Formation and Evolution of the Continental Crust in North China Craton during Precambrian

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2024) | Viewed by 13027

Special Issue Editors

School of Earth Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China
Interests: early geodynamic regime; geological mapping; petrology; geochronology; geochemistry

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Guest Editor
School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
Interests: metamorphic petrology; Precambrian geology; metamorphic evolution of the orogenic belt

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Guest Editor
Key Lab of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Techniques, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266005, China
Interests: sedimentary geology; provenance analysis; sequence stratigraphy; geochronology; surface process

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The North China Craton (NCC) preserves ancient rocks as old as ca. 3.8 Ga and experienced multi-episodes of magmatic-metamorphic events during the Archean–Proterozoic era, which was a critical period that may have witnessed the transformation of the geodynamic regime on early Earth.  In recent decades, the formation and evolution of the NCC during the Precambrian period has attracted growing interest among the Chinese and international geological communities. Significant progress has been achieved in many aspects, for instance, (1) the discovery of ancient rocks and reconstruction of the continental nucleus; (2) growth and stabilization of continental crust during the Archean era; (3) identification of ancient orogenic belts and their tectonic evolution; (4) the role of the NCC during the amalgamation and breakup of the Paleoproterozoic Nuna/Columbia supercontinent; (5) the dominant geodynamic regimes in the Archean era. Hence, the NCC is an ideal natural laboratory to decipher the growth and evolution of continental crust, onset of plate tectonics, as well as architecture of the Archean geodynamic regime. This Special Issue aims to present contributions and up-to-date progress related to Precambrian geology of the NCC, including but not limited to geochronology, geochemistry, and isotopes of igneous rocks, crust–mantle interaction, crustal growth and reworking events, P–T–t evolution of metamorphic rocks, detrital zircon ages and provenance discrimination of the Archean supracrustal and Proterozoic sedimentary rocks, and structural and kinematic features of crustal deformation.

Dr. Jin Liu
Dr. Jiahui Qian
Dr. Xiaoguang Liu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • North China Craton
  • geochemistry and isotopes
  • metamorphism
  • magmatism
  • sedimentary
  • tectonics

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

30 pages, 15297 KiB  
Article
Geochronology and Geochemistry of Paleoproterozoic Mafic Rocks in Northern Liaoning and Their Geological Significance
by Jingsheng Chen, Yi Tian, Zhonghui Gao, Bin Li, Chen Zhao, Weiwei Li, Chao Zhang and Yan Wang
Minerals 2024, 14(7), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14070717 - 16 Jul 2024
Viewed by 308
Abstract
Petrological, geochronological, and geochemical analyses of mafic rocks in northern Liaoning were conducted to constrain the formation age of the Proterozoic strata, and to further study the source characteristics, genesis, and tectonic setting. The mafic rocks in northern Liaoning primarily consist of basalt, [...] Read more.
