 Brest, France
Interests: statistical approaches; blind signal processing; cognitive radio; wireless telecommunication; robotics and biomedical engineering
Prof. Dr. Hadi Aggoune
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Sensor Network and Cellular Systems Research Center (SNCS), University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491, Saudi Arabia
Interests: sensors; wireless communications; power; visualization
Prof. Dr. Christophe Moy
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institut d’Electronique et des Technologies du numéRique, CEDEX, 35065 Rennes, France
Interests: cognitive radio; dynamic spectrum access; internet of things (IoT); machine learning for communications; embedded systems
Dr. Abbass Nasser
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Computer Science Department, American University of Culture and Education (AUCE), 1507 Beirut, Lebanon
Interests: intelligent reflecting surface; cognitive radio; IoT; WSNE-Health
Dr. Mohammad Ayaz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Sensor Networks and Cellular Systems Research Center, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491, KSA
Interests: wireless sensors; IoT; smart systems; underwater acoustic networks
Dr. Koffi Yao
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
LABSTICC UMR CNRS 6285, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29238 Brest, France
Interests: wireless communication; blind signal separation; pattern recognition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

No one can deny the important role of wireless communications and networks in our everyday life and in driving economic growth. In fact, during the hard time of the pandemic, individuals, organizations, as well as governments have realized the tremendous potential of this vital sector. Further, in coming years, wireless technology is expected to include even more features which would not have been thought possible just a few years ago.

While network operators are determined to increase their profits by expanding the number of their customers, improving their services, and proposing new applications (to manage tiny sensors introduced in human bodies into smart roads and cities), they are tackling the major issue of physical scarcity.

To extend our networks, improve services, and introduce new applications in a constrained environment, wireless communications need to be in perpetual evolution. As service providers continue to improve the technology, more people will experience better, reliable, and secure communication. To achieve this goal, researchers are exploring various technologies, such as Cognitive Radio, Dynamic Spectrum Allocation, Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces, 5GB Cellular, Backscatter Networking, and more, using new methodologies that are based on artificial intelligence more and more, from one extreme, such as sporadic and low-duty cycle wireless communications (such as LPWAN—low0power wide area networks), to another extreme, such as high-data-rate radio links for 6G networks.

This Special Issue aims to highlight the new challenges, recent and future technologies, and hot potential applications related to wireless communications and networks.

Prof. Dr. Ali Mansour
Prof. Dr. Hadi Aggoune
Prof. Dr. Christophe Moy
Dr. Abbass Nasser
Dr. Mohammad Ayaz
Dr. Koffi Yao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wireless telecommunication
  • Cognitive radio, smart systems
  • Machine learning for communications
  • Dynamic spectrum access
  • Internet of Things
  • Intelligent reflecting surface

