Storm Tide and Wave Simulations and Assessment II

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Coastal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 12730

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Hydraulic and Ocean Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Interests: coastal engineering; wave mechanics; numerical analysis; flow in porous media
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
Interests: wave mechanics; coastal hydrodynamics; sediment transport
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Storm tides, surges, and waves associated with typhoons/tropical cyclones/hurricanes are among the most severe threats to coastal zones, nearshore waters, and navigational safety. Therefore, predicting typhoon/tropical cyclone/hurricane-induced storm tides, surges, and waves and coastal erosion is important to reduce the loss of human life and property and mitigate coastal disasters. Although many studies on hindcasting/predicting/forecasting of typhoon-driven storm tides, surges, waves, and also morphology evolution have been carried out through numerical models in the last decade, there is still a growing demand for novel techniques that could be adopted to resolve the complex physical processes of storm tides, surges, waves, and coastal erosion.

In order to improve our simulating and analytic capabilities and understanding of storm tides, surges, and waves, this Special Issue is intended to collect the latest studies on storm tides, surges, and waves modeling and analysis utilizing dynamic and statistical models and artificial intelligence approaches. Research focusing on model development or model application is welcome. We look forward to receiving contributions in the form of research articles and reviews for this Special Issue. Topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Numerical modeling for storm surge, tide, and wave hindcast/prediction/forecast;
  • Statistical analysis for storm surge, tide, and wave hindcast/prediction/forecast;
  • Artificial intelligence techniques for storm surge, tide, and wave prediction/forecast;
  • Assessment of coastal and marine hazard due to storm surges, tides, and waves;
  • Influence of nonlinear interactions on storm tide and wave simulation;
  • Effect of meteorological conditions on storm tide and wave simulation;
  • High-resolution modeling;
  • Coastal morphology evolution.

Dr. Shih-Chun Hsiao
Dr. Wen-Son Chiang
Dr. Wei-Bo Chen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Numerical modeling
  • Statistical analysis
  • Artificial intelligence techniques
  • Storm tide
  • Storm surge
  • Storm wave
  • Coastal morphology

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 164 KiB  
Editorial
Storm Tide and Wave Simulations and Assessment II
by Shih-Chun Hsiao, Wen-Son Chiang and Wei-Bo Chen
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(3), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10030379 - 6 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1628
Abstract
The storm tides, surges, and waves that are associated with typhoons/tropical cyclones/hurricanes are the most severe threats to coastal zones, nearshore waters, and navigational safety [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Storm Tide and Wave Simulations and Assessment II)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

