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Special Issue "The Applications and Development of Chemical Gas Sensors based on Properties of Metal Oxides"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 August 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mieczyslaw Rekas Website E-Mail
Emeritus professor Faculty of Materials, Science and Ceramics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland
Phone: +48 12 617 47 22
Interests: chemical gas sensors: conductometric gas sensors, potentiometric gas sensors; Properties of transition metal oxides: electrical propertries, point defect structure (noinstoichiometry, doping), electronic and ionic conductivity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the past three decades, there have been efforts to develop chemical gas sensors based on solid-state technology. The potential advantages of these sensors are miniaturization, low cost, easy calibration and measurement. The market currently offers several types of gas sensors, however their functional parameters remain still unsatisfactorily.

The most widely studied are conductometric gas sensors.  Their principle of operation involves a change in the resistance of the sensor sensitive phase (usually metal oxide) upon exposure to a specific component of the gas atmosphere. The sensor’s performance is determined by the charge transfer between the adsorbed molecules and the sensor material. Chemisorption on a semiconducting material may be considered as the formation of local centers (donors or acceptors) that have a tendency to ionize, in consequence resulting in a charge transfer between the material and the adsorbed gas.

Successful development of the conductometric gas sensors for commercialization requires achieving four “S”: sensitivity, selectivity, short response time and stability. Among them, selectivity is the most important requirement in the conductometric sensors, because the main drawback is their poor selectivity. The important problem is effect of humidity on the sensor performance.

The high operating temperature makes material problems with long term stability and high costs of the sensor manufacture and maintenance. The desired challenge is decrease of the operating temperature (optimally to room temperature).

The promising trends in improving the gas sensors performance is to use metal oxide nanomaterials and heterostructures. Metal oxides-components of the chemical sensors can be used in monitoring gas atmosphere (gas sensors) and chemical compounds in liquid medium.

There are several types of the chemical sensors such as:

  1. Electrochemical sensors (conductometric, potentiometric and amperometric).
    • i) Conductometric sensors are the most numerous. They use various metal oxides (binary, ternary etc.) and their solid solutions as sensitive material: SnO2, ZnO, TiO2, Fe2O3, NiO, CoO, VO2, V2O5, WO3, Cr2O3, Al2O3, In2O3, Ga2O3, SrTiO3, BaTiO3 etc.
    • ii) Potentiometric and amperometric sensors use as solid electrolytes mainly: stabilized zirconia: metal oxide-ZrO2 or stabilized ceria: metal oxidse CeO2 (metal oxide: Y2O3, Gd2O3, CaO, MgO), high temperature protonic electrolytes (acceptor doped Sr or Ba cerates and zirconates), β-alumina, nasicon, lisicon etc. Various metal oxides are used to manufacture of a sensing electrode.
  2. Calorimetric (pelistors) sensors use mainly Al2O3 as insulator material.
  3. Surface or bulk acoustic wave sensors use oxide perovskites such as LiNbO3, LiTaO3, BaTiO3 as piezoelectric material and such oxides as ZnO, TeO2 and SnO2 to coating surface of the piezoelectric element.

Prof. Dr. Mieczyslaw Rekas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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  • conductometric gas sensors
  • applications of chemical sensors
  • metal oxides
  • defect structure
  • electrical properties
  • chemisorption
  • cross sensitivity
  • operating temperature
  • nanomaterials
  • heterostructures
  • sensor mechanism

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Multicomponent Gas Using Sensor Array
Sensors 2019, 19(18), 3917; - 11 Sep 2019
The gas sensor array has long been a major tool for measuring gas due to its high sensitivity, quick response, and low power consumption. This goal, however, faces a difficult challenge because of the cross-sensitivity of the gas sensor. This paper presents a [...] Read more.
The gas sensor array has long been a major tool for measuring gas due to its high sensitivity, quick response, and low power consumption. This goal, however, faces a difficult challenge because of the cross-sensitivity of the gas sensor. This paper presents a novel gas mixture analysis method for gas sensor array applications. The features extracted from the raw data utilizing principal component analysis (PCA) were used to complete random forest (RF) modeling, which enabled qualitative identification. Support vector regression (SVR), optimized by the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, was used to select hyperparameters C and γ to establish the optimal regression model for the purpose of quantitative analysis. Utilizing the dataset, we evaluated the effectiveness of our approach. Compared with logistic regression (LR) and support vector machine (SVM), the average recognition rate of PCA combined with RF was the highest (97%). The fitting effect of SVR optimized by PSO for gas concentration was better than that of SVR and solved the problem of hyperparameters selection. Full article
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