Recent Advances in Drug Based Nanosystems for Cancer Therapy

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2021) | Viewed by 12971

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Guest Editor
Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Seville, 41012 Seville, Spain
Interests: drug delivery; drug carriers; nanomedicine; nanoparticles; gemini surfactants; biopolymers
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Significant progress has been made in nanoscale drugs based on nanosystems employing diverse chemical formulations to facilitate the drug delivery and to improve its adsorption and therapeutic effect. Biocompatible nanomaterials have been used as pharmaceuticals, drug delivery systems, as well as in the treatment of various types of diseases. Nanotechnology especially has a significant impact in cancer research due to the possibility of controlled manipulation of material at the nanometer length scale, facile functionalization with different drugs, improved solubility, permeability, and targetability. Given the high toxicity of free anticancer drugs, it is relevant to search for nanocarriers that decrease the side effects of the drug and are able to transport it toward a therapeutic target. Furthermore, nanosystems for cancer applications allow manipulation of biopharmaceutical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic drug properties. However, the rational design of new drug-based nanosystems requires the control and optimization of the physicochemical properties of the nanosystems, such as its particle size and charge, stability, and aggregation state of the system. Such optimization will lead to a more in-depth understanding of the structure‒effectivity relationship in the design of new drug-based nanoparticle materials for cancer treatment. This Special Issue serves to highlight new avenues of research and recent progress in the use of nanosystems as vehicles for the delivery of anticancer drugs and the effective control of its physicochemical properties for improving effectiveness.

Dr. Elia M. Grueso
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • cancer
  • nanosystems
  • nanomedicine
  • drug delivery
  • drug carriers
  • physicochemical properties
  • biopolymers