Petrological, geochronological, and geochemical analyses of mafic rocks in northern Liaoning were conducted to constrain the formation age of the Proterozoic strata, and to further study the source characteristics, genesis, and tectonic setting. The mafic rocks in northern Liaoning primarily consist of basalt, diabase, gabbro, and amphibolite. Results of zircon U-Pb chronology reveal four stages of mafic magma activities in northern Liaoning: the first stage of basalt (2209 ± 12 Ma), the second stage of diabase (2154 ± 15 Ma), the third stage of gabbro (2063 ± 7 Ma), and the fourth stage of magmatic protolith of amphibolite (2018 ± 13 Ma). Combined with the unconformity overlying Neoproterozoic granite, the formation age of the Proterozoic strata in northern Liaoning was found to be Paleoproterozoic rather than Middle Neoproterozoic by the geochronology of these mafic rocks. A chronological framework of mafic magmatic activities in the eastern segment of the North China Craton (NCC) is proposed. The mafic rocks in northern Liaoning exhibit compositional ranges of 46.39–50.33 wt% for SiO2, 2.95–5.08 wt% for total alkalis (K2O + Na2O), 6.17–7.50 wt% for MgO, and 43.32–52.02 for the Mg number. TiO2 contents lie between 1.61 and 2.39 wt%, and those of MnO between 0.17 and 0.21 wt%. The first basalt and the fourth amphibolite show low total rare earth element contents. Normalized against primitive mantle, they are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Ba, K), depleted in high field strength elements (Th, U, Nb, Ta, Zr, Ti), and exhibit negative anomalies in Sr and P, as well as slight positive anomalies in Zr and Hf. The second diabase and the third gabbro have similar average total rare earth element contents. The diabase shows slight negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.72–0.88), enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (Ba), depletion in Rb, and slight positive anomalies in high field strength elements (Th, U, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Ti), with negative anomalies in K, Sr, and P. The gabbro is enriched in large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Ba, K), depleted in high field strength elements (Th, U, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf), and exhibits positive anomalies in Eu (Eu/Eu* = 1.31–1.37). The contents of Cr, Co, and Ni of these four stages of mafic rocks are higher than those of N-MORB. The characteristics of trace element ratios indicate that the mafic rocks belong to the calc-alkaline series and originate from the transitional mantle. During the process of magma ascent and emplacement, it is contaminated by continental crustal materials. There are residual hornblende and spinel in the magma source of the first basalt. The other three magma sources contain residual garnet and spinel. The third gabbro was formed in an island arc environment, and the other three stages of mafic rocks originated from the Dupal OIB and were formed in an oceanic island environment. The discovery of mafic rocks in northern Liaoning suggests that the Longgang Block underwent oceanic subduction and extinction in both the north and south in the Paleoproterozoic, indicating the possibility of being in two different tectonic domains. Full article
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23 pages, 10885 KiB  
Article
Timing and Tectonic Implications of the Development of the Orosirian Qianlishan Ductile Shear Zones in the Khondalite Belt, North China Craton
by Hengzhong Qiao, Miao Liu and Chencheng Dai
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060561 - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Orogen-parallel ductile shear zones are conspicuous structures in the Khondalite Belt, but the timing of shearing remains poorly understood. Here, we present field-based structural and zircon U-Pb geochronological studies on the newly discovered Qianlishan ductile shear zones (QDSZ) in the Khondalite Belt. Our [...] Read more.
Orogen-parallel ductile shear zones are conspicuous structures in the Khondalite Belt, but the timing of shearing remains poorly understood. Here, we present field-based structural and zircon U-Pb geochronological studies on the newly discovered Qianlishan ductile shear zones (QDSZ) in the Khondalite Belt. Our results show that the nearly E-W-trending QDSZ are characterized by steeply S(SW)-dipping mylonitic foliations and mainly display a top-to-N(NE) sense of shearing. Two pre-kinematic intrusions yielded zircon crystallization ages of 2055 ± 17 Ma and 1947 ± 9 Ma, providing the maximum age limit for the QDSZ. Additionally, zircon overgrowth rims from three high-temperature mylonites gave metamorphic ages of 1902 ± 8 Ma, 1902 ± 26 Ma and 1884 ± 12 Ma, interpreted to record the timing of development of the QDSZ. Integrated with previous studies, we propose that the Qianlishan Complex suffered three phases of Orosirian deformation (D1–D3), of which the D3 deformation led to the development of the QDSZ. Deformation events D1, D2 and D3 are considered to have occurred at ca. 1.97–1.93 Ga, 1.93–1.90 Ga and 1.90–1.82 Ga, respectively. These events document that the Khondalite Belt underwent a protracted (>100 Myr) orogenic history in response to the collision between the Yinshan and Ordos blocks. Full article
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22 pages, 18898 KiB  
Article
Metamorphic Ages and PT Conditions of Amphibolites in the Diebusige and Bayanwulashan Complexes of the Alxa Block, North China Craton
by Feng Zhou, Longlong Gou, Xiaofei Xu and Zhibo Tian
Minerals 2023, 13(11), 1426; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13111426 - 9 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
The metamorphism and geological significance of amphibolites in the Diebusige and Bayanwulashan Complexes of the eastern Alxa Block, North China Craton, were poorly understood until now. This study presents the results of petrology, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) zircon U–Pb [...] Read more.
