Special Issue "Mineral and Energy Metabolism of Mammals during Pregnancy"

A special issue of Metabolites (ISSN 2218-1989). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 July 2023 | Viewed by 3016

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Wellison Jarles Da Silva Diniz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
Interests: maternal nutrition; fetal programming; animal reproduction; fertility; feed efficiency; metabolomics; genomics; epigenomics; bioinformatics
Dr. Priyanka Banerjee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
Interests: gene and protein expression; proteomics; metabolomics; metabolic pathways; maternal diet; mineral supplementation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Increasing evidence has shown the importance of maternal nutrition on fetal development and the long-term consequences for offspring growth and health. Pregnancy is a dynamic process associated with fine-tuned metabolic regulation. In addition to other changes, this period is characterized by an increased demand for nutrients to supply both the mother and the developing fetus. Thus, nutritional manipulation during periods of developmental plasticity, such as the embryonic, fetal, and neonatal periods, offers unique opportunities for interventions that promote the health of mother and offspring.

This Special Issue of Metabolites will focus on advancing our knowledge of the impact of maternal energy and mineral nutrition during pregnancy in mammals. The broad scope emphasizes the role of minerals and energy on metabolites, metabolic pathways, and networks during pregnancy, investigated through metabolomic approaches. We therefore welcome research articles, brief research reports, and reviews covering (but not limited to) the following topics:

  • Alteration in metabolites, metabolic pathways and networks in response to drugs, nutrient supplementation, metabolism and environment during pregnancy;
  • Metabolomic studies of energy demand and metabolism during pregnancy in mammals;
  • The effect of maternal diet on the metabolomic profile of the developing fetus;
  • The role of mineral and energy supplementation on the reproductive environment, oxidative stress, oocyte and embryo quality;
  • Crosstalk between metabolic changes, nutrition and fertility in mammals.

We look forward to your contributions.

Dr. Wellison Jarles Da Silva Diniz
Dr. Priyanka Banerjee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  •  maternal diet
  •  fetal programming
  •  mineral
  •  energy
  •  metabolism
  •  metabolomics
  •  proteomics
  •  signaling pathways

