Special Issue "Host-Microbe Interaction in Atopic Diseases"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Immunological Responses and Immune Defense Mechanisms".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 2874

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ya-Jen Chang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan
Interests: asthma; innate immunity; mucosal immunology
Dr. Christina Li-Ping Thio
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan
Interests: immunology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Atopic diseases, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis, are severe multifactorial disorders characterized by distinct clinical and pathological features. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of exposure to pathogens in influencing host susceptibility to these diseases. While many studies have demonstrated the association between viral or bacterial infection and disease exacerbation, early childhood exposure to certain microbes can confer protection (hygiene hypothesis), particularly in the context of allergic asthma. A key factor that mediates these outcomes is the interaction between microbial products and the host immune system. However, many gaps in our knowledge remain to be filled before we can obtain a comprehensive understanding of how microbes shape the immune responses to a tolerant or inflammatory state. In this Special Issue, we aim to advance communication between microbiologists and immunologists and, as a result, knowledge at the interface of interactions between microbes and the host immune system. This Special Issue will focus on the impact of pathogens on the development of atopic diseases, particularly of the lungs and skin. Both original research and review articles are welcomed. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

- Molecular mechanisms of asthma and airway hyperreactivity caused by respiratory infection;

- Role of microbiota in skin immunity and atopic dermatitis;

- Immunological mechanisms causing secondary infections in atopic dermatitis;

- Molecular interactions between microbial products and host immune responses;

- Innate responses to infections including cytokine and cellular responses and functions;

- Links between innate responses and downstream adaptive responses;

- Molecular signaling from sensors or receptors for microbial products or infection-induced changes, and from cytokines induced during infections.

Dr. Ya-Jen Chang
Dr. Christina Li-Ping Thio
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • respiratory pathogen
  • viruses
  • microbial infection
  • asthma
  • atopic dermatitis
  • lung function
  • airway hyperreactivity
  • immune responses

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

Review
Manipulating Microbiota to Treat Atopic Dermatitis: Functions and Therapies
Pathogens 2022, 11(6), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11060642 - 02 Jun 2022
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Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a globally prevalent skin inflammation with a particular impact on children. Current therapies for AD are challenged by the limited armamentarium and the high heterogeneity of the disease. A novel promising therapeutic target for AD is the microbiota. Numerous [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a globally prevalent skin inflammation with a particular impact on children. Current therapies for AD are challenged by the limited armamentarium and the high heterogeneity of the disease. A novel promising therapeutic target for AD is the microbiota. Numerous studies have highlighted the involvement of the skin and gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of AD. The resident microbiota at these two epithelial tissues can modulate skin barrier functions and host immune responses, thus regulating AD progression. For example, the pathogenic roles of Staphylococcus aureus in the skin are well-established, making this bacterium an attractive target for AD treatment. Targeting the gut microbiota is another therapeutic strategy for AD. Multiple oral supplements with prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics, and synbiotics have demonstrated promising efficacy in both AD prevention and treatment. In this review, we summarize the association of microbiota dysbiosis in both the skin and gut with AD, and the current knowledge of the functions of commensal microbiota in AD pathogenesis. Furthermore, we discuss the existing therapies in manipulating both the skin and gut commensal microbiota to prevent or treat AD. We also propose potential novel therapies based on the cutting-edge progress in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Microbe Interaction in Atopic Diseases)
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Review
Immunomodulatory Role of Staphylococcus aureus in Atopic Dermatitis
Pathogens 2022, 11(4), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11040422 - 30 Mar 2022
Viewed by 838
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium commonly found on humans, and it constitutes the skin microbiota. Presence of S. aureus in healthy individuals usually does not pose any threat, as the human body is equipped with many mechanisms to prevent pathogen invasion and [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium commonly found on humans, and it constitutes the skin microbiota. Presence of S. aureus in healthy individuals usually does not pose any threat, as the human body is equipped with many mechanisms to prevent pathogen invasion and infection. However, colonization of S. aureus has been correlated with many healthcare-associated infections, and has been found in people with atopic diseases. In atopic dermatitis, constant fluctuations due to inflammation of the epidermal and mucosal barriers can cause structural changes and allow foreign antigens and pathogens to bypass the first line of defense of the innate system. As they persist, S. aureus can secrete various virulence factors to enhance their survival by host invasion and evasion mechanisms. In response, epithelial cells can release damage-associated molecular patterns, or alarmins such as TSLP, IL-25, IL-33, and chemokines, to recruit innate and adaptive immune cells to cause inflammation. Until recently, IL-36 had been found to play an important role in modulating atopic dermatitis. Secretion of IL-36 from keratinocytes can activate a Th2 independent pathway to trigger symptoms of allergic reaction resulting in clinical manifestations. This mini review aims to summarize the immunomodulatory roles of S. aureus virulence factors and how they contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Microbe Interaction in Atopic Diseases)
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Review
Host-Microbe Interaction on the Skin and Its Role in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis
Pathogens 2022, 11(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11010071 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 729
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a condition with a complex and unclear aetiology. Possible causes of AD encompass alterations in the structure and function of the epidermal barrier, disturbances in the skin microbiome, immune factors, allergens, bacterial and fungal infections as well as environmental [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a condition with a complex and unclear aetiology. Possible causes of AD encompass alterations in the structure and function of the epidermal barrier, disturbances in the skin microbiome, immune factors, allergens, bacterial and fungal infections as well as environmental and genetic factors. In patients with AD, acute skin lesions are colonized by a greater number of bacteria and fungi than chronic lesions, clinically unchanged atopic skin and the skin of healthy people. Mechanisms promoting skin colonization by pathogens include complex interplay among several factors. Apart from disturbances of the skin microbiome, increased adhesion in atopic skin, defects of innate immune response resulting in the lack of or restriction of growth of microorganisms also contribute to susceptibility to the skin colonization of and infections, especially with Staphylococcus aureus. This review of the literature attempts to identify factors that are involved in the pathogenesis of AD-related bacterial and fungal skin colonization. Studies on the microbiome, commensal microorganisms and the role of skin microorganisms in maintaining healthy skin bring additional insight into the treatment and prevention of AD. In the light of presented mechanisms, reduction in colonization may become both causative and symptomatic treatment in AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Microbe Interaction in Atopic Diseases)
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