The metamorphism and geological significance of amphibolites in the Diebusige and Bayanwulashan Complexes of the eastern Alxa Block, North China Craton, were poorly understood until now. This study presents the results of petrology, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) zircon U–Pb analysis, phase equilibrium modeling and geothermobarometry for these rocks. The peak mineral assemblage of clinopyroxene + hornblende + plagioclase + K-feldspar + ilmenite + quartz + melt is inferred for amphibolite sample ALS2164 in the Diebusige Complex. Correspondingly, the peak mineral assemblage of clinopyroxene + hornblende + plagioclase ± K-feldspar + ilmenite + quartz + melt is identified for amphibolite sample ALS2191 in the Bayanwulshan Complex. Phase equilibrium modelling constrained the peak metamorphic condition of amphibolite sample ALS2164 in the Diebusige Complex to be 825–910 °C/7.2–10.8 kbar, which is similar to that (800–870 °C/7.0–10.7 kbar) of amphibolite sample ALS2191 in the Bayanwulashan Complex. Hbl–pl–qz thermobarometry yielded the metamorphic PT conditions of 732–810 °C/3.0–6.7 kbar for these amphibolites, which are consistent with the average temperatures of 763 °C, 768 °C and 780 °C calculated by Ti-zircon thermometry. As a result, phase equilibrium modelling yielded wide PT condition ranges of 800–910 °C/7.0–10.8 kbar, the lower limit of which is consistent with the upper limit of estimates by the hbl–pl–qz thermobarometer. In addition, LA-ICP-MS U–Pb analysis on metamorphic zircons yielded weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1901 ± 22–1817 ± 21 Ma, which represent the timing of amphibolite-facies metamorphism. As a whole, the PT estimates display a high geothermal gradient, which is consistent with coeval ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism and associated mantle-derived mafic-ultramafic rocks in the Diebusige Complex. Combing this information with the previously published data from the Diebusige Complex, an extensional setting after continental collision is inferred for the eastern Alxa Block during the late Paleoproterozoic. The HREE enrichment patterns of metamorphic zircons from the amphibolites in this study are in agreement with that these amphibolites formed at relatively shallower crust than the garnet-bearing mafic granulites in the Diebusige Complex. Full article
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18 pages, 15382 KiB  
Article
Geochronological Constraints on the Origin of the Paleoproterozoic Qianlishan Gneiss Domes in the Khondalite Belt of the North China Craton and Their Tectonic implications
by Hengzhong Qiao, Peipei Deng and Jiawei Li
Minerals 2023, 13(11), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13111361 - 25 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 844
Abstract
The Paleoproterozoic gneiss domes are important structures of the Khondalite Belt in the northwestern North China Craton. However, less attention has been paid to their formation and evolution, and it thus hampers a better understanding of the deformation history of the Khondalite Belt. [...] Read more.
