Topical Collection "Advanced Research on Avian Influenza Virus (AIV)"

A topical collection in Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This collection belongs to the section "Viral Pathogens".

Editors

Dr. Haruko Ogawa
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, 2-11 Inada, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan
Interests: avian influenza virus; viral infection and immune response; control of infectious diseases ;immune tolerance in transplantation
Dr. Yohei Takeda
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Research Center for Global Agromedicine & Department of Veterinary Medicine, Diagnostic Center for Animal Health and Food Safety, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, 2-11 Inada, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan
Interests: immune response; antiviral therapy; vaccine; pathogenicity

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The sudden emergence of the Asian-lineage H5N1 subtype of highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) in 2003 and H7N9 subtype of low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) in 2013, both of which cause fatal diseases not only in birds but also in humans, has greatly impacted the world. Near-global spread of the H5N1 HPAIV has caused tremendous problems with public health and poultry production. Continuous co-circulation of the various subtypes of AIVs, including HPAIV and LPAIV, in poultry and wild birds can result in genetic reassortments, generating novel viruses. Indeed, in recent years, the Asian-lineage H5 subtype HPAIVs carrying various NA subtypes, namely H5N2, H5N6, H5N8 and other HPAIVs, have been causing outbreaks in many countries in the Asian, European, Middle East, and African regions. Further, genetic changes in the H7N9 LPAIV have generated the H7N9 HPAIV, further threatening poultry and humans. It should be quite important to continuously monitor the evolution of AIV, and also to gain further knowledge on the pathogenicity of AIV.

This Topical Collection aims to solicit primary research articles, reviews, editorials, and commentaries on contemporary and hot topics, and to attract new research articles that address actual pathogens of poultry and wild birds.

Prof. Haruko Ogawa
Dr. Yohei Takeda
Collection Editors

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Keywords

  • avian influenza virus (AIV)
  • highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV)
  • low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV)
  • evolution
  • pathogenicity
  • public health
  • animal hygiene

Published Papers (6 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

Article
Wild Bird Densities and Landscape Variables Predict Spatial Patterns in HPAI Outbreak Risk across The Netherlands
Pathogens 2022, 11(5), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11050549 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 840
Abstract
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses’ (HPAIVs) transmission from wild birds to poultry occurs globally, threatening animal and public health. To predict the HPAI outbreak risk in relation to wild bird densities and land cover variables, we performed a case-control study of 26 HPAI [...] Read more.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses’ (HPAIVs) transmission from wild birds to poultry occurs globally, threatening animal and public health. To predict the HPAI outbreak risk in relation to wild bird densities and land cover variables, we performed a case-control study of 26 HPAI outbreaks (cases) on Dutch poultry farms, each matched with four comparable controls. We trained machine learning classifiers to predict outbreak risk with predictors analyzed at different spatial scales. Of the 20 best explaining predictors, 17 consisted of densities of water-associated bird species, 2 of birds of prey, and 1 represented the surrounding landscape, i.e., agricultural cover. The spatial distribution of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) contributed most to risk prediction, followed by mute swan (Cygnus olor), common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and brant goose (Branta bernicla). The model successfully distinguished cases from controls, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.92, indicating accurate prediction of HPAI outbreak risk despite the limited numbers of cases. Different classification algorithms led to similar predictions, demonstrating robustness of the risk maps. These analyses and risk maps facilitate insights into the role of wild bird species and support prioritization of areas for surveillance, biosecurity measures and establishments of new poultry farms to reduce HPAI outbreak risks. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022

