Special Issue "Water Treatment Process"

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Membrane Processing and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 9361

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Szilárd S. Bucs
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Water Desalination and Reuse Center (WDRC), Division of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering (BESE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
Interests: reverse osmosis processes; biofouling characterization, control in membrane systems and the scale-up of novel technologies for desalination
Dr. Nadia Farhat
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Water Desalination and Reuse Center (WDRC), Division of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering (BESE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
Interests: drinking water production and distribution; innovative microbial monitoring of distribution networks and growth of pathogens; seawater desalination; biofouling of nf/ro membranes; control strategies: prevention and cleaning; advanced imaging techniques for biofilm monitoring; in situ non-destructive studies on biofouling processes in reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems; and methods of testing for physical, chemical and biological parameters in water samples
Dr. Luca Fortunato
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Water Desalination and Reuse Center (WDRC), Division of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering (BESE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
Interests: membrane fouling; desalination; gravity-driven membrane systems; membrane distillation; biofouling; seawater desalination pretreatment
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sufficient and secure water supply is essential for meeting basic human needs and the functioning of many sectors of the economy. The imbalance between water supply and demand is already known and expected to increase in the future. Membrane processes can produce high-quality water from all types of water sources, including seawater and wastewater effluent. With the increase in demand, the application of membrane technologies in water treatment processes is increasing enormously. Nevertheless, these processes still require improvements in terms of pre-treatment, membrane fabrication, membrane module design, fouling control, selectivity, cost efficiency, process hybridization. Maintaining high-quality water in the distribution network and premise plumbing complements the main objective of producing high-quality water, underlining the importance of addressing water distribution aspects.

This Special Issue aims is to cover the latest achievements in water process technologies. Original research and review papers with an emphasis on the following topics, but not limited to these, are welcome:

  • Innovative water treatment and monitoring technologies;
  • Removal of emerging contaminants of concern;
  • Decentralized water treatment systems;
  • Tailored water treatment applications for source-separated waters;
  • Membrane applications: seawater desalination, wastewater treatment;
  • Membrane fabrications;
  • Membrane performance improvement combining design and operational aspects.

Dr. Szilárd S. Bucs
Dr. Nadia Farhat
Dr. Luca Fortunato
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Membranes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Water treatment
  • Drinking water
  • Membrane processes
  • Desalination
  • Decentralized treatment

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Water Treatment Process
Membranes 2022, 12(5), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12050543 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 826
Abstract
Water scarcity is the main factor driving the enhancement of available technologies and the development of new technologies [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment Process)