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Fetal Hepatic Lipidome Is More Greatly Affected by Maternal Rate of Gain Compared with Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation at Day 83 of Gestation
Metabolites 2023, 13(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13020175 - 25 Jan 2023
Viewed by 295
Abstract
Herein, we evaluated the hepatic lipid metabolic profiles of bovine fetuses in response to maternal vitamin and mineral supplementation (VMSUP; supplemented (VTM) or not (NoVTM)) and two different rates of gain (GAIN; low gain (LG), 0.28 kg/d, or moderate gain (MG), 0.79 kg/d). [...] Read more.
Herein, we evaluated the hepatic lipid metabolic profiles of bovine fetuses in response to maternal vitamin and mineral supplementation (VMSUP; supplemented (VTM) or not (NoVTM)) and two different rates of gain (GAIN; low gain (LG), 0.28 kg/d, or moderate gain (MG), 0.79 kg/d). Crossbred Angus heifers (n = 35; initial BW = 359.5 ± 7.1 kg) were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, resulting in the following treatment combinations: NoVTM-LG (n = 9), NoVTM-MG (n = 9), VTM-LG (n = 9), and VTM-MG (n = 8). Heifers received their treatments until d 83 of gestation, when they were ovariohysterectomized. Fetuses were harvested and liver samples were analyzed via ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy to characterize lipid profiles and abundances. We identified 374 biochemicals/metabolites belonging to 57 sub-pathways of the lipid metabolism super-pathway. The majority of the biochemicals/metabolites (n = 152) were significantly affected by the main effect of GAIN. Maternal moderate rates of gain resulted in greater abundances (p ≤ 0.0001) of ω-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoate, docosapentaenoate, and docosahexaenoate) and lower abundances (p ≤ 0.0001) of ω-6 fatty acids. Further, MG resulted in the accumulation of several diacylglycerols and depletion of the majority of the monoacylglycerols. Concentrations of nearly all acylcarnitines (p ≤ 0.03) were decreased in VTM-LG fetal livers compared to all other treatment combinations, indicating a greater rate of complete oxidation of fatty acids. Levels of secondary bile acids were impacted by VMSUP, being greater (p ≤ 0.0048) in NoVTM than in VTM fetal livers. Moreover, NoVTM combined with lower rate of gain resulted in greater concentrations of most secondary bile acid biochemicals/metabolites. These data indicate that maternal diet influenced and altered fetal hepatic lipid composition in the first trimester of gestation. Maternal body weight gain exerted a greater influence on fetal lipid profiles than vitamin and mineral supplementation. Specifically, lower rate of gain (0.28 kg/d) resulted in an increased abundance of the majority of the biochemicals/metabolites identified in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral and Energy Metabolism of Mammals during Pregnancy)
Article
Maternal Nutrition Affects Nitrogen Isotopic Signature in Blood Plasma of Beef Cattle Dams and Their Offspring
Metabolites 2022, 12(12), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12121249 - 10 Dec 2022
Viewed by 521
Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of gestational supplementation strategy on nitrogen isotopic signature in blood plasma of beef cows and their progeny. The study comprised 15 pregnant Nellore cows divided into three different supplementation protocols: NP) non-programmed group; PP) cows receiving protein–energy supplement [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effects of gestational supplementation strategy on nitrogen isotopic signature in blood plasma of beef cows and their progeny. The study comprised 15 pregnant Nellore cows divided into three different supplementation protocols: NP) non-programmed group; PP) cows receiving protein–energy supplement in the last third of pregnancy; and FP) cows receiving protein–energy supplement throughout the gestational period. Blood plasma from cows was sampled at the beginning of gestation, in the prepartum, and postpartum periods as well as from their calves at 30 and 180 days of age, for the analysis of stable isotope ratios 15 N/14 N. At pre- and postpartum periods, cows fed PP and FP presented greater abundance of δ15 N compared to NP (p < 0.05) at pre- and postpartum. All three groups showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in the postpartum period. The δ15 N values of calves at 30 days of age differed between the NP group and PP and FP groups (p < 0.05), with no difference (p > 0.05) at 180 days of age. The different gestational supplementation strategies influenced isotopic fractionation of nutrients of cows and their calves after birth, indicating effects on nutritional metabolism and cumulative behavior on isotope abundance related to consumption during gestation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral and Energy Metabolism of Mammals during Pregnancy)
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Article
Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation and Rate of Weight Gain during the First Trimester of Gestation in Beef Heifers Alters the Fetal Liver Amino Acid, Carbohydrate, and Energy Profile at Day 83 of Gestation
Metabolites 2022, 12(8), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12080696 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 832
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding heifers a vitamin and mineral supplement and targeting divergent rates of weight gain during early gestation on the fetal liver amino acid, carbohydrate, and energy profile at d 83 of gestation. [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding heifers a vitamin and mineral supplement and targeting divergent rates of weight gain during early gestation on the fetal liver amino acid, carbohydrate, and energy profile at d 83 of gestation. Seventy-two crossbred Angus heifers were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to one of four treatments comprising the main effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation (VTM or NOVTM) and feeding to achieve different rates of weight gain (low gain [LG] 0.28 kg/day vs. moderate gain [MG] 0.79 kg/day). Thirty-five gestating heifers with female fetuses were ovariohysterectomized on d 83 of gestation and fetal liver was collected and analyzed by reverse phase UPLC-tandem mass spectrometry with positive and negative ion mode electrospray ionization, as well as by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography UPLC-MS/MS with negative ion mode ESI for compounds of known identity. The Glycine, Serine, and Threonine metabolism pathway and the Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine metabolism pathway had a greater total metabolite abundance in the liver of the NOVTM-LG group and least in the VTM-LG group (p < 0.01). Finally, both the TCA Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation pathways within the Energy Metabolism superpathway were differentially affected by the main effect of VTM, where the TCA cycle metabolites were greater (p = 0.04) in the NOVTM fetal livers and the Oxidative Phosphorylation biochemicals were greater (p = 0.02) in the fetal livers of the VTM supplemented heifers. These data demonstrate that the majority of metabolites that are affected by rate of weight gain or vitamin/mineral supplementation are decreased in heifers on a greater rate of weight gain or vitamin/mineral supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral and Energy Metabolism of Mammals during Pregnancy)
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Article
The Occurrence of a Negative Energy Balance in Holstein-Friesian and Simmental Cows and Its Association with the Time of Resumption of Reproductive Activity
Metabolites 2022, 12(5), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12050448 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 881
Abstract
Intensive lactation (lactogenesis) in cows is conducive to a negative energy balance (NEB), so the search for traits associated with the physiological capacity to cope with its consequences is a current area of research. This is especially important because NEB overlaps with the [...] Read more.
Intensive lactation (lactogenesis) in cows is conducive to a negative energy balance (NEB), so the search for traits associated with the physiological capacity to cope with its consequences is a current area of research. This is especially important because NEB overlaps with the resumption of the reproductive cycle, which determines the profitability of herds. This study analysed the relationship between NEB and the time of resumption of reproductive activity in cows with varying genetic potential (Simmental and Holstein-Friesian), fed a similar diet (TMR). The aim of the study was to analyse the dependencies between NEB markers and changes in progesterone levels between 25 and 31 days postpartum. A strong positive correlation was shown between daily milk production (DMP) and loss of body condition (LBCS; 0.772; p ≤ 0.05). These parameters were associated with the levels of NEB biomarkers. Higher values of NEB indicators (LBCS, C16:0, C18:1, NEFA, and BHBA) were usually noted during periods with higher DMP (II and III). The trends observed were confirmed by positive correlation coefficients (r), which ranged from 0.324 to 0.810 (p ≤ 0.05). The reverse trend was noted for glucose and leptin, which decreased as productivity increased, as confirmed by r values from −0.368 to −0.530 (p ≤ 0.05). In both breeds, the glucose and leptin levels decreased as DMP increased. Higher values for NEB indicators were shown to be negatively correlated with progesterone levels (r from −0.300 to −0.712; p ≤ 0.05), and a lower progesterone level was associated with a longer calving-to-first-service interval and calving-to-conception interval. The rate of postpartum triglyceride release depends on daily milk production, and therefore the adaptability of the liver should be considered an important element of mitigation of the consequences of NEB. This may have practical applications by extending productive life, which is often shortened due to deteriorating reproductive performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral and Energy Metabolism of Mammals during Pregnancy)
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