Article
Structural Requirements in the Hemagglutinin Cleavage Site-Coding RNA Region for the Generation of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus
Pathogens 2021, 10(12), 1597; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10121597 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) with H5 and H7 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes are derived from their low pathogenic counterparts following the acquisition of multiple basic amino acids in their HA cleavage site. It has been suggested that consecutive adenine residues and a [...] Read more.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) with H5 and H7 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes are derived from their low pathogenic counterparts following the acquisition of multiple basic amino acids in their HA cleavage site. It has been suggested that consecutive adenine residues and a stem-loop structure in the viral RNA region that encodes the cleavage site are essential for the acquisition of the polybasic cleavage site. By using a reporter assay to detect non-templated nucleotide insertions, we found that insertions more frequently occurred in the RNA region (29 nucleotide-length) encoding the cleavage site of an H5 HA gene that was predicted to have a stem-loop structure containing consecutive adenines than in a mutated corresponding RNA region that had a disrupted loop structure with fewer adenines. In virus particles generated by using reverse genetics, nucleotide insertions that created additional codons for basic amino acids were found in the RNA region encoding the cleavage site of an H5 HA gene but not in the mutated RNA region. We confirmed the presence of virus clones with the ability to replicate without trypsin in a plaque assay and to cause lethal infection in chicks. These results demonstrate that the stem-loop structure containing consecutive adenines in HA genes is a key molecular determinant for the emergence of H5 HPAIVs. Full article
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Article
Mortality Levels and Production Indicators for Suspicion of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Commercially Farmed Ducks
Pathogens 2021, 10(11), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10111498 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
(1) Background: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a viral infection characterized by inducing severe disease and high levels of mortality in gallinaceous poultry. Increased mortality, drop in egg production or decreased feed or water intake are used as indicators for notification of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a viral infection characterized by inducing severe disease and high levels of mortality in gallinaceous poultry. Increased mortality, drop in egg production or decreased feed or water intake are used as indicators for notification of suspicions of HPAI outbreaks. However, infections in commercial duck flocks may result in mild disease with low mortality levels, thereby compromising notifications. (2) Methods: Data on daily mortality, egg production, feed intake and water intake from broiler and breeder duck flocks not infected (n = 56 and n = 11, respectively) and infected with HPAIV (n = 13, n = 4) were used for analyses. Data from negative flocks were used to assess the baseline (daily) levels of mortality and production parameters and to identify potential threshold values for triggering suspicions of HPAI infections and assess the specificity (Sp) of these thresholds. Data from infected flocks were used to assess the effect of infection on daily mortality and production and to evaluate the sensitivity (Se) of the thresholds for early detection of outbreaks. (3) Results: For broiler flocks, daily mortality > 0.3% (after the first week of production) or using a regression model for aberration detection would indicate infection with Se and Sp higher than 80%. Drops in mean daily feed or water intake larger than 7 g or 14 mL (after the first week of production), respectively, are sensitive indicators of infection but have poor Sp. For breeders, mortality thresholds are poor indicators of infection (low Se and Sp). However, a consecutive drop in egg production larger than 9% is an effective indicator of a HPAI outbreak. For both broiler and breeder duck flocks, cumulative average methods were also assessed, which had high Se but generated many false alarms (poor Sp). (4) Conclusions: The identified reporting thresholds can be used to update legislation and provide guidelines to farmers and veterinarians to notify suspicions of HPAI outbreaks in commercial duck flocks. Full article
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Article
Next-Generation Computationally Designed Influenza Hemagglutinin Vaccines Protect against H5Nx Virus Infections
Pathogens 2021, 10(11), 1352; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10111352 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
H5N1 COBRA hemagglutinin (HA) sequences, termed human COBRA-2 HA, were constructed through layering of HA sequences from viruses isolated from humans collected between 2004–2007 using only clade 2 strains. These COBRA HA proteins, when expressed on the surface of virus-like particles (VLP), elicited [...] Read more.