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
LoRaCog: A Protocol for Cognitive Radio-Based LoRa Network
Sensors 2022, 22(10), 3885; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22103885 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 199
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a new protocol called LoRaCog to introduce the concept of Cognitive Radio (CR) in the LoRa network. LoRaCog will enable access to a wider spectrum than that of LoRaWAN by using the unutilized spectrum and thus has better [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a new protocol called LoRaCog to introduce the concept of Cognitive Radio (CR) in the LoRa network. LoRaCog will enable access to a wider spectrum than that of LoRaWAN by using the unutilized spectrum and thus has better efficiency without impacting the end devices’ battery consumption. LoRa networks are managed by LoRaWAN protocol and operate on the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. LoRaWAN is one of thriving protocols for Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LPWAN) implemented for the Internet of Things (IoT). With the growing demand for IoT, the unlicensed spectrum is expected to be congested, unlike the licensed spectrum, which is not fully utilized. This can be fairly balanced by applying CR to the LoRa network, where the End Devices (EDs) may change the operating channel opportunistically over the free/available licensed spectrum. Spectrum sensing, channel selection and channel availability relevance become essential features to be respected by the proposed protocol. The main objective of adding CR to LoRaWAN is reducing the congestion and maintaining LoRaWAN’s suitability for battery-operated devices. This is achieved by modifying LoRaWAN components such as the ED receive window RX2 rearrangement, spectrum sensing functionality by gateway (GW) for identifying unused channels, and reaching a decision on the unused channels by network server (NS). These changes will create LoRaCog meeting spectrum efficiency and maintain the same level of battery consumption as in LoRaWAN. Numerical simulations show a significant decrease in the rejected packet rate (more than 50%) with LoRaCog when more EDs use cognitive channels. As the results prove, LoRaWAN can reach above 50% rejected packets for the simulated environment versus 24% rejection for LoRaCog using only one additional channel (means total two channels). This means that the system can eliminate rejected packets almost completely when operating over the possible many channels. As well, these results show the flexibility in the system to utilize the available frequencies in an efficient and fair way. The results also reveal that a lower number of GWs is needed for LoRaCog from LoRaWAN to cover the same area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems for Wireless Communications and Networks)
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Article
Towards a Security Reference Architecture for NFV
Sensors 2022, 22(10), 3750; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22103750 - 14 May 2022
Viewed by 258
Abstract
Network function virtualization (NFV) is an emerging technology that is becoming increasingly important due to its many advantages. NFV transforms legacy hardware-based network infrastructure into software-based virtualized networks. This transformation increases the flexibility and scalability of networks, at the same time reducing the [...] Read more.
Network function virtualization (NFV) is an emerging technology that is becoming increasingly important due to its many advantages. NFV transforms legacy hardware-based network infrastructure into software-based virtualized networks. This transformation increases the flexibility and scalability of networks, at the same time reducing the time for the creation of new networks. However, the attack surface of the network increases, which requires the definition of a clear map of where attacks may happen. ETSI standards precisely define many security aspects of this architecture, but these publications are very long and provide many details which are not of interest to software architects. We start by conducting threat analysis of some of the NFV use cases. The use cases serve as scenarios where the threats to the architecture can be enumerated. Representing threats as misuse cases that describe the modus operandi of attackers, we can find countermeasures to them in the form of security patterns, and we can build a security reference architecture (SRA). Until now, only imprecise models of NFV architectures existed; by making them more detailed and precise it is possible to handle not only security but also safety and reliability, although we do not explore those aspects. Because security is a global property that requires a holistic approach, we strongly believe that architectural models are fundamental to produce secure networks and allow us to build networks which are secure by design. The resulting SRA defines a roadmap to implement secure concrete architectures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems for Wireless Communications and Networks)
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Article
Compacted Area with Effective Links (CAEL) for Data Dissemination in VANETs
Sensors 2022, 22(9), 3448; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093448 - 30 Apr 2022
Viewed by 324
Abstract
Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a specialized form of wireless network that is solely intended for collaboration between vehicles. Several studies have shown that standard routing protocols cannot be implemented in VANETs because of their unique characteristics such as their significant count [...] Read more.
Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a specialized form of wireless network that is solely intended for collaboration between vehicles. Several studies have shown that standard routing protocols cannot be implemented in VANETs because of their unique characteristics such as their significant count of vehicles on the network and the rapid evolution of the network’s design. Because VANET communication links are broken very frequently, it is necessary to address the routing consistency of these highly dynamic networks. The transmission of VANET data may result in a substantial amount of overhead in the routing process; thus, it is vital to address the issue of overhead to enhance the overall network performance. The proposed protocol named compacted area with effective links (CAEL) is designed to focus on decreasing overhead to achieve an enhancement in PDR performance inside the network. The communication between selected nodes that have been judged to be dependable in terms of geographical location and appropriate existing links between vehicles is focused on achieving this goal. With the inclusion of the reliability factor, it is possible to complete the important step of removing extraneous nodes, with the selection of the trustworthy nodes being made based on the link expiration time during the whole routing procedure. When compared to our previously published protocols, i.e., Dynamic Trilateral Enrollment (DyTE) and Reliable Group of Vehicles (RGoV), the results of the simulations demonstrate that CAEL has achieved an overall improvement in the performance of the network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems for Wireless Communications and Networks)
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Article
Real-Time Adaptive Modulation Schemes for Underwater Acoustic OFDM Communication
Sensors 2022, 22(9), 3436; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093436 - 30 Apr 2022
Viewed by 299
Abstract
Adaptive modulation received significant attention for underwater acoustic (UA) communication systems with the aim of increasing the system efficiency. It is challenging to attain a high data rate in UA communication, as UA channels vary fast, along with the environmental factors. For a [...] Read more.
