Special Issue "Advanced synchrotron radiation as a quantum tool for exploring deep life sciences"
A special issue of Quantum Beam Science (ISSN 2412-382X).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019
Dr. Akinari Yokoya
National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Tokai Quantum Beam Science Center, Tokai-Ibaraki, Japan
Interests: Radiation Biophysics; DNA damage and repair; Electron paramagnetic resonance; Microbeam; Live cell imaging
Synchrotron radiation from accelerators has been widely used in various biological fields as a quantum tool with an energy region from UV to X-rays. In addition to numerous protein crystallography studies, which have been performed from early on in the development of the technique, recent advances in low-emittance third-generation storage rings can now provide a high-quality photon beam for experiments revealing the properties of biological materials. The energetically monochromatized photon beam allows particular electronic states of biological molecules to be targeted. In particular, spectroscopic techniques with high-energy resolution have been used to accumulate evidence of the physicochemical processes involved in radiation damage to DNA in order to understand the mechanism of mutation and cancer induction. The use of spatially focused X-ray microbeams can target not only particular cells in organs but also specific organelles in living cells. This could be used as a new method to manipulate cell functions or to observe cellular responses to radiation stress. Combined with a photoelastic modulator, the high-frequency switching of circular polarizations is used in the vacuum UV region. This technique has been used to obtain circular dichroism (CD) measurements over a wide wavelength range from vacuum UV to visible light and could be applied to reveal the secondary structures of non-crystallized biomolecules in solution or under biomimetic conditions. The structural changes caused by epigenetic modification, such as phosphorylation of proteins, are also potential CD targets. Furthermore, the coherence of the X-rays obtained in the third-generation facilities and in X-ray free-electron laser facilities is expected to elucidate inhomogeneous structures and their dynamics in living cells. Preliminary studies are in progress. This Special Issue reports the frontiers of biological research using synchrotron radiation.
Dr. Akinari Yokoya
Manuscript Submission Information
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- synchrotron radiation
- circular dichroism
- coherent X-rays
- DNA, proteins