The Paleoproterozoic gneiss domes are important structures of the Khondalite Belt in the northwestern North China Craton. However, less attention has been paid to their formation and evolution, and it thus hampers a better understanding of the deformation history of the Khondalite Belt. In this paper, we conducted structural and geochronological studies on the Qianlishan gneiss domes of the Khondalite Belt. The field observations and zircon U–Pb dating results show that the Qianlishan gneiss domes consist of 2.06–2.01 Ga granitoid plutons in the core, rimmed by granulite facies metasedimentary rocks (khondalites) of the Qianlishan Group. Both of them were subjected to two major phases of deformation (D1–D2) in the late Paleoproterozoic. Of these, D1 deformation mainly generated overturned to recumbent isoclinal folds F1 and penetrative transposed foliations/gneissosities S1 at ~1.95 Ga. Subsequently, D2 deformation produced the NW(W)–SE(E)-trending doubly plunging upright folds F2 at 1.93–1.90 Ga, and they have strongly re-oriented S1 gneissosities, giving rise to the Qianlishan gneiss domes. Combined with previous studies, we argue that the Qianlishan gneiss domes were the products of the Paleoproterozoic collisional orogenesis between the Yinshan and Ordos Blocks. Additionally, the development of doubly plunging antiforms is considered an important dome-forming mechanism in the Khondalite Belt. Full article
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14 pages, 5319 KiB  
Article
Tracing the Early Crustal Evolution of the North China Craton: New Constraints from the Geochronology and Hf Isotopes of Fuchsite Quartzite in the Lulong Area, Eastern Hebei Province
by Chen Zhao, Jian Zhang, Xiao Wang, Chao Zhang, Guokai Chen, Shuhui Zhang and Minjie Guo
Minerals 2023, 13(9), 1174; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13091174 - 7 Sep 2023
Viewed by 976
Abstract
Understanding the composition, formation and evolution of the oldest continental crust is crucial for comprehending the mechanism and timing of crustal growth and differentiation on early Earth. However, the preservation of the ancient continental crust is limited due to extensive reworking by later [...] Read more.
Understanding the composition, formation and evolution of the oldest continental crust is crucial for comprehending the mechanism and timing of crustal growth and differentiation on early Earth. However, the preservation of the ancient continental crust is limited due to extensive reworking by later tectonothermal events. In the Lulong area of eastern Hebei, abundant ca. 3.8–3.4 Ga detrital zircons of the fuchsite quartzite have been previously identified. Nonetheless, the provenance and Hf isotopic compositions of the fuchsite quartzite remain unclear. In this study, we present new detrital zircon ages and Hf isotopic for the fuchsite quartzite in the Lulong area to establish the timing of deposition, the provenance and the regional stratigraphic relationship. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the fuchsite quartzite was deposited between 3.3–3.1 Ga and most grains were sourced from the 3.8 Ga TTG gneisses and Paleoarchean magmas. Field investigations and regional correlations reveal that the fuchsite quartzite from the Lulong area is equivalent to that of the Caozhuang area. Zircon Hf isotopic data from eastern Hebei Province (Lulong and Caozhuang areas) and Anshan and Xinyang areas indicate that the oldest crustal growth event of North China Craton occurred in the Hadean. Full article
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21 pages, 4860 KiB  
Article
Petrogenesis of the Early Paleoproterozoic Felsic Metavolcanic Rocks from the Liaodong Peninsula, NE China: Implications for the Tectonic Evolution of the Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt, North China Craton
by Changquan Cheng, Jin Liu, Jian Zhang, Hongxiang Zhang, Ying Chen, Xiao Wang, Zhongshui Li and Hongchao Yu
Minerals 2023, 13(9), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13091168 - 3 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1328
Abstract
The early Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.2–2.1 Ga) tectonic evolution of the Jiao–Liao–Ji belt (JLJB) is a continuous hot topic and remains highly controversial. Two main tectonic regimes have been proposed for the JLJB, namely arc-related setting and intra-continental rift. Abundant ca. 2.2–2.1 Ga volcanic [...] Read more.