14 pages, 7792 KiB  
Article
On-Site Investigations of Coastal Erosion and Accretion for the Northeast of Taiwan
by Ting-Yu Liang, Chih-Hsin Chang, Shih-Chun Hsiao, Wei-Po Huang, Tzu-Yin Chang, Wen-Dar Guo, Che-Hsin Liu, Jui-Yi Ho and Wei-Bo Chen
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(2), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10020282 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2261
Abstract
Coastal erosion is a major natural hazard along the northeastern shoreline (i.e., Yilan County) of Taiwan. Analyses of the evolution of the 0 m isobath of the Yilan County coastline indicate that erosion and accretion are occurring north and south of Wushi Fishery [...] Read more.
Coastal erosion is a major natural hazard along the northeastern shoreline (i.e., Yilan County) of Taiwan. Analyses of the evolution of the 0 m isobath of the Yilan County coastline indicate that erosion and accretion are occurring north and south of Wushi Fishery Port, respectively, because of jetty and groin construction. Topographic and bathymetric surveys involving the measurement of 43 cross sections were conducted in 2006, 2012, 2013, and 2019. The cross-shore profile comparisons reveal that the erosion of onshore dunes is significant in the northern Jhuan River estuary. Due to the establishment of a nature reserve in the southern Lanyang River estuary, the sediments are carried northward by tidal currents, and accretion is inevitable in the northern Lanyang River estuary. The results of the bathymetric surveys also suggest that the shoreline of Yilan County tends to accrete in summer because of abundant sediment from the rivers; however, it is eroded in winter, owing to the large waves induced by the northeast monsoon. Additionally, the calculated net volume of erosion and accretion between each pair of cross sections shows that the length of coastline impacted by estuarine sediment transport is approximately 2 km long from north to south along the coastline of the Lanyang River estuary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Storm Tide and Wave Simulations and Assessment II)
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20 pages, 11386 KiB  
Article
Deriving the 100-Year Total Water Level around the Coast of Corsica by Combining Trivariate Extreme Value Analysis and Coastal Hydrodynamic Models
by Jessie Louisor, Jérémy Rohmer, Thomas Bulteau, Faïza Boulahya, Rodrigo Pedreros, Aurélie Maspataud and Julie Mugica
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(12), 1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121347 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1493
Abstract
As low-lying coastal areas can be impacted by flooding caused by dynamic components that are dependent on each other (wind, waves, water levels—tide, atmospheric surge, currents), the analysis of the return period of a single component is not representative of the return period [...] Read more.
As low-lying coastal areas can be impacted by flooding caused by dynamic components that are dependent on each other (wind, waves, water levels—tide, atmospheric surge, currents), the analysis of the return period of a single component is not representative of the return period of the total water level at the coast. It is important to assess a joint return period of all the components. Based on a semiparametric multivariate extreme value analysis, we determined the joint probabilities that significant wave heights (Hs), wind intensity at 10 m above the ground (U), and still water level (SWL) exceeded jointly imposed thresholds all along the Corsica Island coasts (Mediterranean Sea). We also considered the covariate peak direction (Dp), the peak period (Tp), and the wind direction (Du). Here, we focus on providing extreme scenarios to populate coastal hydrodynamic models, SWAN and SWASH-2DH, in order to compute the 100-year total water level (100y-TWL) all along the coasts. We show how the proposed multivariate extreme value analysis can help to more accurately define low-lying zones potentially exposed to coastal flooding, especially in Corsica where a unique value of 2 m was taken into account in previous studies. The computed 100y-TWL values are between 1 m along the eastern coasts and a maximum of 1.8 m on the western coast. The calculated values are also below the 2.4 m threshold recommended when considering the sea level rise (SLR). This highlights the added value of performing a full integration of extreme offshore conditions, together with their dependence on hydrodynamic simulations for screening out the coastal areas potentially exposed to flooding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Storm Tide and Wave Simulations and Assessment II)
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16 pages, 2748 KiB  
Article
The Focusing Waves Induced by Bragg Resonance with V-Shaped Undulating Bottom
by Haiming Zhang, Aifeng Tao, Junhao Tu, Junwei Su and Shuya Xie
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070708 - 27 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1740
Abstract
Intensive wave reflection occurs when the wavelengths of the incident waves and bottom undulations are in a 2:1 ratio. Existing studies have included the Bragg resonance phenomenon of waves passing over a continuous undulating bottom parallel to and oblique to the shoreline. More [...] Read more.