Adaptive modulation received significant attention for underwater acoustic (UA) communication systems with the aim of increasing the system efficiency. It is challenging to attain a high data rate in UA communication, as UA channels vary fast, along with the environmental factors. For a time-varying UA channel, a self-adaptive system is an attractive option, which can choose the best method according to the channel condition to guarantee the continuous connectivity and high performance constantly. A real-time orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based adaptive UA communication system is presented in this paper, employing the National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW software and NI CompactDAQ device. In this paper, the received SNR is considered as a performance metric to select the transmission parameters, which are sent back to the transmitter for data transmission. In this research, a UA OFDM communication system is developed, employing adaptive modulation schemes for a nonstationary UA environment which allows to select subcarriers, modulation size, and allocate power adaptively to enhance the reliability of communication, guarantee continuous connectivity, and boost data rate. The recent UA communication experiments carried out in the Canning River, Western Australia, verify the performance of the proposed adaptive UA OFDM system, and the experimental results confirm the superiority of the proposed adaptive scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems for Wireless Communications and Networks)
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Article
Resource Allocation in Spectrum Access System Using Multi-Objective Optimization Methods
Sensors 2022, 22(4), 1318; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22041318 - 09 Feb 2022
Viewed by 471
Abstract
The paradigm of dynamic shared access aims to provide flexible spectrum usage. Recently, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has proposed a new dynamic spectrum management framework for the sharing of a 3.5 GHz (3550–3700 MHz) federal band, called a citizen broadband radio service (CBRS) [...] Read more.
The paradigm of dynamic shared access aims to provide flexible spectrum usage. Recently, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has proposed a new dynamic spectrum management framework for the sharing of a 3.5 GHz (3550–3700 MHz) federal band, called a citizen broadband radio service (CBRS) band, which is governed by spectrum access system (SAS). It is the responsibility of SAS to manage the set of CBRS-SAS users. The set of users are classified in three tiers: incumbent access (IA) users, primary access license (PAL) users and the general authorized access (GAA) users. In this article, dynamic channel assignment algorithm for PAL and GAA users is designed with the goal of maximizing the transmission rate and minimizing the total cost of GAA users accessing PAL reserved channels. We proposed a new mathematical model based on multi-objective optimization for the selection of PAL operators and idle PAL reserved channels allocation to GAA users considering the diversity of PAL reserved channels’ attributes and the diversification of GAA users’ business needs. The proposed model is estimated and validated on various performance metrics through extensive simulations and compared with existing algorithms such as Hungarian algorithm, auction algorithm and Gale–Shapley algorithm. The proposed model results indicate that overall transmission rate, net cost and data-rate per unit cost remain the same in comparison to the classical Hungarian method and auction algorithm. However, the improved model solves the resource allocation problem approximately up to four times faster with better load management, which validates the efficiency of our model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems for Wireless Communications and Networks)
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Article
An Overview of Fog Computing and Edge Computing Security and Privacy Issues
Sensors 2021, 21(24), 8226; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21248226 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 598
Abstract
With the advancement of different technologies such as 5G networks and IoT the use of different cloud computing technologies became essential. Cloud computing allowed intensive data processing and warehousing solution. Two different new cloud technologies that inherit some of the traditional cloud computing [...] Read more.
With the advancement of different technologies such as 5G networks and IoT the use of different cloud computing technologies became essential. Cloud computing allowed intensive data processing and warehousing solution. Two different new cloud technologies that inherit some of the traditional cloud computing paradigm are fog computing and edge computing that is aims to simplify some of the complexity of cloud computing and leverage the computing capabilities within the local network in order to preform computation tasks rather than carrying it to the cloud. This makes this technology fits with the properties of IoT systems. However, using such technology introduces several new security and privacy challenges that could be huge obstacle against implementing these technologies. In this paper, we survey some of the main security and privacy challenges that faces fog and edge computing illustrating how these security issues could affect the work and implementation of edge and fog computing. Moreover, we present several countermeasures to mitigate the effect of these security issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems for Wireless Communications and Networks)
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Article
In-Network Data Aggregation for Ad Hoc Clustered Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Network
Sensors 2021, 21(20), 6741; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21206741 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 460
Abstract
In cognitive radio wireless sensor networks (CRSN), the nodes act as secondary users. Therefore, they can access a channel whenever its primary user (PU) is absent. Thus, the nodes are assumed to be equipped with a spectrum sensing (SS) module to monitor the [...] Read more.
In cognitive radio wireless sensor networks (CRSN), the nodes act as secondary users. Therefore, they can access a channel whenever its primary user (PU) is absent. Thus, the nodes are assumed to be equipped with a spectrum sensing (SS) module to monitor the PU activity. In this manuscript, we focus on a clustered CRSN, where the cluster head (CH) performs SS, gathers the data, and sends it toward a central base station by adopting an ad hoc topology with in-network data aggregation (IDA) capability. In such networks, when the number of clusters increases, the consumed energy by the data transmission decreases, while the total consumed energy of SS increases, since more CHs need to perform SS before transmitting. The effect of IDA on CRSN performance is investigated in this manuscript. To select the best number of clusters, a study is derived aiming to extend the network lifespan, taking the SS requirements, the IDA effect, and the energy consumed by both SS and transmission into consideration. Furthermore, the collision rate between primary and secondary transmissions and the network latency are theoretically derived. Numerical results corroborate the efficiency of IDA to extend the network lifespan and minimize both the collision rate and the network latency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems for Wireless Communications and Networks)
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Review