The early Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.2–2.1 Ga) tectonic evolution of the Jiao–Liao–Ji belt (JLJB) is a continuous hot topic and remains highly controversial. Two main tectonic regimes have been proposed for the JLJB, namely arc-related setting and intra-continental rift. Abundant ca. 2.2–2.1 Ga volcanic rocks were formed in the JLJB, especially in the Liaodong Peninsula. These ca. 2.2–2.1 Ga volcanic rocks therefore could host critical information for the evolution of the JLJB. In this study, we report a suit of ca. 2.2–2.1 Ga felsic metavolcanic rocks in the Liaodong Peninsula of the JLJB to provide new insights into the above issue. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals that the felsic metavolcanic rocks were erupted at 2185–2167 Ma. They have variable εHf(t) values (−0.70 to +9.69), high SiO2 (66.30–75.30 wt.%) and relatively low TiO2 (0.03–0.78 wt.%), tFe2O3 (0.55–5.03 wt.%), MgO (0.17–8.76 wt.%), Cr (9.16–67.30 ppm), Co (2.01–7.00 ppm) and Ni (3.90–25.70 ppm) contents with enrichments in light rare earth element (REE) and large ion lithophile element (LILE), and depletions in heavy REE and high field strength element (HFSE). Geochemical and isotopic results indicate that the felsic metavolcanic rocks were sourced from partial melting of ancient Archean TTG rocks and juvenile lower crustal materials. Combined with coeval A-type granites, bimodal volcanic rocks and the absence of typical arc magmatism, the most likely tectonic regime at ca. 2.2–2.1 Ga for the JLJB is an intra-continental rift. Full article
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21 pages, 51815 KiB  
Article
The Earliest Clastic Sediments of the Xiong’er Group: Implications for the Early Mesoproterozoic Sediment Source System of the Southern North China Craton
by Yuan Zhang, Guocheng Zhang and Fengyu Sun
Minerals 2023, 13(7), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13070971 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1037
Abstract
The volcanic activity of the Xiong’er Group and its concomitant sedimentation are related to the stretching–breakup of the Columbia supercontinent. The Dagushi Formation overlies the Paleoproterozoic Shuangfang Formation with an angular unconformity. The Dagushi Formation, as the earliest clastic strata of the Xiong’er [...] Read more.
The volcanic activity of the Xiong’er Group and its concomitant sedimentation are related to the stretching–breakup of the Columbia supercontinent. The Dagushi Formation overlies the Paleoproterozoic Shuangfang Formation with an angular unconformity. The Dagushi Formation, as the earliest clastic strata of the Xiong’er Group and the first stable sedimentary cover overlying the Archean crystalline basement in the southern margin of the North China Craton, provides tectonic evolution information that predates Xiong’er volcanic activity. By distinguishing lithologic characteristics and sedimentary structures, we identified that the sedimentary facies of the Dagushi Formation were braided river delta lake facies from bottom to top. The U–Pb ages of the detrital zircons of the Dagushi Formation can be divided into four groups: ~1905–1925, ~2154–2295, ~2529–2536, and ~2713–2720 Ma, indicating the provenance from the North China Craton basement. Based on the geochemical characteristics of the Dagushi Formation, we suggest that the sediments accumulated rapidly near the source, which were principally felsic in nature, and were supplemented by recycled materials. The provenance area pointed to the underlying metamorphic crystalline basement of the North China Craton as the main source area with an active tectonic background. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) values of the Dagushi Formation sandstone samples ranged from 60.8 to 76.7, indicating that the source rocks suffered from slight to moderate chemic chemical weathering. The Index of Composition Variability (ICV) values ranged from 0.8 to 1.3, which indicates the first cyclic sediments. The vertical facies and provenance changes of the Dagushi Formation reflect a continuous crust fracturing process that occurred in the North China Craton. Full article
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17 pages, 4895 KiB  
Article
Geochronology and Geological Implications of Paleoproterozoic Post-Collisional Monzogranitic Dykes in the Ne Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt, North China Craton
by Yan Zhao, Junchao Lyu, Xu Han, Shoufa Lin, Peng Zhang, Xueming Yang and Cong Chen
Minerals 2023, 13(7), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13070928 - 11 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Hardly any previous studies have focused on the granitic dykes which intrude into the Paleoproterozoic Liaohe Group in the Liaodong Peninsula, northeast of the North China Craton. In situ zircon U-Pb dating, Lu-Hf isotopic and geochemical analyses on three representative monzogranite dykes were [...] Read more.
