Special Issue "Schizophrenia and Sleep Disorders"

A special issue of Medicines (ISSN 2305-6320).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Maurits Van den Noort

Research Group of Pain and Neuroscience, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-⁠⁠⁠701, Republic of Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: bilingualism; second language acquisition; working memory; schizophrenia; depression; sleep disorders; Parkinson's disease; fMRI; TMS
Guest Editor
Dr. Peggy M.P.C. Bosch

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Cognition, Radboud University Nijmegen, Postbus 9104, Nijmegen 6500 HE, the Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Interests: schizophrenia; depression; sleep disorders; acupuncture; fMRI; TMS

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder that has a worldwide prevalence of 0.5% and poses a high cost to society. The disorder is characterized by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive symptoms. Less known to the general public is the fact that a large number of the patients with schizophrenia suffer from sleep disturbances, such as reduced sleep efficiency, reduced total sleep time, and increased sleep latency. Surprisingly, the sleep problems in patients with schizophrenia are also often under-estimated in daily clinical practice. This special issue will tap into the specific sleep disturbances of patients suffering from schizophrenia, its negative effects on cognition (such as deficits in executive functioning, impaired working memory, attention problems, etc.); moreover, there will be a focus on the different kinds and combinations of treatment techniques, such as pharmacology, psychoeducation, cognitive behavioral sleep training, acupuncture, the use of an emergency plan in combination with early warning symptoms, etc.

Prof. Dr. Maurits W.M.L. Van den Noort
Dr. Peggy M.P.C. Bosch
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Schizophrenia
  • Sleep
  • Sleep Disturbances
  • Sleep Disorders
  • Pharmacology
  • Integrative Medicine, Cognitive Behavioral Sleep Training, Early Warning Symptoms, Psychosis, Psychoeducation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Schizophrenia and Sleep Disorders: An Introduction
Received: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
This editorial is an introduction to the special issue ‘Schizophrenia and Sleep Disorders’.[…] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Schizophrenia and Sleep Disorders)
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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Pharmacological Treatment for Long-Term Patients with Schizophrenia and Its Effects on Sleep in Daily Clinical Practice: A Pilot Study
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (347 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Pharmacological treatment is still the key intervention in the disease management of long-term patients with schizophrenia; however, how it affects sleep and whether gender differences exist remains unclear. Methods: Forty-six long-term outpatients with schizophrenia entered the study. The numbers of antipsychotics, sleep [...] Read more.
Background: Pharmacological treatment is still the key intervention in the disease management of long-term patients with schizophrenia; however, how it affects sleep and whether gender differences exist remains unclear. Methods: Forty-six long-term outpatients with schizophrenia entered the study. The numbers of antipsychotics, sleep medications, antidepressants, and anxiolytics were analyzed. Moreover, all patients were tested using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Correlation analyses were conducted between the medication used and the scores on the two subjective sleep inventories. Results: A large variability, ranging from 0 to 8, in the total number of psychiatric drugs per person was found between the patients. Despite ongoing pharmacological treatment, the patients scored high on the PSQI, but not on the ESS; this indicates that they report problems with sleep, but not with daytime sleepiness. A significant positive correlation between the use of antipsychotics and the ESS score, but not the PSQI score, was found; moreover, no gender differences were found. Conclusions: A large variability exists in the pharmacological treatment of long-term patients with schizophrenia. To date, patients’ sleep problems have been insufficiently treated, and gender differences have not been adequately accounted for in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. More and larger international clinical studies are warranted to verify the findings of the present preliminary pilot study before any firm conclusions can be drawn and before any changes to the drug treatment of male and female patients with schizophrenia can be recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Schizophrenia and Sleep Disorders)

Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Pharmacologic Treatment Options for Insomnia in Patients with Schizophrenia
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Symptoms of sleep disorders, such as disturbances in sleep initiation and continuity, are commonly reported in patients with schizophrenia, especially in the acute phase of illness. Studies have shown that up to 80% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia report symptoms of insomnia. [...] Read more.
Background: Symptoms of sleep disorders, such as disturbances in sleep initiation and continuity, are commonly reported in patients with schizophrenia, especially in the acute phase of illness. Studies have shown that up to 80% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia report symptoms of insomnia. Sleep disturbances have been shown to increase the risk of cognitive dysfunction and relapse in patients with schizophrenia. Currently, there are no medications approved specifically for the treatment of insomnia in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A literature search was performed through OVID and PubMed to compile publications of pharmacotherapy options studied to treat insomnia in patients with schizophrenia. Articles were reviewed from 1 January 2000 through 1 March 2018 with some additional earlier articles selected if deemed by the authors to be particularly relevant. Results: Pharmacotherapies collected from the search results that were reviewed and evaluated included melatonin, eszopiclone, sodium oxybate, and antipsychotics. Conclusions: Overall, this review confirmed that there are a few evidence-based options to treat insomnia in patients with schizophrenia, including selecting a more sedating second-generation antipsychotic such as paliperidone, or adding melatonin or eszopiclone. Further randomized controlled trials are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Schizophrenia and Sleep Disorders)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Acupuncture as Add-On Treatment of the Positive, Negative, and Cognitive Symptoms of Patients with Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1611 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder that has a large impact on patients’ lives. In addition to Western medicine, the use of additional treatments, such as acupuncture, in treating the positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms is increasing. Methods: We conducted a systematic [...] Read more.
Background: Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder that has a large impact on patients’ lives. In addition to Western medicine, the use of additional treatments, such as acupuncture, in treating the positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms is increasing. Methods: We conducted a systematic review on the use of acupuncture as an add-on treatment for patients with schizophrenia that are in regular care, with a special focus on the treatment of the often accompanying sleep disorders. In this study, we searched the Medline, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and ERIC databases with a cut-off date of 31 December 2017, thereby following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) protocol. Results: Our search resulted in 26 eligible studies with 1181 patients with schizophrenia who received acupuncture treatment. Most studies showed limited evidence for the use of acupuncture as add-on therapy in the treatment of the positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms, but beneficial effects have been reported in the treatment of the accompanying sleep disorders. Conclusions: Limited evidence was found for the use of acupuncture as add-on therapy in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia; however, positive results were found in the treatment of sleep disorders, but this result needs to be confirmed in large, randomized, controlled trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Schizophrenia and Sleep Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
Genetic Variations Associated with Sleep Disorders in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Schizophrenic patients commonly suffer from sleep disorders which are associated with acute disease severity, worsening prognoses and a poorer quality of life. Research is attempting to disentangle the complex interplay between schizophrenia and sleep disturbances by focusing not only on demographic and [...] Read more.
Background: Schizophrenic patients commonly suffer from sleep disorders which are associated with acute disease severity, worsening prognoses and a poorer quality of life. Research is attempting to disentangle the complex interplay between schizophrenia and sleep disturbances by focusing not only on demographic and clinical characteristics, but also on the identification of genetic factors. Methods: Here, we performed a systematic literature review on the topic of genetic variations in sleep-disordered schizophrenic patients in an attempt to identify high quality investigations reporting scientifically sound and clinically useful data. For this purpose, we conducted a thorough search of PubMed, ScienceDirect and GoogleScholar databases, according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) protocol. Results: Our search yielded 11 eligible studies. Certain genetic variations were reported to be associated with schizophrenia-related sleep disorders. Antipsychotic-induced restless legs syndrome was linked to polymorphisms located on CLOCK, BTBD9, GNB3, and TH genes, clozapine-induced somnolence was correlated with polymorphisms of HNMT gene, while insomnia was associated with variants of the MTNR1 gene. Conclusions: There are significant genetic associations between schizophrenia and co-morbid sleep disorders, implicating the circadian system, dopamine and histamine metabolism and signal transduction pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Schizophrenia and Sleep Disorders)
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