Intensive wave reflection occurs when the wavelengths of the incident waves and bottom undulations are in a 2:1 ratio. Existing studies have included the Bragg resonance phenomenon of waves passing over a continuous undulating bottom parallel to and oblique to the shoreline. More generally, the Bragg resonance mechanism is used as a means of coastal protection, rather than wave power generation. To focus the wave energy in a specific area, here, we propose sinusoidal sandbars of a horizontal V-shaped pattern, which is formed by two continuous undulating bottoms inclined at an angle to each other and the center axis of the angle is perpendicular to the shoreline. Based on the high-order spectral (HOS) numerical model, both the characteristics of Bragg resonance induced by the regular waves and random waves are investigated. In the scenario of regular waves, it shows that the wave-focusing effect is related to the angle of the V-shaped undulating bottom, and the optimal angle of inclination for the V-shaped undulating bottom is 162.24°. On that basis, considering the interactions between the random waves and the V-shaped undulating bottom of 162.24°, the Bragg resonance characteristics of random waves are studied. The BFI factor combining wave steepness and spectrum width can evaluate the focusing intensity of the Bragg resonance of the random waves. For BFI, in the range of 0.15–1.0, the values of Hsmax/Hs0 linearly increase with the increase of BFI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Storm Tide and Wave Simulations and Assessment II)
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21 pages, 10421 KiB  
Article
Effect of Depth-Induced Breaking on Wind Wave Simulations in Shallow Nearshore Waters off Northern Taiwan during the Passage of Two Super Typhoons
by Shih-Chun Hsiao, Han-Lun Wu, Wei-Bo Chen, Wen-Dar Guo, Chih-Hsin Chang and Wen-Ray Su
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070706 - 26 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2290
Abstract
Super Typhoons Maria (2018) and Lekima (2019) were adopted for this case study, although they only passed the northern offshore waters of Taiwan without making landfall. A direct modification technique was employed to create the atmospheric conditions for a wave-circulation model to hindcast [...] Read more.
Super Typhoons Maria (2018) and Lekima (2019) were adopted for this case study, although they only passed the northern offshore waters of Taiwan without making landfall. A direct modification technique was employed to create the atmospheric conditions for a wave-circulation model to hindcast large typhoon-driven waves. The radius of the modified scale (Rtrs) for a hybrid typhoon wind plays an important role in the significant wave height (SWH) simulations during the passage of typhoons. The maximum increment in peak SWH reached 3.0 m and 5.0 m in the deep ocean for Super Typhoons Maria (2018) and Lekima (2019), respectively if the Rtrs was increased from 4 × Rmax (radius of the maximum wind) to 7 × Rmax. The SWHs induced by the typhoon winds in the surf zone were more sensitive to different wave-breaking formulations used in the wave-circulation model. The maximum difference in peak SWH reached 2.5 m and 1.2 m for Super Typhoons Maria (2018) and Lekima (2019), respectively, when the wave-breaking formulations of BJ78 (proposed by Battjes and Janssen in 1978) and CT93 (proposed by Church and Thornton in 1993) were introduced to the wave-circulation model. The SWH simulations in the surf zone were insensitive to the wave-breaking criterion (γ) during the passage of typhoons. In shallow nearshore waters, the utilization of a constant γ for the wave-circulation model always produces peak SWHs that are smaller than those using γ based on local steepness or peak steepness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Storm Tide and Wave Simulations and Assessment II)
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18 pages, 71463 KiB  
Article
A Study of Wave-Induced Effects on Sea Surface Temperature Simulations during Typhoon Events
by Zhanfeng Sun, Weizeng Shao, Wupeng Yu and Jun Li
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(6), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9060622 - 3 Jun 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
In this work, we investigate sea surface temperature (SST) cooling under binary typhoon conditions. We particularly focus on parallel- and cross-type typhoon paths during four typhoon events: Tembin and Bolaven in 2012, and Typhoon Chan-hom and Linfa in 2015. Wave-induced effects were simulated [...] Read more.
In this work, we investigate sea surface temperature (SST) cooling under binary typhoon conditions. We particularly focus on parallel- and cross-type typhoon paths during four typhoon events: Tembin and Bolaven in 2012, and Typhoon Chan-hom and Linfa in 2015. Wave-induced effects were simulated using a third-generation numeric model, WAVEWATCH III (WW3), and were subsequently included in SST simulations using the Stony Brook Parallel Ocean Model (sbPOM). Four wave-induced effects were analyzed: breaking waves, nonbreaking waves, radiation stress, and Stokes drift. Comparison of WW3-simulated significant wave height (SWH) data with measurements from the Jason-2 altimeter showed that the root mean square error (RMSE) was less than 0.6 m with a correlation (COR) of 0.9. When the four typhoon-wave-induced effects were included in sbPOM simulations, the simulated SSTs had an RMSE of 1 °C with a COR of 0.99 as compared to the Argos data. This was better than the RMSE and COR recovered between the measured and simulated SSTs, which were 1.4 °C and 0.96, respectively, when the four terms were not included. In particular, our results show that the effects of Stokes drift, as well as of nonbreaking waves, were an important factor in SST reduction during binary typhoons. The horizontal profile of the sbPOM-simulated SST for parallel-type typhoon paths (Typhoons Tembin and Bolaven) suggested that the observed finger pattern of SST cooling (up to 2 °C) was probably caused by drag from typhoon Tembin. SST was reduced by up to 4 °C for cross-type typhoon paths (Typhoons Chan-hom and Linfa). In general, mixing significantly increased when the four wave-induced effects were included. The vertical profile of SST indicated that disturbance depth increased (up to 100 m) for cross-type typhoon paths because the mixing intensity was greater for cross-type typhoons than for parallel-type typhoons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Storm Tide and Wave Simulations and Assessment II)
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