Special Issue "Veterinary Medicine"

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Arlene McDowell
Website
Guest Editor
New Zealand's National School of Pharmacy®, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
Interests: biopharmaceutics; veterinary medicine and antioxidant phytochemicals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Drug delivery to animals for prevention and treatment of disease, fertility modulation, as well as pest control, is a fascinating field of research that benefits from an inter-disciplinary approach. The aim in compiling this Special Issue of Pharmaceutics on the topic of “Veterinary Medicine” is to draw together experts with knowledge of animal species from diverse fields including physiology, pharmacology and pharmaceutical science and zoology, who are engaged in contemporary research to solve the challenges of drug delivery to animals. A prerequisite for the development of dosage forms for animals is to characterize relevant aspects of the ecology and physiology of the target species in question. Often novel approaches are required to meet the unique needs of the animal population. Submissions (original papers and reviews) that contribute to understanding and applications of relevance for delivery of therapeutics to animals and animal health are welcomed for this Special Issue.

Dr Arlene McDowell
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmaceutics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • veterinary drug delivery
  • animal health
  • interspecies differences
  • pharmacokinetics
  • wildlife
  • animal pharmacology
  • formulation

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Veterinary Pharmaceutics: An Opportunity for Interprofessional Education in New Zealand?
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9030025 - 26 Jul 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
Globally pharmacists are becoming increasingly involved in veterinary medicine; however, little is known about the level of interest for pharmacists playing a larger role in animal treatment in New Zealand. A key stakeholder in any progression of pharmacists becoming more involved in the [...] Read more.
Globally pharmacists are becoming increasingly involved in veterinary medicine; however, little is known about the level of interest for pharmacists playing a larger role in animal treatment in New Zealand. A key stakeholder in any progression of pharmacists becoming more involved in the practice of veterinary pharmacy is the veterinary profession. The aim of this study was to investigate views of veterinarians and veterinary students on the role of pharmacists supporting veterinarians with advice on animal medicines. Open interviews were conducted with veterinarians in Dunedin, New Zealand. Veterinary students at Massey University completed an online survey. Most veterinarians do not have regular communication with pharmacists regarding animal care, but believe it may be beneficial. In order to support veterinarians, pharmacists would need further education in veterinary medicine. Veterinary students believe there is opportunity for collaboration between professions provided that pharmacists have a better working knowledge of animal treatment. Most of the veterinary students surveyed perceive a gap in their knowledge concerning animal medicines, specifically pharmacology and compounding. While there is support for pharmacists contributing to veterinary medicine, particularly in the area of pharmaceutics, this is currently limited in New Zealand due to a lack of specialized education opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Medicine)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
What Does It “Mean”? A Review of Interpreting and Calculating Different Types of Means and Standard Deviations
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9020014 - 13 Apr 2017
Cited by 12
Abstract
Typically, investigations are conducted with the goal of generating inferences about a population (humans or animal). Since it is not feasible to evaluate the entire population, the study is conducted using a randomly selected subset of that population. With the goal of using [...] Read more.
Typically, investigations are conducted with the goal of generating inferences about a population (humans or animal). Since it is not feasible to evaluate the entire population, the study is conducted using a randomly selected subset of that population. With the goal of using the results generated from that sample to provide inferences about the true population, it is important to consider the properties of the population distribution and how well they are represented by the sample (the subset of values). Consistent with that study objective, it is necessary to identify and use the most appropriate set of summary statistics to describe the study results. Inherent in that choice is the need to identify the specific question being asked and the assumptions associated with the data analysis. The estimate of a “mean” value is an example of a summary statistic that is sometimes reported without adequate consideration as to its implications or the underlying assumptions associated with the data being evaluated. When ignoring these critical considerations, the method of calculating the variance may be inconsistent with the type of mean being reported. Furthermore, there can be confusion about why a single set of values may be represented by summary statistics that differ across published reports. In an effort to remedy some of this confusion, this manuscript describes the basis for selecting among various ways of representing the mean of a sample, their corresponding methods of calculation, and the appropriate methods for estimating their standard deviations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
Polypharmacy in Zoological Medicine
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9010010 - 22 Feb 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Polypharmacy is a term that describes the inappropriate, concurrent use of multiple drugs in an individual patient. Zoological medicine practitioners must take approved agents (veterinary or human) and extrapolate their use to non-approved species often with little species-specific pharmacological evidence to support their [...] Read more.
Polypharmacy is a term that describes the inappropriate, concurrent use of multiple drugs in an individual patient. Zoological medicine practitioners must take approved agents (veterinary or human) and extrapolate their use to non-approved species often with little species-specific pharmacological evidence to support their decisions. When considering polypharmacy, even less information exists concerning multi-drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, or potential drug-drug interactions in non-domestic species. Unfortunately, captive, zoological species are susceptible, just like their domestic counterparts, to chronic diseases and co-morbidities that may lead to the usage of multiple drugs. Polypharmacy is a recognized and important issue in human medicine, as well as an emerging issue for veterinarians; thus, this paper will discuss the novel, potential risks of polypharmacy in zoological medicine. Hopefully, this discussion will help bring the attention of veterinarians to this issue and serve as an interesting discussion topic for pharmacologists in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Medicine)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9010005 - 10 Jan 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. [...] Read more.
The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to drug residues. As beneficial as compounded medical therapies may be to animal patients, these therapies are not without risks, and serious adverse events may occur from poor quality compounds or excipients that are uniquely toxic when administered to a given species. Other challenges in extemporaneous compounding for animals include significant regulatory variation across the global veterinary community, a relative lack of validated compounding formulas for use in animals, and poor adherence by compounders to established compounding standards. The information presented in this article is intended to provide an overview of the current landscape of compounding for animals; a discussion on associated benefits, risks, and challenges; and resources to aid compounders in preparing animal compounds of the highest possible quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Medicine)
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