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Review
A Survey of NOMA for VLC Systems: Research Challenges and Future Trends
Sensors 2022, 22(4), 1395; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22041395 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 676
Abstract
Visible light communication (VLC) has become a promising technology for high data rate communications and an attractive complementary to conventional radio frequency (RF) communication. VLC is a secure, energy efficient and cost-effective technology that exploits the existing infrastructure, particularly in indoor environments, for [...] Read more.
Visible light communication (VLC) has become a promising technology for high data rate communications and an attractive complementary to conventional radio frequency (RF) communication. VLC is a secure, energy efficient and cost-effective technology that exploits the existing infrastructure, particularly in indoor environments, for wireless data transmission. Nevertheless, the main limitation of developing high data rate VLC links is the narrow modulation bandwidth of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which is in the megahertz range. The power domain nonorthogonal multiple access (PD-NOMA) scheme is envisioned to address several challenges in VLC systems. In this paper, we present a detailed overview of PD-NOMA based VLC systems. Moreover, we introduce insights on some PD-NOMA VLC system constraints and challenges such as power allocation, clipping effect, MIMO and security. Finally, we provide open research problems as well as possible directions for future research to pave the way for the implementation of PD-NOMA VLC systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems for Wireless Communications and Networks)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: An overview of Fog computing and edge computing security and privacy issues
Authors: Ahmed M. Alwakeel
Affiliation: Sensor Networks and Cellular Systems (SNCS) Research Center, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491, Saudi Arabia
Abstract: With the advancement of different technology such as 5G networks and IoT the use of different cloud computing technologies became essential. Cloud computing allowed intensive data processing and warehousing solution. Two different new cloud technologies that inherit some of the traditional cloud computing paradigm are fog computing and edge computing that’s aims to simplify some of the complexity of cloud computing and leverage the computing capabilities within the local network in order to preform computation tasks rather than carrying it to the cloud. This makes this technology fits with the properties of IoT systems. However, using such technology introduces several new security and privacy challenges. In this paper we provide an overview of some of the security and privacy challenges of these two technologies as well as some countermeasure to mitigate the effect of these security issues.

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