Research

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Article
The Application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for the Optimization of the Conditions of Fabrication of Electrospun Nanofibrous Membrane for Desalination and Ion Removal
Membranes 2021, 11(12), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11120979 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
Nowadays, acquiring a water supply for urban and industrial uses is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity for ensuring sustainability. Membrane technology has been considered cost-effective, encompasses lower energy requirements, and at the same time, offers acceptable performance. Electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENMs) [...] Read more.
Nowadays, acquiring a water supply for urban and industrial uses is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity for ensuring sustainability. Membrane technology has been considered cost-effective, encompasses lower energy requirements, and at the same time, offers acceptable performance. Electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENMs) are considered a novel and promising strategy for the production of membranes that could be applied in several treatment processes, especially desalination and ion removal. In this study, we apply an unsupervised machine-learning strategy, the so-called principal component analysis (PCA), for the purpose of seeking discrepancies and similarities between different ENMs. The main purpose was to investigate the influence of membrane fabrication conditions, characteristics, and process conditions in order to seek the relevance of the application of different electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENMs). Membranes were majorly classified into single polymers/layers, from one side, and dual multiple layer ENMs, from another side. For both classes, variables related to membrane fabrication conditions were not separated from membrane characterization variables. This reveals that membranes’ characteristics not only depend on the chemical composition, but also on the fabrication conditions. On the other hand, the process conditions of ENM fabrication showed an extensive effect on membranes’ performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment Process)
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Article
Membrane Distillation: Pre-Treatment Effects on Fouling Dynamics
Membranes 2021, 11(12), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11120958 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
In the research reported in this paper, membrane distillation was employed to recover water from a concentrated saline petrochemical effluent. According to the results, the use of membrane distillation is technically feasible when pre-treatments are employed to mitigate fouling. A mathematical model was [...] Read more.
In the research reported in this paper, membrane distillation was employed to recover water from a concentrated saline petrochemical effluent. According to the results, the use of membrane distillation is technically feasible when pre-treatments are employed to mitigate fouling. A mathematical model was used to evaluate the fouling mechanism, showing that the deposition of particulate and precipitated material occurred in all tests; however, the fouling dynamic depends on the pre-treatment employed (filtration, or filtration associated with a pH adjustment). The deposit layer formed by particles is not cohesive, allowing its entrainment to the bulk flow. The precipitate fouling showed a minimal tendency to entrainment. Also, precipitate fouling served as a coupling agent among adjacent particles, increasing the fouling layer cohesion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment Process)
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Article
Removal and Fouling Influence of Microplastics in Fertilizer Driven Forward Osmosis for Wastewater Reclamation
Membranes 2021, 11(11), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11110845 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1434
Abstract
Insufficient removal of microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) may exert negative effects on the environment and human health during wastewater reclamation. The fertilizer-driven forward osmosis (FDFO) is an emerging potential technology to generate high-quality water for irrigation of hydroponic systems. In this study, [...] Read more.
Insufficient removal of microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) may exert negative effects on the environment and human health during wastewater reclamation. The fertilizer-driven forward osmosis (FDFO) is an emerging potential technology to generate high-quality water for irrigation of hydroponic systems. In this study, the removal of MPs/NPs by the FDFO process together with their impact on FDFO membrane fouling was investigated, due to FDFO’s low molecular weight cut-off and energy requirement by using fertilizer as draw solution. Plastic particles with two different sizes (100 nm and 1 μm) and extracellular polymers released by real wastewater bacteria were utilized as model compounds for FDFO performance comparison. Results show that FDFO membrane system could generate high-quality irrigation water with only fertilizer, completely removing extracellular polymers, MPs and NPs from wastewater. It was found that the MPs and NPs themselves do not cause a significant membrane fouling. Moreover, it could help to reduce the membrane fouling caused by extracellular substances. That is probably because MPs and NPs helped to form a loose and porous fouling layer. Therefore, the FDFO process could be a long-term stable (low fouling) process for the reclamation of wastewater with high-quality requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment Process)
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Article
Effect of Organic Substances on Nutrients Recovery by Struvite Electrochemical Precipitation from Synthetic Anaerobically Treated Swine Wastewater
Membranes 2021, 11(8), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11080594 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1829
Abstract
Anaerobically treated swine wastewater contains large amounts of orthophosphate phosphorus, ammonium nitrogen and organic substances with potential nutrients recovery via struvite electrochemical precipitation post-treatment. Lab-scale batch experiments were systematically conducted in this study to investigate the effects of initial pH, current density, organic [...] Read more.
Anaerobically treated swine wastewater contains large amounts of orthophosphate phosphorus, ammonium nitrogen and organic substances with potential nutrients recovery via struvite electrochemical precipitation post-treatment. Lab-scale batch experiments were systematically conducted in this study to investigate the effects of initial pH, current density, organic substances upon nutrients removal, and precipitates quality (characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and element analysis via acid dissolution method) during the struvite electrochemical precipitation process. The optimal conditions for the initial pH of 7.0 and current density of 4 mA/cm2 favoured nutrients removal and precipitates quality (struvite purity of up to 94.2%) in the absence of organic substances. By contrast, a more adverse effect on nutrients removal, morphology and purity of precipitates was found by humic acid than by sodium alginate and bovine albumin in the individual presence of organic substances. Low concentration combination of bovine albumin, sodium alginate, and humic acid showed antagonistic inhibition effects, whereas a high concentration combination showed the accelerating inhibition effects. Initial pH adjustment from 7 to 8 could effectively mitigate the adverse effects on struvite electrochemical precipitation under high concentration combined with organic substances (500 mg/L bovine albumin, 500 mg/L sodium alginate, and 1500 mg/L humic acid); this may help improve struvite electrochemical precipitation technology in practical application for nutrients recovery from anaerobically treated swine wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment Process)
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Article
Effect of Pre-Oxidation on Coagulation/Ceramic Membrane Treatment of Yangtze River Water
Membranes 2021, 11(5), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11050369 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1554
Abstract
The membrane separation process is being widely used in water treatment. It is very important to control membrane fouling in the process of water treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of a pre-oxidation-coagulation flat ceramic membrane filtration process using different [...] Read more.
The membrane separation process is being widely used in water treatment. It is very important to control membrane fouling in the process of water treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of a pre-oxidation-coagulation flat ceramic membrane filtration process using different oxidant types and dosages in water treatment and membrane fouling control. The results showed that under suitable concentration conditions, the effect on membrane fouling control of a NaClO pre-oxidation combined with a coagulation/ceramic membrane system was better than that of an O3 system. The oxidation process changed the structure of pollutants, reduced the pollution load and enhanced the coagulation process in a pre-oxidation-coagulation system as well. The influence of the oxidant on the filtration system was related to its oxidizability and other characteristics. NaClO and O3 performed more efficiently than KMnO4. NaClO was more conducive to the removal of DOC, and O3 was more conducive to the removal of UV254. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment Process)
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