Hardly any previous studies have focused on the granitic dykes which intrude into the Paleoproterozoic Liaohe Group in the Liaodong Peninsula, northeast of the North China Craton. In situ zircon U-Pb dating, Lu-Hf isotopic and geochemical analyses on three representative monzogranite dykes were taken in this study. These dykes have relatively high content of SiO2 (72.20%–74.78%) and K2O (2.83%–6.37%), and have characteristics of high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonite series. Two dyke samples have I-type granite features and have high Sr/Y ratios and positive Eu anomalies, showing an adakitic feature. Another dyke has a high ratio of Ga/Al, but has a low Zr saturation temperature, which differs from the typical A-type granite. Zircon grains from these three dykes have typical magmatic zoning in CL images and yield consistent U-Pb ages of ~1859–1852 Ma, which are interpreted as the crystallization ages of these dykes. Hf isotopic analyses yield mainly negative εHf(t) values and TDM2 ages of 2782–2430 Ma, similar to those of the 2.2–2.1 Ga granitoids and meta-sedimentary rocks (the Liaohe Group), indicating these monzogranitic dykes may have been sourced from melting of Paleoproterozoic granitoids and meta-sedimentary rocks. The monzogranitic dykes were generated under a post-collisional geological setting after the Jiao-Liao-Ji orogeny process. Full article
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24 pages, 22023 KiB  
Article
Detrital Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Ages of the North Liaohe Group from the Lianshanguan Area, NE China: Implications for the Tectonic Evolution of the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt
by Jinhui Gao, Weimin Li, Yongjiang Liu, Yingli Zhao, Tongjun Liu and Quanbo Wen
Minerals 2023, 13(5), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13050708 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
The Liaohe Group, which is a significant lithostratigraphic unit within the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt situated between the Longgang and Liaonan-Nangrim blocks, comprises the Langzishan, Li’eryu, Gaojiayu, Dashiqiao, and Gaixian formations, which are characterized mainly by a clastic-rich sequence with an interlayered bimodal-volcanic sequence, [...] Read more.
The Liaohe Group, which is a significant lithostratigraphic unit within the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt situated between the Longgang and Liaonan-Nangrim blocks, comprises the Langzishan, Li’eryu, Gaojiayu, Dashiqiao, and Gaixian formations, which are characterized mainly by a clastic-rich sequence with an interlayered bimodal-volcanic sequence, carbonate-rich sequence, and (meta-)pelite-rich sequence. Currently, the tectonic background and evolution of the Liaohe Group remain contentious. Based on the study of detrital zircon geochronology and the zircon trace element characteristics in the Langzishan and Li’eryu formations in the North Liaohe Group in the Lianshanguan area, NE China, this paper reveals the formations’ provenances, depositional ages, and relationships with Paleoproterozoic granitoids (the Liao-Ji granites). The present results, in conjunction with previous studies, indicate that the depositional age of the Langzishan Formation is 2136 Ma and that of the Li’eryu Formation is 1974 Ma. The provenances of the Langzishan Formation and the Li’eryu Formation are mainly characterized by Neoarchean-to-early-Paleoproterozoic basement rocks (~2.6–2.4 Ga) and the Liao-Ji granites (~2.2–2.0 Ga), respectively. Moreover, the coeval mafic and metasedimentary rocks of the Liaohe Group exhibit characteristics of an extensional environment, which is represented by the tectonic setting of a back-arc basin. Notably, the Upper Langzishan Formation records a prominent shift in sedimentary environment from a passive continental margin to an active continental margin. In terms of the tectonic evolution of the North Liaohe Group and the Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt, our proposed model suggests that the Archean basement rocks in the northern part of the continental block, along with a limited contribution from the Paleoproterozoic Liao-Ji granites, served as the primary sources for the Langzishan Formation. Subsequently, the rapid deposition of the Li’eryu Formation was influenced by intense magmatism and subsequent erosion of the subduction-related magmatic arc (the Liao-Ji granites) within a back-arc basin environment. Lastly, the deposition of clastic materials from the Longgang blocks and the Liao-Ji granites resulted in the formation of the Gaojiayu, Dashiqiao, and Gaixian formations. Full article
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25 pages, 8499 KiB  
Article
Archean Crustal Evolution of the Alxa Block, Western North China Craton: Constraints from Zircon U-Pb Ages and the Hf Isotopic Composition
by Pengfei Niu, Junfeng Qu, Jin Zhang, Beihang Zhang and Heng Zhao
Minerals 2023, 13(5), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13050685 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1356
Abstract
The Alxa Block is an important component of the North China Craton, but its metamorphic basement has been poorly studied, which hampers the understanding of the Alxa Block and the North China Craton. In this study, we conducted geochronological and geochemical studies on [...] Read more.