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 2157 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Cytotoxic Effect of TAT–PLGA-Embedded DOXO Carried by Biomimetic Magnetic Nanoparticles upon Combination with Magnetic Hyperthermia and Photothermia
by Ylenia Jabalera, Alberto Sola-Leyva, Salvatore Calogero Gaglio, María P. Carrasco-Jiménez, Guillermo R. Iglesias, Massimiliano Perduca and Concepcion Jimenez-Lopez
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(8), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13081168 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2833
Abstract
The synergy between directed chemotherapy and thermal therapy (both magnetic hyperthermia and photothermia) mediated by a nanoassembly composed of functionalized biomimetic magnetic nanoparticles (BMNPs) with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOXO) covered by the polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), decorated with TAT peptide [...] Read more.
The synergy between directed chemotherapy and thermal therapy (both magnetic hyperthermia and photothermia) mediated by a nanoassembly composed of functionalized biomimetic magnetic nanoparticles (BMNPs) with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOXO) covered by the polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), decorated with TAT peptide (here referred to as TAT–PLGA(DOXO-BMNPs)) is explored in the present study. The rationale behind this nanoassembly lies in an optimization of the nanoformulation DOXO-BMNPs, already demonstrated to be more efficient against tumor cells, both in vitro and in vivo, than systemic traditional therapies. By embedding DOXO-BMNPs into PLGA, which is further functionalized with the cell-penetrating TAT peptide, the resulting nanoassembly is able to mediate drug transport (using DOXO as a drug model) and behaves as a hyperthermic agent (induced by an alternating magnetic field (AMF) or by laser irradiation with a laser power density of 2 W/cm2). Our results obtained using the HepG2 cell line show that there is a synergy between chemotherapy and thermal therapy that results in a stronger cytotoxic effect when compared to that caused by the soluble DOXO. This is probably due to the enhanced DOXO release occurring upon the application of the thermal therapy, as well as the induced local temperature rise mediated by BMNPs in the nanoassembly following exposition to AMF or to near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. These results represent a proof of concept demonstrating that TAT–PLGA(DOXO-BMNPs) can be used to efficiently combine therapies against tumor cells, which is a step forward in the transition from systemic to local treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Drug Based Nanosystems for Cancer Therapy)
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12 pages, 3568 KiB  
Article
Anticancer Potential of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles: A Mechanistic Study
by Mohd Shahnawaz Khan, Alya Alomari, Shams Tabrez, Iftekhar Hassan, Rizwan Wahab, Sheraz Ahmad Bhat, Nouf Omar Alafaleq, Nojood Altwaijry, Gouse M. Shaik, Syed Kashif Zaidi, Wessam Nouh, Majed S. Alokail and Mohamed A. Ismael
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(5), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13050707 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 3714
Abstract
The continuous loss of human life due to the paucity of effective drugs against different forms of cancer demands a better/noble therapeutic approach. One possible way could be the use of nanostructures-based treatment methods. In the current piece of work, we have synthesized [...] Read more.
The continuous loss of human life due to the paucity of effective drugs against different forms of cancer demands a better/noble therapeutic approach. One possible way could be the use of nanostructures-based treatment methods. In the current piece of work, we have synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using plant (Heliotropiumbacciferum) extract using AgNO3 as starting materials. The size, shape, and structure of synthesized AgNPs were confirmed by various spectroscopy and microscopic techniques. The average size of biosynthesized AgNPs was found to be in the range of 15 nm. The anticancer potential of these AgNPs was evaluated by a battery of tests such as MTT, scratch, and comet assays in breast (MCF-7) and colorectal (HCT-116) cancer models. The toxicity of AgNPs towards cancer cells was confirmed by the expression pattern of apoptotic (p53, Bax, caspase-3) and antiapoptotic (BCl-2) genes by RT-PCR. The cell viability assay showed an IC50 value of 5.44 and 9.54 µg/mL for AgNPs in MCF-7 and HCT-116 cell lines respectively. We also observed cell migration inhibiting potential of AgNPs in a concentration-dependent manner in MCF-7 cell lines. A tremendous rise (150–250%) in the production of ROS was observed as a result of AgNPs treatment compared with control. Moreover, the RT-PCR results indicated the difference in expression levels of pro/antiapoptotic proteins in both cancer cells. All these results indicate that cell death observed by us is mediated by ROS production, which might have altered the cellular redox status. Collectively, we report the antimetastasis potential of biogenic synthesized AgNPs against breast and colorectal cancers. The biogenic synthesis of AgNPs seems to be a promising anticancer therapy with greater efficacy against the studied cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Drug Based Nanosystems for Cancer Therapy)
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27 pages, 9609 KiB  
Article
Biocompatible DNA/5-Fluorouracil-Gemini Surfactant-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles as Promising Vectors in Lung Cancer Therapy
by Rosa M. Giráldez-Pérez, Elia Grueso, Inmaculada Domínguez, Nuria Pastor, Edyta Kuliszewska, Rafael Prado-Gotor and Francisco Requena-Domenech
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(3), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13030423 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2605
Abstract
The design and preparation of novel nanocarriers to transport cancer drugs for chemotherapy purposes is an important line of research in the medical field. A new 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) transporter was designed based on the use of two new biocompatible gold nanosystems: (i) a [...] Read more.
The design and preparation of novel nanocarriers to transport cancer drugs for chemotherapy purposes is an important line of research in the medical field. A new 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) transporter was designed based on the use of two new biocompatible gold nanosystems: (i) a gold nanoparticle precursor, Au@16-Ph-16, stabilized with the positively charged gemini surfactant 16-Ph-16, and (ii) the compacted nanocomplexes formed by the precursor and DNA/5-Fu complexes, Au@16-Ph-16/DNA–5-Fu. The physicochemical properties of the obtained nanosystems were studied by using UV–visible spectroscopy, TEM, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential techniques. Method tuning also requires the use of circular dichroism, atomic force microscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques for the prior selection of the optimal relative Au@16-Ph-16 and DNA concentrations (R = CAu@16-Ph-16/CDNA), biopolymer compaction/decompaction, and 5-Fu release from the DNA/5-Fu complex. TEM experiments revealed the effective internalization of the both precursor and Au@16-Ph-16/DNA–5-Fu-compacted nanosystems into the cells. Moreover, cytotoxicity assays and internalization experiments using TEM and confocal microscopy showed that the new strategy for 5-Fu administration enhanced efficacy, biocompatibility and selectivity against lung cancer cells. The differential uptake among different formulations is discussed in terms of the physicochemical properties of the nanosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Drug Based Nanosystems for Cancer Therapy)
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Review

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28 pages, 4391 KiB  
Review
Nanovectorization of Prostate Cancer Treatment Strategies: A New Approach to Improved Outcomes
by Kenneth Omabe, Clément Paris, François Lannes, David Taïeb and Palma Rocchi
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(5), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13050591 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2976
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most frequent male cancer in the Western world. Progression to Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) is a known consequence of androgen withdrawal therapy, making CRPC an end-stage disease. Combination of cytotoxic drugs and hormonal therapy/or genotherapy is a [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most frequent male cancer in the Western world. Progression to Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) is a known consequence of androgen withdrawal therapy, making CRPC an end-stage disease. Combination of cytotoxic drugs and hormonal therapy/or genotherapy is a recognized modality for the treatment of advanced PC. However, this strategy is limited by poor bio-accessibility of the chemotherapy to tumor sites, resulting in an increased rate of collateral toxicity and incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR). Nanovectorization of these strategies has evolved to an effective approach to efficacious therapeutic outcomes. It offers the possibility to consolidate their antitumor activity through enhanced specific and less toxic active or passive targeting mechanisms, as well as enabling diagnostic imaging through theranostics. While studies on nanomedicine are common in other cancer types, only a few have focused on prostate cancer. This review provides an in-depth knowledge of the principles of nanotherapeutics and nanotheranostics, and how the application of this rapidly evolving technology can clinically impact CRPC treatment. With particular reference to respective nanovectors, we draw clinical and preclinical evidence, demonstrating the potentials and prospects of homing nanovectorization into CRPC treatment strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Drug Based Nanosystems for Cancer Therapy)
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