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Medicines 2018, 5(2), 44;

Pharmacological Treatment for Long-Term Patients with Schizophrenia and Its Effects on Sleep in Daily Clinical Practice: A Pilot Study

Psychiatric Research Group, LVR-Klinik Bedburg-Hau, 47511 Bedburg-Hau, Germany
Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, 6525 Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Research Group of Pain and Neuroscience, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Korea
College of Korean Medicine, Sang Ji University, Wonju 26339, Korea
Institute of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
Department of Medicine, Neurology, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
Brussels Institute for Applied Linguistics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Schizophrenia and Sleep Disorders)
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Background: Pharmacological treatment is still the key intervention in the disease management of long-term patients with schizophrenia; however, how it affects sleep and whether gender differences exist remains unclear. Methods: Forty-six long-term outpatients with schizophrenia entered the study. The numbers of antipsychotics, sleep medications, antidepressants, and anxiolytics were analyzed. Moreover, all patients were tested using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Correlation analyses were conducted between the medication used and the scores on the two subjective sleep inventories. Results: A large variability, ranging from 0 to 8, in the total number of psychiatric drugs per person was found between the patients. Despite ongoing pharmacological treatment, the patients scored high on the PSQI, but not on the ESS; this indicates that they report problems with sleep, but not with daytime sleepiness. A significant positive correlation between the use of antipsychotics and the ESS score, but not the PSQI score, was found; moreover, no gender differences were found. Conclusions: A large variability exists in the pharmacological treatment of long-term patients with schizophrenia. To date, patients’ sleep problems have been insufficiently treated, and gender differences have not been adequately accounted for in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. More and larger international clinical studies are warranted to verify the findings of the present preliminary pilot study before any firm conclusions can be drawn and before any changes to the drug treatment of male and female patients with schizophrenia can be recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: schizophrenia; pharmacological treatment; sleep; sleep disturbances; sleep disorders; gender schizophrenia; pharmacological treatment; sleep; sleep disturbances; sleep disorders; gender
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Bosch, P.; Lim, S.; Staudte, H.; Yeo, S.; Lee, S.-H.; Barisch, P.; Perriard, B.; Van den Noort, M. Pharmacological Treatment for Long-Term Patients with Schizophrenia and Its Effects on Sleep in Daily Clinical Practice: A Pilot Study. Medicines 2018, 5, 44.

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