Medicinal Plants and Phytomedicines

A special issue of Medicines (ISSN 2305-6320).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2015) | Viewed by 48209

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Organic Chemistry,Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Bahia, UFBA, Rua Barão de Geremoabo, s/n, Ondina 40170-115 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
Interests: organic chemistry; organic synthesis; chemistry of natural products; medicinal chemistry; medicinal plants; pharmacognosy phytomedicine; search for novel bioactive compounds against malaria and neglected diseases
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Medicinal plants have long been used to treat many infectious diseases and human disorders. The end of the last century has witnessed a vigorous resurgence in the interest and use of medicinal plant products. In particular, phytochemistry, pharmacognosy, and horticulture have become primary foci of research. Since then, researchers have dedicated increasing attention to determine the scientific evidence and rationale for the use of preparations made from medicinal plants. Various efforts have focused on identifying plants and their active components against a wide array of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and protozoa. As an obvious result, natural products and derivatives have occupied a privileged position as valuable scaffolds in the preparation of novel bioactive compounds with optimized biological activities. Such activities play an important role in the discovery of leads for the development of drugs treating human diseases.

In light of the enormous biodiversity of the plant kingdom awaiting to be studied, and the yet to be validated pharmacological uses, I invite you to contribute to this Special Issue of Medicines with original articles and reviews concerning the observation and experimental investigation of medicinal plants, and of their extracts and/or substances (as used in traditional medicine). Papers dealing with research in pharmacognosy, phytotherapy, phytopharmacology, phytopharmaceuticals standardization, and phytotoxicology are also greatly welcomed.

Dr. Ronan Batista
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • medicinal plants
  • phytomedicines
  • phytochemistry
  • pharmacognosy
  • phytotherapy
  • phytopharmacology
  • phytotoxicology
  • phytopharmaceuticals
  • bioactive natural products
  • ethnopharmacology

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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294 KiB  
Article
Potent and Synergistic Extract Combinations from Terminalia Catappa, Terminalia Mantaly and Monodora tenuifolia Against Pathogenic Yeasts
by Thierry Kammalac Ngouana, Cedric Derick Jiatsa Mbouna, Rufin Marie Toghueo Kuipou, Marthe Aimée Tchuente Tchuenmogne, Elisabeth Menkem Zeuko’o, Vincent Ngouana, Michèle Mallié, Sebastien Bertout and Fabrice Fekam Boyom
Medicines 2015, 2(3), 220-235; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines2030220 - 26 Aug 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 6177
Abstract
Mycoses caused by Candida and Cryptococcus species, associated with the advent of antifungal drug resistance have emerged as major health problems. Improved control measures and innovative therapies are needed. This paper describes results from the screening of bio-guided fractionated extracts alone and combinations [...] Read more.
Mycoses caused by Candida and Cryptococcus species, associated with the advent of antifungal drug resistance have emerged as major health problems. Improved control measures and innovative therapies are needed. This paper describes results from the screening of bio-guided fractionated extracts alone and combinations of Terminalia catappa, Terminalia mantaly and Monodora tenuifolia harvested in Cameroon. Crude ethanolic, hydro-ethanolic and aqueous extracts and bio-guided fractions were screened for antifungal activity against isolates of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and Cr. neoformans and the reference strain C. albicans NR-29450. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a broth micro dilution method according to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Time kill kinetics of extracts alone and in combination were also evaluated. Extracts from T. mantaly stem bark were the most active with the best MIC values ranging from 0.04 mg/mL to 0.16 mg/mL. Synergistic interactions were observed with combinations of sub-fractions from M. tenuifolia, T. mantaly and T. catappa. Combination of sub-fractions from M. tenuifolia and T. mantaly (C36/C12) showed synergistic interaction and fungicidal effect against four out of five tested yeasts. These results support further investigation of medicinal plant extracts alone and in combination as starting points for the development of alternative antifungal therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Phytomedicines)
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217 KiB  
Article
Extracts from Annona Muricata L. and Annona Reticulata L. (Annonaceae) Potently and Selectively Inhibit Plasmodium Falciparum
by Lauve Rachel Tchokouaha Yamthe, Patrick Valere Tsouh Fokou, Cedric Derick Jiatsa Mbouna, Rodrigue Keumoe, Bruno Lenta Ndjakou, Paul Toukam Djouonzo, Alvine Ngoutane Mfopa, Jennifer Legac, Nole Tsabang, Jiri Gut, Philip J. Rosenthal and Fabrice Fekam Boyom
Medicines 2015, 2(2), 55-66; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines2020055 - 30 Apr 2015
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 9214
Abstract
The aim of this work was to screen extracts from Annona muricata and Annona reticulata in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum. Crude ethanolic extracts, methylene chloride fractions, aqueous fractions, subfractions and isolated compounds (stigmasterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, lichexanthone, gallic acid and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to screen extracts from Annona muricata and Annona reticulata in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum. Crude ethanolic extracts, methylene chloride fractions, aqueous fractions, subfractions and isolated compounds (stigmasterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, lichexanthone, gallic acid and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) were tested for cytotoxicity on erythrocytes and Human Foreskin Fibroblasts cells and against the W2 strain of P. falciparum in culture. Results indicated that none of the extracts was cytotoxic at concentrations up to 10 µg/mL. Most of the extracts, fractions and subfractions inhibited the growth of P. falciparum with IC50 values ranging from 0.07 to 3.46 µg/mL. The most potent was the subfraction 30 from A. muricata stem bark (IC50 = 0.07 µg/mL) with a selectivity index of ˃ 142. Subfraction 3 from A. muricata root also exhibited very good activity (IC50 = 0.09 µg/mL) with a high selectivity index (SI ˃ 111). Amongst the isolated compounds, only gallic acid showed activity with IC50 of 3.32 µg/mL and SI > 10. These results support traditional claims for A. muricata and A. reticulata in the treatment of malaria. Given their limited cytotoxicity profile, their extracts qualify as promising starting points for antimalarial drug discovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Phytomedicines)
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266 KiB  
Article
Antileishmanial Potential of Tropical Rainforest Plant Extracts
by Lianet Monzote, Abel Piñón and William N. Setzer
Medicines 2014, 1(1), 32-55; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines1010032 - 19 Nov 2014
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 6384
Abstract
A total of 115 different plant extracts from our collection, representing 96 plant species, have been evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes. In addition, the extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against BALB/c mouse macrophages in order to assess [...] Read more.
A total of 115 different plant extracts from our collection, representing 96 plant species, have been evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes. In addition, the extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against BALB/c mouse macrophages in order to assess a selectivity index. Crude extracts that showed a selectivity index (CC50 for macrophage / IC50 for promastigotes) ³ 5 or with IC50 < 12.5 μg/mL against promastigotes, a total of 28 extracts, were further screened for anti-amastigote activity. A total of 25 extracts showed promising activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes with low cytotoxic activity. Ten of these extracts showed selectivity indices, (CC50 for macrophages / IC50 for amastigotes) greater than 10 and are considered “hits”, worthy candidates for further phytochemical exploration: Conostegia xalapensis methanol bark extract, Endiandra palmerstonii bark extract, Eugenia monteverdensis acetone bark extract, Eugenia sp. “fine leaf” acetone bark extract, Exothea paniculata chloroform bark extract, Mallotus paniculatus ethanol bark extract, Matelea pseudobarbata ethanol extract, Quercus insignis ethanol bark extract, Sassafras albidum dichloromethane bark extract, and Stemmadenia donnell-smithii acetone bark extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Phytomedicines)