H5N1 COBRA hemagglutinin (HA) sequences, termed human COBRA-2 HA, were constructed through layering of HA sequences from viruses isolated from humans collected between 2004–2007 using only clade 2 strains. These COBRA HA proteins, when expressed on the surface of virus-like particles (VLP), elicited protective immune responses in mice, ferrets, and non-human primates. However, these vaccines were not as effective at inducing neutralizing antibodies against newly circulating viruses. Therefore, COBRA HA-based vaccines were updated in order to elicit protective antibodies against the current circulating clades of H5Nx viruses. Next-generation COBRA HA vaccines were designed to encompass the newly emerging viruses circulating in wild avian populations. HA amino acid sequences from avian and human H5 influenza viruses isolated between 2011–2017 were downloaded from the GISAID (Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data). Mice were vaccinated with H5 COBRA rHA that elicited antibodies with hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) activity against H5Nx viruses from five clades. The H5 COBRA rHA vaccine, termed IAN8, elicited protective immune responses against mice challenged with A/Sichuan/26621/2014 and A/Vietnam/1203/2004. This vaccine elicited antibodies with HAI activity against viruses from clades 2.2, 2.3.2.1, 2.3.4.2, 2.2.1 and 2.2.2. Lungs from vaccinated mice had decreased viral titers and the levels of cellular infiltration in mice vaccinated with IAN-8 rHA were similar to mice vaccinated with wild-type HA comparator vaccines or mock vaccinated controls. Overall, these next-generation H5 COBRA HA vaccines elicited protective antibodies against both historical H5Nx influenza viruses, as well as currently circulating clades of H5N1, H5N6, and H5N8 influenza viruses. Full article
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Review
Avian Influenza in Wild Birds and Poultry: Dissemination Pathways, Monitoring Methods, and Virus Ecology
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050630 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2735
Abstract
Avian influenza is one of the largest known threats to domestic poultry. Influenza outbreaks on poultry farms typically lead to the complete slaughter of the entire domestic bird population, causing severe economic losses worldwide. Moreover, there are highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strains [...] Read more.
Avian influenza is one of the largest known threats to domestic poultry. Influenza outbreaks on poultry farms typically lead to the complete slaughter of the entire domestic bird population, causing severe economic losses worldwide. Moreover, there are highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strains that are able to infect the swine or human population in addition to their primary avian host and, as such, have the potential of being a global zoonotic and pandemic threat. Migratory birds, especially waterfowl, are a natural reservoir of the avian influenza virus; they carry and exchange different virus strains along their migration routes, leading to antigenic drift and antigenic shift, which results in the emergence of novel HPAI viruses. This requires monitoring over time and in different locations to allow for the upkeep of relevant knowledge on avian influenza virus evolution and the prevention of novel epizootic and epidemic outbreaks. In this review, we assess the role of migratory birds in the spread and introduction of influenza strains on a global level, based on recent data. Our analysis sheds light on the details of viral dissemination linked to avian migration, the viral exchange between migratory waterfowl and domestic poultry, virus ecology in general, and viral evolution as a process tightly linked to bird migration. We also provide insight into methods used to detect and quantify avian influenza in the wild. This review may be beneficial for the influenza research community and may pave the way to novel strategies of avian influenza and HPAI zoonosis outbreak monitoring and prevention. Full article
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Review
The Role of Lipid Metabolism in Influenza A Virus Infection
Pathogens 2021, 10(3), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030303 - 05 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important zoonotic pathogen that can cause disease in animals such as poultry and pigs, and it can cause infection and even death in humans, posing a serious threat to public health. IAV is an enveloped virus that [...] Read more.
Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important zoonotic pathogen that can cause disease in animals such as poultry and pigs, and it can cause infection and even death in humans, posing a serious threat to public health. IAV is an enveloped virus that relies on host cell metabolic systems, especially lipid metabolism systems, to complete its life cycle in host cells. On the other side, host cells regulate their metabolic processes to prevent IAV replication and maintain their normal physiological functions. This review summarizes the roles of fatty acid, cholesterol, phospholipid and glycolipid metabolism in IAV infection, proposes future research challenges, and looks forward to the prospective application of lipid metabolism modification to limit IAV infection, which will provide new directions for the development of anti-influenza drugs. Full article
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