The Alxa Block is an important component of the North China Craton, but its metamorphic basement has been poorly studied, which hampers the understanding of the Alxa Block and the North China Craton. In this study, we conducted geochronological and geochemical studies on three TTG (tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite) gneisses and one granitic gneiss exposed in the Langshan area of the eastern Alxa Block to investigate their crustal evolution. The zircon U-Pb dating results revealed that the protoliths of the TTG and granitic gneisses were formed at 2836 ± 20 Ma, 2491 ± 18 Ma, 2540 ± 38 Ma, and 2763 ± 42 Ma, respectively, and were overprinted by middle–late Paleoproterozoic metamorphism (1962–1721 Ma). All gneiss samples had high Sr/Y ratios (41–274) and intermediate Mg# values (44.97–55.78), with negative Nb, Ta, and Ti anomalies and moderately to strongly fractionated REE patterns ((La/Yb)N = 10.6–107.1), slight Sr enrichment, and positive Eu anomalies, displaying features of typical high-SiO2 adakites and Archean TTGs. The magmatic zircons from the 2.84 Ga and 2.49 Ga TTG rocks had low εHf(t) values of −1.9–1.7, and −3.83–2.12 with two-stage model ages (TDMC) of 3.24–3.11 Ga and 3.10–3.01 Ga, respectively, whereas those from the 2.54 Ga TTG rock exhibited εHf(t) values ranging from −1.1 to 3.46 and TDMC from 3.0 Ga to 2.83 Ga, suggesting that the crustal materials of the basement rocks in the eastern Alxa Block were initially extracted from the depleted mantle during the late Paleoarchean to Mesoarchean era and were reworked in the late Mesoarchean and late Neoarchean era. By contrast, the Alxa Block probably had a relative younger crustal evolutionary history (<3.24 Ga) than the main North China (<3.88 Ga), Tarim (<3.9 Ga), and Yangtze (<3.8 Ga) Cratons and likely had a unique crustal evolutionary history before the early Paleoproterozoic era. Full article
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24 pages, 10510 KiB  
Article
Paleoproterozoic Crust–Mantle Interaction in the Khondalite Belt, North China Craton: Constraints from Geochronology, Elements, and Hf-O-Sr-Nd Isotopes of the Layered Complex in the Jining Terrane
by Wei-Peng Zhu, Wei Tian, Bin Wang, Ying-Hui Zhang and Chun-Jing Wei
Minerals 2023, 13(4), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13040462 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
The Paleoproterozoic Khondalite Belt, located in the northwestern segment of North China Craton (NCC), is characterized by widespread high-temperature/ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) granulite/gneiss and large-scale magmatic activity. The tectonic evolution is still controversial. Here, we report new geochronological, elemental, and Hf-O-Sr-Nd isotopic data for a [...] Read more.
The Paleoproterozoic Khondalite Belt, located in the northwestern segment of North China Craton (NCC), is characterized by widespread high-temperature/ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) granulite/gneiss and large-scale magmatic activity. The tectonic evolution is still controversial. Here, we report new geochronological, elemental, and Hf-O-Sr-Nd isotopic data for a Paleoproterozoic layered complex in the Jining terrane to constrain the tectonic evolution of the Khondalite Belt. In situ zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Sanchakou gabbros were emplaced between ~1.94 Ga and ~1.82 Ga, which might be the heat source of UHT metamorphism. The elemental and Hf-O-Sr-Nd isotopic analysis shows that the formation of Sanchakou gabbros is consistent with the assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) process. The magma originates from the 10%~20% partial melting of the spinel + garnet lherzolite mantle. The Sanchakou gabbros are magmatic crystallization products mixed with crustal wallrocks in the magma chamber. We have established a tectonic evolution model involving asthenosphere upwelling after the amalgamation of the Ordos and Yinshan Blocks at ~1.95 Ga. Full article
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