Review

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291 KiB  
Review
Inhibiting Microbial Toxins Using Plant-Derived Compounds and Plant Extracts
by Abhinav Upadhyay, Shankumar Mooyottu, Hsinbai Yin, Meera Surendran Nair, Varunkumar Bhattaram and Kumar Venkitanarayanan
Medicines 2015, 2(3), 186-211; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines2030186 - 31 Jul 2015
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 6990
Abstract
Many pathogenic bacteria and fungi produce potentially lethal toxins that cause cytotoxicity or impaired cellular function either at the site of colonization or other locations in the body through receptor-mediated interactions. Various factors, including biotic and abiotic environments, competing microbes, and chemical cues [...] Read more.
Many pathogenic bacteria and fungi produce potentially lethal toxins that cause cytotoxicity or impaired cellular function either at the site of colonization or other locations in the body through receptor-mediated interactions. Various factors, including biotic and abiotic environments, competing microbes, and chemical cues affect toxin expression in these pathogens. Recent work suggests that several natural compounds can modulate toxin production in pathogenic microbes. However, studies explaining the mechanistic basis for their effect are scanty. This review discusses the potential of various plant-derived compounds for reducing toxin production in foodborne and other microbes. In addition, studies highlighting their anti-toxigenic mechanism(s) are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Phytomedicines)
783 KiB  
Review
A Survey of Chemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Yemeni Aromatic Medicinal Plants
by Bhuwan K. Chhetri, Nasser A. Awadh Ali and William N. Setzer
Medicines 2015, 2(2), 67-92; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines2020067 - 28 May 2015
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 9099
Abstract
Yemen is a small country located in the southwestern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Yemen’s coastal lowlands, eastern plateau, and deserts give it a diverse topography, which along with climatic factors make it opulent in flora. Despite the introduction of Western medicinal system [...] Read more.
Yemen is a small country located in the southwestern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Yemen’s coastal lowlands, eastern plateau, and deserts give it a diverse topography, which along with climatic factors make it opulent in flora. Despite the introduction of Western medicinal system during the middle of the twentieth century, herbal medicine still plays an important role in Yemen. In this review, we present a survey of several aromatic plants used in traditional medicine in Yemen, their traditional uses, their volatile chemical compositions, and their biological activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Phytomedicines)
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917 KiB  
Review
Aromatic Medicinal Plants from Tajikistan (Central Asia)
by Farukh S. Sharopov, Hanjing Zhang, Michael Wink and William N. Setzer
Medicines 2015, 2(1), 28-46; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines2010028 - 17 Feb 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 8731
Abstract
Tajikistan is a small country located in Central Asia. The mostly mountainous terrain with a continental, subtropical, and semiarid climate, is characterized by diverse flora. Many people in Tajikistan rely on medicinal plants as their traditional form of medicine to prevent and cure [...] Read more.
Tajikistan is a small country located in Central Asia. The mostly mountainous terrain with a continental, subtropical, and semiarid climate, is characterized by diverse flora. Many people in Tajikistan rely on medicinal plants as their traditional form of medicine to prevent and cure health disorders. Aromatic medicinal plants, in particular, have played an important role for the local people. In this review, we present a summary of the uses of 18 aromatic medicinal plants from Tajikistan and their compositions of secondary metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Phytomedicines)
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