Immune Modulation to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination and Infection

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Microbiology and Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 6183

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Medicine and Surgery, LUM University Giuseppe Degennaro, Casamassima, BA, Italy
Interests: immune response to SARS-CoV-2; murine models of infection with Salmonella and Streptococcus pneumoniae; vaccination in mice; T-cell priming; mucosal vaccination; memory cells

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

SARS-CoV-2 infected more than 6 million people worldwide, with different clinical outcomes. Continuous new challenges are emerging for the rapid mutations in the viral genome. Scientists are working hard to search for appropriate advanced therapies to treat COVID-19 and investigate new safe and effective vaccines capable of efficiently prevent the infection.

Until now, different vaccines have been licensed sooner and others are under investigation. Although the vaccination strongly reduced severe illness, and new findings and research continuously expand our knowledge about COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is critical to investigate the type and the timing of immune response generated using licensed and/or new experimental vaccines, and new efficient approaches based on different delivery systems or route of vaccination.

The Special Issue “Immune Modulation to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination and Infection” aims to assemble a collection of original research articles and reviews that explore, in pre-clinical and clinical studies, the innate and adaptive immune response elicited by infection with SARS-CoV-2, or induced by different type of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Research works evaluating the modulation of the immune response to vaccination and/or infection, studying the type, the magnitude, the quality, and the persistence of the immune response, are welcomed.

Dr. Fabio Fiorino
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • infection
  • immune response
  • antibody response
  • memory cells
  • vaccine
  • vaccine delivery
  • route of immunization
  • immune persistence

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 3678 KiB  
Article
Memory T Cells Discrepancies in COVID-19 Patients
by Hajir A. Al Saihati, Hosni A. M. Hussein, Ali A. Thabet, Ahmed A. Wardany, Sabry Y. Mahmoud, Eman S. Farrag, Taha I. A. Mohamed, Samah M. Fathy, Mohamed E. Elnosary, Ali Sobhy, Abdelazeem E. Ahmed, Ahmed M. El-Adly, Fareed S. El-Shenawy, Asmaa A. Elsadek, Amal Rayan, Zeinab Albadry M. Zahran, Omnia El-Badawy, Mohamed G. M. El-Naggar, Magdy M. Afifi and Asmaa M. Zahran
Microorganisms 2023, 11(11), 2737; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11112737 - 09 Nov 2023
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Abstract
The immune response implicated in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis remains to be fully understood. The present study aimed to clarify the alterations in CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells’ compartments in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, with an emphasis on various comorbidities affecting [...] Read more.
The immune response implicated in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis remains to be fully understood. The present study aimed to clarify the alterations in CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells’ compartments in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, with an emphasis on various comorbidities affecting COVID-19 patients. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 35 COVID-19 patients, 16 recovered individuals, and 25 healthy controls, and analyzed using flow cytometry. Significant alterations were detected in the percentage of CD8+ T cells and effector memory-expressing CD45RA CD8+ T cells (TEMRA) in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, altered percentages of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, T effector (TEff), T naïve cells (TNs), T central memory (TCM), T effector memory (TEM), T stem cell memory (TSCM), and TEMRA T cells were significantly associated with the disease severity. Male patients had more CD8+ TSCMs and CD4+ TNs cells, while female patients had a significantly higher percentage of effector CD8+CD45RA+ T cells. Moreover, altered percentages of CD8+ TNs and memory CD8+CD45RO+ T cells were detected in diabetic and non-diabetic COVID-19 patients, respectively. In summary, this study identified alterations in memory T cells among COVID-19 patients, revealing a sex bias in the percentage of memory T cells. Moreover, COVID-19 severity and comorbidities have been linked to specific subsets of T memory cells which could be used as therapeutic, diagnostic, and protective targets for severe COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Modulation to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination and Infection)
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12 pages, 596 KiB  
Article
Does Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir Influence the Immune Response against SARS-CoV-2, Independently from Rebound?
by Francesca Panza, Fabio Fiorino, Gabiria Pastore, Lia Fiaschi, Mario Tumbarello, Donata Medaglini, Annalisa Ciabattini, Francesca Montagnani and Massimiliano Fabbiani
Microorganisms 2023, 11(10), 2607; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11102607 - 22 Oct 2023
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Abstract
Recurrence of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 viral load relapse have been reported in people treated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (NM/r). However, little is understood about the etiology of this phenomenon. Our aim was to investigate the relation between the host’s immune response [...] Read more.
Recurrence of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 viral load relapse have been reported in people treated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (NM/r). However, little is understood about the etiology of this phenomenon. Our aim was to investigate the relation between the host’s immune response and viral rebound. We described three cases of COVID-19 rebound that occurred after treatment with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (group A). In addition, we compared spike-specific antibody response and plasma cytokine/chemokine patterns of the rebound cases with those of (i) control patients treated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir who did not show rebound (group B), and (ii) subjects not treated with any anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug (group C). The anti-spike antibodies and plasma cytokines/chemokines were similar in groups A and B. However, we observed a higher anti-BA.2 spike IgG response in patients without antiviral treatment (group C) [geometric mean titer 210,807, 5.1- and 8.2-fold higher compared to group A (p = 0.039) and group B (p = 0.032)]. Moreover, the patients receiving antiviral treatment (groups A-B) showed higher circulating levels of platelet-derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF-BB) and vascular endothelial growth Factors (VEGF) and lower levels of interleukin-9 (IL-9), interleukine-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 RA), and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and presumably secreted chemokine (RANTES) when compared to group C. In conclusion, we observed lower anti-spike IgG levels and different cytokine patterns in nirmatrelvir/ritonavir-treated patients compared to those not treated with anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. This suggests that early antiviral treatment, by reducing viral load and antigen presentation, could mitigate the immune response against SARS-CoV-2. The clinical relevance of such observation should be further investigated in larger populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Modulation to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination and Infection)
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Review

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22 pages, 1000 KiB  
Review
Association between Gut Microbiota and SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Vaccine Immunogenicity
by Ho Yu Ng, Wai K. Leung and Ka Shing Cheung
Microorganisms 2023, 11(2), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11020452 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3366
Abstract
Gut microbiota is increasingly recognized to play a pivotal role in various human physiological functions and diseases. Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, research has suggested that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is also involved in the development and severity of COVID-19 symptoms by regulating [...] Read more.
Gut microbiota is increasingly recognized to play a pivotal role in various human physiological functions and diseases. Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, research has suggested that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is also involved in the development and severity of COVID-19 symptoms by regulating SARS-CoV-2 entry and modulating inflammation. Previous studies have also suggested that gut microbiota and their metabolites could have immunomodulatory effects on vaccine immunogenicity, including influenza vaccines and oral rotavirus vaccines. In light of these observations, it is possible that gut microbiota plays a role in influencing the immune responses to COVID-19 vaccinations via similar mechanisms including effects of lipopolysaccharides, flagellin, peptidoglycan, and short-chain fatty acids. In this review, we give an overview of the current understanding on the role of the gut microbiota in COVID-19 manifestations and vaccine immunogenicity. We then discuss the limitations of currently published studies on the associations between gut microbiota and COVID-19 vaccine outcomes. Future research directions shall be focused on the development of microbiota-based interventions on improving immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Modulation to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination and Infection)
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